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Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Literatures

Chair: Jose M. del Pino

Professors R. Bueno-Chavez, J. M. del Pino, B. Pastor; Associate Professors R. E. Biron, R. A. Franconi, I. Lozano-Renieblas, A. Martín, I. Reyes, S. D. Spitta, M. Swislocki; Assistant Professors J. Aguado, F. M. A'ness, A. Gomez, A. Merino, A. Sokol, P. A. Sprague; Research Assistant Professor E. A. Polli; Senior Lecturers G. S. Guzman-Bueno, G. M. Pushee, D. M. Runnels, M. E. A. Vélez; Lecturers P. Asensio, C. I. Carrizo, D. J. Moody, I. Saucedo, J. Smolin.

MAJORS

Four major options in Spanish and Portuguese are available to the student, as well as a major in Romance Languages and a Modified Major. In addition, the Department offers minors in Spanish and Portuguese.

The program in Spanish and Portuguese is not designed exclusively for students who plan to pursue the study of language and literature. It is intended also for those with a cultural, social, political, or economic interest in Spain, Portugal, or Latin America, and for students whose interests or future careers will make it necessary for them-as lawyers, politicians, social workers, doctors, etc.-to know, understand, and interact with the growing Hispanic population of the United States. The range of options offered by the Department reflects that diversity of purpose and attempts to satisfy a wide variety of interests and career goals.

The individual program within the major selected is designed in consultation with a faculty adviser. Major programs usually include at least one term of study in a Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Spain or Latin America (two of the Foreign Study Program courses count towards the major; for more information see 'Foreign Study' on pages XXX). All major cards must be signed by the Major Advisor of the Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

All Majors and Modified Majors (including Romance Language majors with the primary language as Spanish or Portuguese) are required to enroll in Spanish 80 (Latin American Literature/Culture Seminar) and/or Spanish 81 (Peninsular Literature/Culture Seminar) during their junior and/or senior year, in fulfillment of the College requirement for a Culminating Experience in the Major. While only one seminar is required of all Spanish majors, the Department encourages students to enroll in both whenever possible. Romance Language majors with Portuguese as the primary language are required to enroll in Portuguese 80 during their junior or senior year. These seminars are viewed as an opportunity for students in the different major options to develop their research skills, study given topics in detail, and develop solid critical and analytical skills. Topics and methodological approaches will vary from offering to offering, and students are expected to develop a complex independent research project in each seminar.

1. Major Options in Spanish and Portuguese

There are four options open to the student who elects to major in Spanish: A. Literatures; B. Language, Culture and Society; C. Latino Studies; D. Iberian Studies.

A. Literatures.

1. Peninsular Literature

Prerequisite: Spanish 1, 2, 3, and 9, and 20 if participating in the Foreign Study Program in Spain.

The major program in Spanish Literature consists of at least 8 courses numbered 30 or higher. Each individual major program must include Spanish 37, two of the 30, 31, 32 sequence, and Spanish 56. One of the 8 courses must be Spanish 65 or another upper level course in Latin American Literature. The individual major program may be organized around a period, like the Twentieth Century, a genre like poetry or an aesthetic movement, like the Baroque. A major program in Spanish Literature should ideally include a Foreign Study Program in Spain. Special note: Spanish 36 (FSP Spain) is considered equivalent to Spanish 32 for purposes of major requirements, but both can be taken for major credit.

2. Latin American Literatures

Prerequisite: Spanish 1, 2, 3, and 9, and 21 if participating in the Foreign Study Program in Latin America.

The major program in Latin American Literatures consists of at least 8 courses numbered 30 or higher. Each individual major program must include Spanish 37, two of the 30, 31 and 32 sequence, and Spanish 65. One of the 8 courses must be Spanish 56 or another upper level course in Peninsular literature. The individual major program may be organized around a period like the 20th century; a genre like the novel; or an aesthetic movement like Modernismo. A major program in Latin American Literatures should ideally include a Foreign Study Program in Latin America. Special note: Spanish 35 (FSP Latin America) is considered equivalent to Spanish 32 for purposes of major requirements, but both can be taken for major credit.

B. Language, Culture, and Society.

Prerequisite: Spanish 1, 2, 3, 9 and, if participating in a Foreign Study Program, Spanish 20 (Madrid) or Spanish 21 (Buenos Aires).

This major option consists of at least eight courses numbered 30 or higher. Each major program must include Spanish 37, and one of Spanish 30, 31, 32. Spanish 40 is strongly recommended.

Special note: Spanish 35 (F.S.P. Argentina) and Spanish 36 (F.S.P. Spain) are considered to be equivalent to Spanish 32 for purposes of major requirements, but all three can be taken for major credit. The remaining major courses will be selected in consultation with the faculty adviser, incorporating into a coherent program the Department's offerings in Hispanic literatures and cultures. Major pro grams in this option should ideally strive for a balance between Peninsular Spanish, Latin American, and United States Latino offerings, and should include at least one Foreign Study Program, in Spain or Latin America and, preferably, both.

C. Latino Studies.

Prerequisite: Spanish 1, 2, 3, 9 or 37. Spanish 8 for bilingual students will be taught one term per year, and may be elected to satisfy the prerequisite. If Spanish 37 is elected as a prerequisite the major will have a minimum of ten courses.

This major option consists of a minimum of nine courses numbered 30 or higher (ten, if 37 is elected as a prerequisite). Requirements include participation in either F.S.P. Argentina (Spanish 33 and 35) or the U.C.S.D. Exchange Program (two courses to be approved beforehand), and either History 88 or Sociology 31 or LACS 30, 34, or 35. In addition, every Latino Studies major must include three courses from each of the following areas: A. Latino literature (Spanish 75, 77, 78, 79); B. Latin American literature (Spanish 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 76).Two appropriate courses from UCSD may be used in place of two courses from either list A or B. Major courses will be selected in consultation with the faculty adviser.

