INTRODUCTION TO DATA ANALYSIS: RULES OF EVIDENCE

VOLUME I: WELL-BEHAVED VARIABLES

(One-Variable Analysis)

Table of Contents

PREFACE (v)

PREFACE TO FACULTY (vi)

PLAN OF THE COURSE (viii)

I    PRELIMINARIES

WHAT IS DATA ANALYSIS ?

Tools of the trade: The linear model and the additive model. Simplifying problems. Falsifiability, validity, and parsimony

BEFORE THE BEGINNING: WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHY, WHEN, AND HOW?

Step Zero: Establishing Credibility

II   DESCRIPTION -- THE PICTURE THAT'S WORTH THE WORDS

STEM AND LEAF  I

Description (19); Protein Content of Breakfast Cereals: Technique (24); Data Analysis (30); Exercises (41); Writing The Report (47); Exercise (51).

STEM AND LEAF II

Death in London: Establishing Credibility ­ Who, What, Where, Why, When, and How (75); Stem and Leaf: More Technique (77); Data Analysis (83); The Work; The Report (90); Exercises (93).

(Death in London Data. Death in America 1990. )

HISTOGRAMS

III  VARIATION: NUMBERS FOR THE VARIATION, NUMBERS FOR THE AVERAGE.

INTRODUCTION:  THINGS VARY

The Median and the Mean as Centers (113); Minimum Absolute Deviation (115); Least Squares (116); Exercises (117); Measuring Variation Around the Center (118); Quartiles (118); Standard Deviation (119).

DESCRIPTION:  NUMBERS FOR THE AVERAGE

The median (122); Exercises (130); The mean(136); Exercises (136); Which Average, The Median or the Mean? (140); Exercises (147).

DESCRIPTION: NUMBERS FOR THE VARIATION

The Median and the Quartiles (149); Computing the Quartiles (151); The Mean and the Standard Deviation (152); Computing the Standard Deviation (157).

IV  WELL-BEHAVED VARIABLES: THE UNIT OF MEASURE

TRANSFORMING THE COMPLEX INTO THE SIMPLE: WELL-BEHAVED VARIABLES

Symmetry; Homeoscedeasticity (174); Linearity (175); Additivity (176); Sense (176); Exercises (177); Transformation (179); Interpreting the Data (185).

(Physicians per capita EXCEL-Mac format)(Physicians per capita pdf format)

IS IT SYMMETRICAL? 193

Mid Quartile (194); Eighth (195); Mid Eighth(195); Exercises (201); Stretching and Shrinking: The Construction of an Interval Scale (203); Exercises (206); Transformations (208); Thinking About Intervals Using the Calculus (213); Generalization to Other Transformations (215); Square Root (216); Postscript on More-General Transformations (218)

WHY SYMMETRY? 220

Error (The Galton Board) (220); Complex Processes (The Central Limit Theorem) (227)

DESCRIPTION:  THE WELL-BEHAVED LOGARITHM

Using Logs;World Population: The Work; The Write Up.

THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS: FACTS ABOUT WHAT? 236

ON THE AVERAGE I:  PHYSICIANS PER CAPITA 238

Simplifying the Data (238); Physicians per person per Country / Physicians per Person in the World (240); Exercises (244)

Physicians per Capita 18 Rows (Excel Mac); Physicians per Capita 2 Rows (Excel Mac)

ON THE AVERAGE II:  WEIGHTED AVERAGES AND THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS (A CHICKEN AND A HALF)258

ON THE AVERAGE III:  RACING 265

ON THE AVERAGE IV:  MONEY -- HOW AM I DOING? 270

ON THE AVERAGE V:  CLASS SIZE 276

 

INTRODUCTION TO DATA ANALYSIS: RULES OF EVIDENCE

VOLUME II: LINES

VI      LINES 291

Introduction (291); Beginning at the Beginning (294); Graphs (196)

VII   DATA = SIGNAL + NOISE 301

Data = Signal + Noise (302); Well-Behaved Noise (303); Using Spreadsheet Software (309)

VIII   BEYOND FACTS -- USING THE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETING THE LINE 309

The Potato Hypothesis (310)

IX      THE SOYBEAN HYPOTHESIS: GROWTH OF AN ORGANISM V/S GROWTH OF A POPULATION 326

X       BIG(GER) DATA SETS: HEIGHT AND WEIGHT 324

XI     LOG LINES (CHANGES, OF LOGS) 353

The Slide Rule (362); Linear Relations Using Logs: Interpreting log y =mx+b (366); Intercept (367); Slope (367); Scatter (369)

XII    US POPULATION: FIRST ANALYSIS 371

XIII   HOW THINGS GO WRONG 384

XIV  US POPULATION: SECOND ANALYSIS 398

XV   LOG LOG I 409

XVI   LOG LOG II:  EFFICIENCIES AND INEFFICIENCIES OF SCALE (417)

XVII  CONVENTIONS:  "r", THE MEASURE OF CORRELATION

XVIII CONVENTIONS:  "r, THE SLOPE OF LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION

XVII CHOICES:  THE LINE? WHICH  LINE?

 

XV    BEGINNINGS: HALF WRITTEN TERM PAPERS & OPEN ENDED ( INCOMPLETE) PROJECTS

Education to Income 423

Return on Investment 443

Trend (Fat and Fit) 459

Mean-Based Budgeting 465