D. Iberian Studies.

Prerequisite: Spanish 1, 2, 3; and Portuguese 1 and 3, or equivalent preparation in another Peninsular language (i.e., Catalan, Galician, Basque). Spanish 9, 37, and 20. Portuguese 20 is strongly recommended.

This major option will consist of a minimum of ten courses beyond the prerequisites, numbered 30 or higher. Requirements include participation in either F.S.P. Madrid (Spanish 34 and 36) or an equivalent approved program in Portugal, and History 45 or 46 (with term paper on Iberian Peninsula). Every Iberian Studies major program must include Spanish 56 and four courses in Peninsular literature (at least one in Portuguese) selected from the following: Spanish 30, 40, 50-64 and 81; Portuguese 60-63, 80 (when Portugal) and 87. In addition, students should take one course each selected from offerings in the following two groups: A. Latin American/U.S. Latino/Brazilian literature; B. Comparative Literature or Art History courses with an Iberian component. Courses for the major will be selected in consultation with the faculty adviser.

2. Major in Romance Languages.

Includes two of the four principal Romance Languages (Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian), one as primary, the other as secondary. The prerequisite for all major-level courses in Spanish is Spanish 9. The prerequisite for all major-level courses in Portuguese is Portuguese 10 or 20.

Requirements: Ten courses, six in the primary language and four in the secondary. If Spanish is the primary language, the six courses must be elected from Spanish 30 or above and must include Spanish 37, and at least one of Spanish 30, 31, and 32. If Spanish is the secondary language, Spanish 37 serves as the prerequisite; four required courses (not including 37) will be elected from Spanish 30 or above. If Portuguese is the primary language, the six courses, excluding the prerequisite, must be elected from Portuguese 10, 12, 20, 35, 36, 60, 61, 62, 63, 80, and 87. If Portuguese is the secondary language, Portuguese 10 or 20 serve as the prerequisite; four courses, excluding the prerequisite, must be elected from Portuguese 10, 12, 20, 35, 36, 60, 61, 62, 63, 80, and 87.

In a Romance Languages Major, courses in the secondary language may be organized historically, around a genre (like poetry, drama, or prose fiction), or around a period concept or movement (such as the Enlightenment, baroque, classicism and romanticism, or existentialism). The modifying component must have some coherence with the major department plan. The major card must be approved by the Major Adviser for the department of the primary language and will be filed with that department.

3. Modified Major.

For a Spanish modified major the student is required to take ten courses. Six of these shall be elected from Spanish and Portuguese and the remaining four from appropriate major-level courses offered by other departments. Modified majors must include Spanish 37 and at least one of Spanish 30, 31, and 32. (The prerequisite for all major-level courses in Spanish is Spanish 9.) The major program must be approved by the Major Adviser for the Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

Foreign Study: Major programs normally include one or more terms of study abroad, in one of the Dartmouth programs in Spain or Argentina. Three course credits are awarded for successful completion of a foreign study term. Two of these credits are applicable by students majoring in Spanish to the major requirements. All three credits are potentially applicable to the Distributive Requirement by students majoring elsewhere.

MINOR

The Spanish and Portuguese Department offers three options for a Minor program as follows:

1. Spanish Literature

Prerequisites: Spanish 9 and Spanish 37

Four additional courses, which may be selected, upon consultation with the Department Adviser, from among Spanish 30, 31, 32, 34 and 36 (F.S.P. Spain), 40, 50 through 64, and 81, and 87.

2. Latin American and U.S. Hispanic Literatures

Prerequisites: Spanish 9 and Spanish 37

Four additional courses, which may be selected, upon consultation with the Department Adviser, from among Spanish 30, 31, 32, 33 and 35 (F.S.P. Argentina), 40, and 65 through 80, and 87.

3. Portuguese and Brazilian Literatures

Prerequisite: Portuguese 10 (D.L.S.A.+) or Portuguese 20

Five additional courses, excluding the prerequisite, which may be selected, upon consultation with the Department Adviser, from Portuguese 10, 12, 20, 35, 36, 60, 61, 62, 63, 80, and 87.

Students who elect a Foreign Study Program will need Spanish 20 (for Spain) or Spanish 21 (for Argentina) as prerequisites.

TRANSFER CREDIT

Only upon its approval will the Department of Spanish and Portuguese allow for a maximum of two transfer credits from comparable institutions. The Department does not give transfer credit for Spanish 1, 2, or 3 or Portuguese 1 or 3.

HONORS PROGRAM

To be admitted to the Honors Program, a student must satisfy the minimum College requirement (see pages XXX) and give clear evidence of exceptional ability and interest in the major field. The Honors Seminar (Spanish 90 and 91) constitutes two courses above the minimum course requirement in the major. Honors students arrange a program of study and research during any two terms of the senior year on a tutorial basis with individual faculty members. Application to the Honors Program is normally made during the final (spring) term of the junior year. For additional information about admission to the Honors Program, consult the Major Advisor.

LANGUAGE STUDY ABROAD

Spanish L.S.A. Fall, Winter, Spring: Barcelona, Spain

Winter, Spring: Puebla, Mexico

Prerequisite: Minimum grade of B- in Spanish 2, or equivalent preparation; acceptance into the program.

A student may choose to satisfy the language requirement through a combination of two preparatory courses at Dartmouth and one term of L.S.A. The preparatory courses must be taken within six months of departure. Students who have not had Spanish at Dartmouth or who have had Spanish 2 more than six months before departure must attend a Special Drill (non-credit) designed to prepare them for the program. Students who have fulfilled the language requirement are not eligible for the L.S.A.

Upon successful completion of the program, credit will be awarded for Spanish 3, 5, and 6. Course 3 completes the language requirement.

Students will be accepted on the basis of their application forms and letters of reference; actual participation in the program is contingent upon the maintenance of satisfactory academic standing, satisfactory participation in the Special Drill (for those who must take it), and compliance with orientation procedures.

For application and deadline information, consult the Off-Campus Programs Office in 44 N. College Street.

Portuguese L.S.A.-Plus Fall: Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

Prerequisite: Minimum grade of B- in Portuguese 3, or equivalent preparation; acceptance into the program.

The LSA-Plus is a program designed for students who have satisfied the language requirement and are prepared for a more advanced language study abroad experience. Students who have had Portuguese 3 or its equivalent more than 6 months before departure must attend Special Drill (non-credit) during the term prior to the program.

Upon successful completion of the program, credit will be awarded for Portuguese 8, 10, and 12. Portuguese 8 and 12 offer credit toward the minor in Portuguese. Portuguese 12 also serves as the prerequisite for the FSP Brazil.

Students will be accepted on the basis of their application forms, letters of reference, and an interview; actual participation in the program is contingent upon the maintenance of satisfactory academic standing, satisfactory participation in drill (for those who must take it), and compliance with orientation procedures.

For application and deadline information, consult the Off-Campus Programs Office in 44 N. College Street.

FOREIGN STUDY

Spanish F.S.P. Fall: Madrid, Spain

Spring: Buenos Aires, Argentina

Prerequisite: Acceptance into the program, plus a minimum grade of B- in Spanish 20: Madrid or Spanish 21: Buenos Aires. (The prerequisite should be taken the term prior to FSP); or satisfactory completion of the LSA program in Mexico or Spain during the term immediately preceding the Foreign Study term.

Students live with families for one term in Argentina or Spain. Special Dartmouth courses, taught by local faculty and by the accompanying Dartmouth faculty member, are offered in advanced grammar and stylistics, literature, art, and civilization. Demonstration of the importance of the program to the student's overall academic program at Dartmouth is an important factor considered for acceptance.

Upon successful completion of the program, credit will be awarded for three courses (Argentina-Spanish 23, 33, 35; OR Spain-Spanish 24, 34, 36), two of which may be counted towards the major in Spanish.

Foreign Study may not be taken during a student's last Dartmouth term.

For application and deadline information, consult the Off-Campus Programs Office in 44 N. College Street.

Portuguese F.S.P Fall: Salvador, Brazil

Prerequisite: Portuguese 20 or the equivalent, or permission of the program director.

Students live with families for one term in Salvador. The foreign study program includes courses in advanced language and culture, Brazilian literature, and the option to elect one course selected from the general curriculum of the ACBEU, as long as that course is taught in Portuguese. Electives may include courses from such departments as History, Environmental Studies, Biology, etc., and must be approved in advance by the director of the program. In the event a student wishes to receivecredit for that course towards his/her major, credit will be available upon approval by that department, following the normal procedures of the College. Upon successful completion of the program, credit will be awarded for three courses, including Portuguese 35 and 36, which may be counted towards the minor in Portuguese or Romance Languages. Offered every other year in conjunction with LSA-Plus Brazil.

For application and deadline information, consult the Off-Campus Programs Office in 44 N. College Street.

SPANISH

1. Beginning Spanish

06F: 9, 10/10A, 11/10A 07W: 9, 10/10A 07S: 9, 10/10A, 11/10A

07F: 9, 10/10A, 11/10A 08W: 9, 10/10A 08S: 9, 10/10A, 11/10A

An introduction to Spanish as a spoken and written language. The work includes regular practice-in class, in drill sessions, and in the language laboratory-in understanding and using the spoken language. Elementary reading materials serve for vocabulary building, analytical exercises, and discussion. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive or World Culture Requirements.

2. Introductory Spanish

06F: 9, 10, 12 07W: 9, 10, 11, 12 07S: 10, 11, 12 07X: 9

07F: 9, 10, 12 08W: 9, 10, 11, 12 08S: 10, 11, 12

Review of the fundamentals of Spanish, intensive work on vocabulary building, extensive reading and discussion. More advanced practice in the use of the spoken language in the classroom, the drill sessions and the language laboratory. Introduction to Spanish composition. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive or World Culture Requirements.

Open to first-year students by qualifying test and to others who have passed Spanish 1.

3. Intermediate Spanish

06F: 9, 11, 12, D.L.S.A. 07W, 07S: 9, 10, 11, D.L.S.A. 07X: 10

07F: 9, 11, 12, D.L.S.A. 08W, 08S: 9, 10, 11, D.L.S.A.

Panorama of contemporary Spanish and Spanish-American intellectual and artistic achievements. This course is designed to develop techniques of discriminating reading as well as mastery of the spoken and written language. Linguistic and thematic analysis of texts; discussions and frequent compositions are complemented by lectures and films. Given on-campus as the final course in the required sequence and off-campus as part of the Language Study Abroad curriculum. Special emphasis will be given off-campus to contemporary Spanish and Mexican cultural topics and social issues through the discussion of newspapers, artistic events, and mass media presentations. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive or World Culture Requirements.

Open to first-year students by qualifying tests and to others who have passed Spanish 2.

5. Language Study Abroad

06F, 07W, 07S, 07F, 08W, 08S: D.L.S.A.

A course in Hispanic culture and civilization taught in the context of the Language Study Abroad program. Lectures by local personnel concentrate on contemporary political, social, economic, and religious institutions of the country, with attention paid to their historical background. Visits to sites supplement these lectures when appropriate. Assigned work includes preparation of papers and oral presentations, and a final course examination.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Language Study Abroad Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU (Spain), NW (Mexico). Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W (Spain), NW (Mexico).

6. Language Study Abroad

06F, 07W, 07S, 07F, 08W, 08S: D.L.S.A.

An introductory course, offered in the context of the Language Study Abroad program, dealing with major figures, themes, or genres of Hispanic literature. Some areas of concern are critical reading and analysis, style, historical and social perspective.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Language Study Abroad Program. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU (Spain), NW (Mexico). Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W (Spain), NW (Mexico).

7. First-Year Seminars in Spanish and Spanish-American Literature

Consult special listings

8. Writing and Speaking: A Cultural Approach for Speakers of Spanish

07S, 08S: 11

This course is designed for students with a cultural background in Spanish who wish to enhance their skills in reading, writing and comprehension. Course materials will reflect a multi-media approach to understanding the cultural experiences of U.S. Latinos/as and the Spanish-speaking world. Assignments will be geared toward improving existing language skills and developing higher levels of academic proficiency. This course fulfills the language requirement for heritage speakers and serves as a prerequisite for 9 and/or all upper-level courses (30 and higher). With departmental approval, this course may be considered equivalent to Spanish 9.

Enrollment by permission only. Open to all classes.

9. Writing and Speaking: A Cultural Approach

06F, 07W, 07S: 9, 10 07X: 11 07F, 08W, 08S: 9, 10

This course serves as a transition between the basic Spanish language sequence (1, 2, 3, or LSA) and upper-level courses. Through a selective review of grammar, vocabulary-building exercises, and readings and discussion of contemporary Hispanic topics, students will develop their ability to write and speak clear, correct and idiomatic Spanish. This course serves as a prerequisite for all upper-level courses (30 and higher).

Prerequisite: Spanish 3, completion of the foreign language requirement in Spanish, or permission of the Chair. Open to all classes. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

10. Introduction to Hispanic Literature: Great Themes and Great Issues

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course deals with major figures, themes, and issues of modern Hispanic literature. Techniques of critical reading and interpretation are studied as an approach to these topics. This course serves as a prerequisite for upper level courses for non-majors. Topics will vary every offering. Dist: LIT; WCult: Varies.

20. The Spanish Language: Advanced Training through Contemporary Spanish Culture

07S, 08S: 11

Further training in speech and writing based on a study of contemporary Spanish cultural patterns contrasted with those of the United States. This course is designed especially, but not exclusively, for participants in the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Spain.

Prerequisite: Spanish 3, or equivalent preparation. (First-year students must have special permission from the Chair of the Department.) Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Sprague.

21. The Spanish Language: Advanced Training through Contemporary Argentine Culture

07W, 08W: 12

Further training in speech and writing based on a study of Argentine cultural patterns contrasted with those of the United States. This course is designed especially, but not exclusively, for participants in the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Argentina.

Prerequisite: Spanish 3, or equivalent preparation. (First-year students must have special permission from the Chair of the Department.) Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW. A'ness.

23. Argentine Culture: Contemporary Issues

07S, 08S: D.F.S.P.

The main purpose of this course is to deepen the student's knowledge of the Spanish language through writing, reading, and discussion of the reading material. The texts will serve as a basis for discussion in class and also for the weekly essay, on problems being examined, to be handed in by the students. The reading materials will be selected in such a way as to expose the students to the main problems of contemporary Argentine culture and society. This course will complement Spanish 33 and 35 by dealing with particular problems of the cultural framework within which contemporary Argentine art and literature are produced.

Prerequisite: Acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program, Argentina. Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

24. Spanish Culture: Contemporary Issues

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

The main purpose of this course is to deepen the student's knowledge of the Spanish language through writing, reading, and discussion of the reading material. The texts will serve as a basis for the discussion in class and also for the weekly essay on problems being examined to be handed in by the students. The reading materials will be selected in such a way as to expose the students to the main problems of contemporary Spanish culture and society. This course will complement Spanish 34 and 36 by dealing with the particular problems of the cultural framework within which contemporary Spanish art and literature are produced.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program, Spain. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

30. Introduction to Hispanic Literature I: Middle Ages to 1700

06F, 07F: 11

This survey course will present a chronological study of literary material, both Peninsular and Spanish-American. It is designed to prepare the students for more specialized work in major level courses. Readings may include selections from the Romancero, Berceo, Don Juan Manuel, Jorge Manrique, the chronicles of discovery, Lazarillo de Tormes and poetry by some sixteenth and seventeenth century authors.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, or equivalent preparation. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Gomez.

31. Introduction to Hispanic Literature II: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

07W, 08W: 11

This survey course will present a chronological study of literary material, both Peninsular and Spanish-American. It is designed to prepare the students for more specialized work in major level courses. Readings will be drawn from such authors as Jovellanos, Larra, Espronceda, Galdós, Sarmiento, José Hernández, Rubén Darío.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, or equivalent preparation. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Reyes.

32. Introduction to Hispanic Literature III: The Twentieth Century

07S, 08S: 12

This survey course will present a chronological study of literary material, both Peninsular and Spanish-American. It is designed to prepare the students for more specialized work in major level courses. Readings will be drawn from García Lorca, Valle-Inclán, Neruda, Vallejo, García Márquez, and others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, or equivalent preparation. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW. Swislocki.

33. Argentine Civilization: The Cultural Heritage

07S, 08S: D.F.S.P.

Studies in such aspects of the Argentine cultural heritage as art, music, and folklore with an emphasis on historical and ethnographic approaches. Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program at its University Center in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

34. Spanish Civilization

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

Studies in such aspects of the Spanish cultural heritage as art, music, and folklore, with an emphasis on a historical approach. Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program at its University Center in Madrid, Spain.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program, Spain. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

35. Studies in Spanish-American Literature: Contemporary Argentine Literature

07S, 08S: D.F.S.P.

Analytical reading of poetry, drama, and fiction representative of the period from 1910 to the present. Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program at its University Center in Spanish America.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program, Argentina. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

36. Studies in Modern and Contemporary Spanish Literature

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

Analytical reading of poetry, drama, and fiction representative of the period from 1898 to the present. Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program at its University Center in Spain.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program, Spain. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

37. Texts and Contexts: Topics in Writing

06F: 12 07W: 10, 11 07S, 07X: 10 07F: 12 08W: 10, 11 08S: 10

This course is designed to help students develop excellence in writing as they prepare for upper level literature and culture courses in Spanish. Topics will vary according to term and faculty as will the "texts" studied in the course (literary, filmic, cultural, and visual). Given that thinking, reading, and writing are interdependent activities, Spanish 37 is designed to offer students an opportunity to study a topic of interest in Hispanic literature or culture while simultaneously emphasizing the advanced writing skills required of a research paper. Frequent exercises in writing and close textual study are basic to this course.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9 or permission of instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

40. History of the Spanish Language

08W: 12

From Medieval dialects to world language: how Spanish grew out of spoken Latin, and how it spread to many parts of the world. Spanish will be the model for a general study of linguistic change. Analytical studies of a variety of texts from the Middle Ages to the present, from peninsular Spain and Latin America.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

45. Special Topics in Spanish and Latin American Cultural Production

07X: 12

This course presents a wide range of topics pertinent to the study of Spanish and Latin American cultures in all of their diverse intellectual production. Each course will emphasize a different combination of historical, theoretical, and textual practices (literary, filmic, theatrical, graphic, etc). The course may be offered any term and its content will depend on the interests of the instructor.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI.

50. Literature and Society in Medieval Spain

08S: 10A

In the context of medieval Europe, Spain is rightly acknowledged as unique because of the dynamic interaction of its three peoples: Jews, Christians, and Moors. This course explores the legacy of these cultures as reflected in their historical and literary expression. Texts representative of this cultural uniqueness and its literary diversity will be drawn from the major genres practiced at that time. Readings will include Poema del Cid, Libro de Buen Amor, Juan Manuel's El Conde Lucanor, Sem Tob's Proverbios morales, Ibn Hazam, El collar de la paloma, and works by Ramón Llúll.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

51. Women's Voices in Medieval Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries, important transformations occurred in social life, giving women an opening to financial and legal independence. This increasingly visible role of women also found expression in art and literature in the Iberian Peninsula. This course will explore aesthetic and cultural images of women in Peninsular literature throughout different literary genres in the context of theories on the nature of women by the most influential theologians of the epoch. Reading will include jarchas, cantigas de amigo, lyric of the Catalan Provençal "trobairitz" (women poets), Libro de Apolonio, La Celestina, La doncella Teodor, and poems by Florencia Pinar and Isabel de Villena.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

52. Eroticism and Spirituality in Early Modern Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

The transition from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century brought a series of changes in Spain's ideological formations. Under the influence of Italian culture, new literary forms were developed. Changes in religious practices also left their mark in poetic, dramatic, and narrative texts of these two periods. The course will study the construction of representative erotic themes and motifs as contrasted to the development of moral and religious ones. Readings may include works by Fray Luis de León, Santa Teresa, San Juan de la Cruz, the anonymous Poesía erótica, Cervantes' Novelas ejemplares and the novelas cortas by María de Zayas.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

53. Knights and Rogues: Narratives of Escape and Alienation in Early Modern Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Knights and ladies, noble Moors, lovesick shepherds; vagabonds and rogues, charlatans, tricksters, and thieves. These characters inhabit the imaginative world of a 'Golden Age' of contradictions in Spain. The course will explore the relationship between society and literature during the Golden Age, as constructed in several sub-genres of chivalry, the Moorish novel, the pastoral novel, and the picaresque. Readings will include Amadís de Gaula, Montemayor's La Diana, El Abencerraje, Lazarillo de Tormes, Quevedo's Vida del buscón, Salas Barbadillo's La hija de Celestina, and Castillo Solórzano's Garduña de Sevilla.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

54. Spanish Poetry of the Renaissance and Baroque

07S: 10A

Many extraordinary texts written in Spanish were produced by Spain's Renaissance and Baroque poets-among them, Garcilaso de la Vega, Luis de León, Lope de Vega, Luis de Góngora, and Francisco de Quevedo. These authors expressed ideas and sentiments of an era marked by tectonic shifts: crisis of the aristocracy, disintegration of the feudal state, formation of the bourgeoisie, birth of a market economy, and Spanish imperial enterprise in America. This course focuses on close textual analysis of poems within their historical and conceptual framework, providing a dynamic picture of concerns that engulfed a society undergoing transition towards modernity.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Sokol.

55. Love, Honor, and Monarchy: Drama and Theater in Early Modern Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

The Golden Age drama created by Lope de Vega is a theatre of poetry and action. Monarchist and deeply rooted in national origins, it has nonetheless produced figures of universal mythic dimensions, such as Tirso de Molina's Don Juan Tenorio. El burlador de Sevilla, the original Don Juan play, is one of a number of works to be read in this course, which will explore the relationship between drama and society, theater and public, ceremony and spec tacle, in sixteenth and seventeenth century Spain and Portugal. Readings will include such 'popular' genres as the pasos of Lope de Rueda and the entremeses of Cervantes; the Renaissance drama of Torres Naharro; autos by Gil Vicente; the historical tragedies of Juan de la Cueva; and comedias and autos sacramentales by Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, and Pedro Calderón de la Barca.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

56. Don Quijote

06F: 2A 07F: 10A

From the time of its publication in 1605 (Part I) and 1615 (Part II), Don Quijote has continually fascinated its readers and provoked radically different interpretations. Taking as his point of departure the tradition of chivalric romance, Cervantes begins by writing a critique of imaginative literature that evolves into a critique of reality itself-the first modern European novel. This course seeks to understand the Quijote both per se-as an autonomous work of literature-and as a highly creative response to the literary and cultural forces from which it was forged.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

57. From Romanticism to Realism: Spanish Intellectuals and the New Bourgeois State

07W: 12

The notion of 'the two Spains' (liberal/conservative) served as a battleground for debates among nineteenth-century intellectuals. This course will explore the different literary responses to this historical determinant generated by the Romantic spirit. It will seek to clarify the role and position of the intellectual in relation to the development of the modern bourgeois state, and will pose the question of national identities in Catalonia and Galicia. The influence of scientific positivism and industrialism in the second half of the nineteenth century raises new intellectual questions that will be expressed in the modern realist novel. We will study the relationship between the urban landscape and psychological exploration, nature and society, and men and women, in these new narrative forms. Readings by Larra, Espronceda, Zorilla, Boehl de Faber, Aribau, Rosalía de Castro, Bécquer, Galdós, Clarín, Pardo Bazán, and Oller.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. del Pino.

58. Turn-of-the-Century Literature in Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

A profound intellectual crisis takes place at the end of the 19th century in Spain. Spanish intellectuals react in opposing ways to the perceived failures of the bourgeois model and the psychological impact of the Spanish-American War. On the one hand, we see the reformist Regeneracionismo movement and a literature of social engagement; on the other hand, a lapse into an aesthetic attitude strictly appreciative of art-for-art's-sake. The course will explore the attempts to resolve the conflict between these contradictory positions in individual authors. Readings by M. Unamuno, A. Ganivet, P. Baroja, Azorín, J. M. Valle-Inclán, A. Machado, M. Machado, J. Maragall, J. R. Jiménez, R. Maeztu.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

59. Avant-Garde Movements and Social Poetry in Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will explore the developments of Spanish poetry during the first half of the 20th century, in particular the close relationships between art and poetry, and poetry and politics. In the course we will analyze the different poetic expressions of the Avant-garde movements (futurism, ultraismo, surrealism) and the development of a poetry of social engagement that will continue after the Spanish Civil War. Readings by García Lorca, Alberti, Guillermo de Torre, Cernuda, Aleixandre, Alonso, Guillén, Salinas, Hernández, Blas de Otero, Celaya.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

60. Exile, Repression and Writing in Post-Civil War Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

What was the effect of mass exile on Spanish culture after the Civil War? How was the inner exile of the intellectuals and writers who stayed expressed in the literature of the period? How do ideological repression and systematic censorship shape Spanish culture during this period? These are some of the fundamental questions that will be addressed in an attempt to study the relationship between cultural production and historical process. Readings will include works by R. Sender, R. Chacel, C. Cela, Buero Vallejo, M. Rodoreda, J. L. Martín Santos, M. Delibes, J. Marsé, and others. Films by Buñuel, Berlanga and Saura.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

61. Spanish Literature and Film

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will analyze the relationship between literature and film, focusing on the problems encountered and the narrative strategies involved in the transposition of Spanish literary texts into filmic texts. Issues of narrative exposition, point of view, authorial control, and dramatization will be discussed. How does one 'read' films? How can filmic language translate verbal language? What is a 'faithful' adaptation? Readings will include modern Spanish novels and plays, such as Bodas de sangre, Los santos inocentes, Tristana, El Sur, La plaza del diamante, El bosque animado, and Bajarse al moro.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

62. Women Writers in Twentieth Century Spain

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course explores a variety of issues related to constructions of gender in contemporary Spanish literature: the representation of men and women as subjects, the traditional gender roles and their subversion, the emergence of women writers following the Spanish Civil War. What role does sexual orientation play in their writing practices? How have the representations of women changed in Post-Franco Spain? What role does feminist thought play in the discourse of contemporary authors? Readings will be selected from plays, autobiographies, novels and poetry by E. Tusquets, R. Montero, M. Mayoral, J. Aldecoa, C. Riera, C. Martín Gaite, A. Urrietabizcaia, T. P√†mies and M. Roig.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI.

63. Postmodern Literature in Post-Franco Spain

06F: 10

This course focuses on the new literary trends that have reshaped the literary scene in Spain in the last two decades following the long tradition of social realism and experimental writing of the post-Civil War period. The course will explore how the acceptance of what were once considered nonliterary genres (mass media, film, novela rosa, autobiographies, historical discourses) and marginal fictional genres (mystery, historical novel, romance, the erotic novel and poetry) have contributed to a new postmodern aesthetic which aims to reconcile formerly antithetical social and experimental modes of writing. Readings by E. Mendoza, M. Vázquez Montalbán, A. Muñoz Molina, A. Rosetti, A. Grandes, J. Juaristi.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Aguado.

64. Recent Spanish Poetry: The Reconquest of Subjectivity

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Spanish poetry since 1960 has shifted its interest from the collective to the subjective, from social issues to problematizing identity; furthermore, as a reaction to post-Civil War poetry, it attempts to reconstruct the subject. The course will focus on the different attempts to recreate this 'self': the 'poetry of experience' which initiated the recovery of a poetic identity, leaving behind the collective thematics of postwar poetry (Barral, Gil de Biedma); the poets associated with the novisimos group of the late 1960's, whose poetic subject seeks its frame of reference in a cultural, intertextual collective mythology (Carnero, Gimferrer,Montalban); and the development of a new dichotomy of subjective and objective positions in the 1980s and 1990s (Juaristi, Alas). In this class, we will trace the limits and configuration of this renaissance, with particular emphasis placed on the questions and problems of representing poetic subjectivity.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

65. One Hundred Years of Solitude

08W: 2

Few literary works have ever fascinated readers all over the world the way One Hundred Years of Solitude has. Gabriel García Marquez's novel opens up a magical world where the boundaries that separate fantasy and reality, fairy tale and history seem to dissolve naturally. And yet no fictional work has ever been more deeply grounded in the reality and history of a people. The book tells the incredible story of the Buendía family as it develops through the successive cycles of destruction and rebirth that shape history in the mythical world of Macondo. And, as the story unfolds, it illuminates the wonders and terrors of the history of Latin American countries, the complexities and contradictions that have defined their peoples and shaped their cultures. In this course we will read, analyze and enjoy One Hundred Years of Solitude and also a selection of García Márquez's short stories and journalistic works. The readings will be discussed within the framework of some major theoretical issues and in constant dialogue with a variety of secondary sources.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

66. Latin American Culture: Migrations, Displacement, Exclusion and Exile

07W: 2

Since the time of the Spanish conquest Latin American cultures have developed in the midst of turmoil. Racial conflict, gender struggle, ethnic and political exclusion, concentration of power in the hands of small white or mestizo ruling classes provide part of the background for the process of definition of cultural identities in Latin America. Through a careful analysis and discussion of texts ranging from the first native and Spanish accounts of the Conquest to contemporary writings by U.S. Chicano and Latino writers this course will explore some of the faces of what we call Latin American culture. Readings will include selections of native and Spanish chronicles of the conquest, literary works like Hernández's Martín Fierro, Los ríos profundos by Arguedas, El reino de este mundo by Carpentier, Hasta no verte Jesús mío by Poniatowska and Pedro Píramo by Rulfo, among others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

67. Romanticism and the Formation of National Identities in Latin America

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Romanticism in Latin America coincides with the process of the constitution of new Spanish American republics, and plays a crucial role in the definition of national identities. This is why the movement tends to be more socio-political and didactic than subjective. Nature, countryside, city, race, tradition and history participate in the works of the period with distinct and sometimes contradictory contents, according to how each nation or region imagines its identity. The course explores those themes-and their links with liberalism- in the central works of the period. Gómez de Avellaneda, Echeverría, Sarmiento, Ascasubi, Mármol, Isaacs, Altamirano, Palma and Galván are among the authors who will be studied.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

68. Literature and Ideas in Spanish America (1845 to the present)

07F: 2

The search for a Latin American identity became particularly urgent during the years of nation-building that followed independence. Was Latin America internally divided between opposing factions of barbaric and civilized peoples? Is it possible to speak of a unified syncretic Latin America? What was the role of the United States and of Europe vis-√†-vis the Latin American nations? This course begins with a reappraisal of these nineteenth-century questions as formulated in the works of Sarmiento, Martí, and Rodó. We will then examine how twentieth-century Latin American writers have transformed and redefined these central themes of Latin American history and culture. Race, class, the function of society, and the role of the intellectual will be discussed in relation to a specific socio-political context. Readings include works by Sarmiento, Martí, Rodó, Mariátegui, Arguedas, Carpentier, Desnoes, Galeano, and others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI.

69. Modernismo and Vanguardia

06F: 2

Around the 1880s Latin American poets sought to modernize Hispanic literatures by importing the last wave of French poetic styles: Parnassian and Symbolist poetry. They created the movement that came to be known as Modernismo. In every Spanish speaking country, in Latin America as well as in Spain, Modernismo deeply influenced not only high culture but also the Mexican corrido, the bolero, the Argentinian tango and other forms of popular culture.

In the 1920s the legacy of Modernismo was displaced by the poetic innovations of the European Avant-gardes, an aesthetic which continued to shape poetry well into the twentieth century. This course will analyze the development of Modernismo and the transition to the Avant-gardes through the works of Darío, Martí, Agustini, Lugones, Huidobro, Mistral, Neruda, Vallejo and others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW. Bueno.

70. Contemporary Latin American Poetry (from 1936 to the present)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

The achievements of the Vanguardias shaped to a great extent twentieth-century poetry in Latin America. Starting with the period of high avant-garde we will examine the development of Latin American poetry from the 1930s to the present. We will study the new literary forms that expanded and also fragmented the poetic impulse built around the Vanguardias: social realist poetry, conversational poetry, 'negrista' poetry, neo-avant-garde poetry, anti-poetry, and their reciprocal influence on the popular poetry of the 'Nueva Trova,' folk songs and Brazilian popular music. The readings for this course will include poetic works by Vallejo, Neruda, Paz, Cardenal, Parra, Cisneros, Nicolás Guillén, Gioconda Belli, Castellanos, and the lyrics of Silvio Rodríguez, Violeta Parra and Chico Buarque.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

71. Twentieth Century Regionalist Writing: The Discovery of Latin America's Cultural Heritages

07X: 2

The Russian and Mexican revolutions and World War I changed irrevocably Western perceptions of peoples, societies, and histories. Within the context of twentieth-century ideological and existential developments, Latin America became, once again, a land of discovery for its writers. This course will explore the process of rediscovery of national heritages. The search for non-European cultural identities highlights the African and Amerindian components of the different Latin American regions. What were these cultures that precariously coexisted with Western culture in America and survived centuries of marginality and repression? What were the myths, beliefs, and values that shaped their perception of the world? How do they relate to Western twentieth-century social systems and philosophical currents? These questions will be explored in the writings of Gallegos, Rivera, Guillén, Palés Matos, Carpentier, Icaza, Arguedas, Castellanos, and others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

72. Latin American and Latina Women: Gender, Culture, Literature

07S: 2A

This course will explore the images, representations and roles of the 'feminine' in Latin American and the U.S. Latino communities, beginning with La Malinche -the translator and mistress of Hernán Cortés-and leading to the reevaluation of those same images by contemporary Latin American and U.S. Latina writers such as Jesusa Rodriquez, Sabina Berman, Cherríe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa. We will trace the image of woman as the figure who enables cultural interchange between and within male dominated groups, but who has herself been denied access to cultural institutions, social recognition, and political representation. Through an analysis of novels, plays, poems, short stories, and testimonial writings, we will examine the traditional roles and spaces assigned to women in Latin America and Latino societies and their persistent attempts to subvert, challenge, or transgress these patriarchal limitations. Readings will include selected works by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Gabriela Mistral, Rosario Castellanos, Elena Poniatowska, Griselda Gambaro, Luisa Valenzuela, Diana Raznovich, Clarice Lispector, Nancy Morejón, Rigoberta Menchú, Rosario Ferré, Cherríe Moraga, Gloria Anzaldúa and others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI. Spitta.

73. Literature and Social Protest: Alienation, Dictatorship, Revolution and Disillusionment in Twentieth-Century Latin America

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

In a continent where, from the times of the Spanish Conquest, nature had been the worst enemy of man, twentieth-century writers like Arlt, Onetti, and Vargas Llosa focus on the newer, rapidly growing urban environment. Loners, drifters, madmen, prostitutes, and suicidal characters inhabit the city. Their struggle against oppression and suffering becomes the symbolic expression of the individual's search for identity in contemporary Latin America. Loss of self vs. self-definition, destruction vs. progress, alienation vs. freedom, and rebellion vs. revolution are some of the issues that will be discussed in this course. Readings will be drawn from the works of Arlt, Onetti, Vargas Llosa, Sábato, Fuentes, and others.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

74. Old World/New World: Tradition and Change in Contemporary Latin American Cultures

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

From eighteenth-century pirates to bohemian life in 1960s Paris; from madness in the green prison of the jungle of the Amazon to the magical world of Macondo, the readings and discussions will explore the complexities of Western/non-Western interaction. The discussion will critically reevaluate a long tradition that views Europe as Latin America's model while perceiving Latin America as Europe's other. A number of key oppositions that have been traditionally used to categorize these views-such as Reason vs. Madness, Barbarism vs. Civilization, and Humanism vs. Nature-will be carefully examined as part of a critical reassessment of Latin America's cultures and literatures. Readings will include such works as Ifigenia by Teresa de la Parra, El siglo de las luces by Carpentier, La casa verde by Vargas Llosa, Macunaima by Andrade, Rayuela by Cortázar, Recuerdos del Porvenir by Elena Garro, and Cien años de soledad by García Márquez.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

75. Negotiating Performance in Latin America

08S: 2A

This course explores the history, the theory and current practice of Latin American performance in its broadest sense. This includes theatre, performance art, and carnival as well as rituals and spectacles associated with daily life such as cross-dressing and other examples of what we might call performing culture and culture as performance. Beginning with a brief overview of pre-Columbian rituals, fiestas and public spectacle, the course will trace the imposition of eurocentric notions of 'theatre' on populations with a long tradition of spectacle. The course will then turn to the 1960s to examine how Latin American playwrights (Boal, Buenaventura, Gambaro, Carballido) struggled to transform theatre from an instrument of colonial oppression into an oppositional, at times revolutionary, 'theatre of the oppressed.'

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: ART; WCult: Varies.

76. The Fabrication of Images: Mass Media in Latin America

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

The slapstick comedy of Mexican film star Cantinflas, the satirical-melodramatic radio theatre of the Bolivian Raúl Salmón, and the high-tech soap operas of the Brazilian Janete Clair are some examples of the immense repertoire of mass-appeal productions in Latin America.

Such media productions create, produce, and reinforce a universe of prototypical and stereotypical characters and plot stories. The gallery of figures ranging through opportunist villain, femme fatale, expert detective, and the family clan are prototypes in often clichéd stories that deal with the themes of marriage, religion, crime, treason, revenge, forsaken love, political corruption, and the success story of social conquest. This course aims at a critical reading of such varied media material by focusing on three interconnected issues: ideological content, public reception, and the socio-political context of production. Course material includes a wide selection of films, television serials, soap operas, talk shows, radio productions, and readings of major critical texts.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: ART; WCult: NW.

77. Hispanic Literature in the USA

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

The Hispanic experience in the USA offers a wide variety of artistic expressions, ranging from the traditional 'corrido' to the poetic experiments of, for instance, Pedro Pietri. One element remains, nevertheless, constant: either by rejection or by assimilation, Hispanic culture is the result of an interaction between the 'Anglo' and the Hispanic worlds. This course will examine the terms of that interaction, giving special attention to such problems as marginality, bilingual-bicultural expression, and nationalism. Primary emphasis will be on contemporary works of such authors as Alurista, Anaya, Hinojosa-Smith, Luis Valdés and Pedro Pietri.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI.

78. Living in the Borderlands: Latino/a Culture and Identity

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will focus on the historical development of a latino/a culture and identity in the United States. Since the notion of 'borderlands' today includes not only an early Span ish colonial period of the Southwest, but also urban centers in the Midwest and the East coast, we will discuss geographic, psychic, sexual, linguistic, and generic borders and how latino/as negotiate between them. We will pay close attention to the different development of the Mexican-American, Puertorrican, Nuyorican, Cuban-American, Dominican, Central American and other latino communities. While the U.S. mainstream has for decades stereotyped latinos/as into a negative and immutable 'other,' we will see how constant migrations continually force us to redefine what 'latino' means. Readings will include: Bolton, Paredes, Gómez-Peña, Fusco, Anzaldúa, Anaya, García, Soto, Ortiz Taylor, Ortiz Cofer, Prida, Castillo.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

79. Latino/a Literature: Between Literary Traditions, Languages, and Cultures

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Latino/a literature is a literature caught between conflicting cultural and literary traditions: it is Janus-faced and looks to Latin America and the U.S. at once. Latino literature draws from sources as diverse as pre-Columbian myths, Mexican corridos, the writings of the Black Renaissance, the Civil Rights Movement, and Anglo American feminism, among others. Since it is situated in between different traditions, latino/a literature is excluded from both the U.S. and Latin American literary canons. This course will study how latino/ a writers negotiate between Latin America and the U.S. and between Spanish and English. We will analyze how a latino/a literature is arising out of the confrontation between different cultural, linguistic, and literary traditions. Readings will include: Pineda, Umpierre, Moraga, Retchy, Pietri, Esteves, Laviera, etc.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI.

80. Seminar: Latin American Literature

07W: 10A

The Department of Spanish and Portuguese offers a seminar on Latin American literature twice during every three-year period. The topic will vary each time the course is taught.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW. Reyes.

81. Seminar: Peninsular Literature

08W: 10A

The Department of Spanish and Portuguese offers a seminar on Peninsular literature twice during every three-year period. The topic will vary each time the course is taught.

Prerequisite: Spanish 9, and one of 30, 31, 32 or 37; or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

87. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

A program of individual study directed by a member of the Spanish and Portuguese faculty. Spanish 87 will normally consist of a program of reading and research that is not covered in standard course offerings during a three-year period. Under exceptional circumstances it may serve as the vehicle for satisfying a course requirement that a student has been otherwise unable to satisfy through the regularly-scheduled curriculum offerings. All Independent Study proposals must be submitted for consideration and approval to the Department, and require the signature of the Major Adviser. Open only to majors in Spanish or Romance Languages. Under normal circumstances, no student may receive credit for this course more than once.

90. Honors Course

All terms: Arrange

Supervised independent research under the direction of a designated advisor. Honors majors will normally elect this course as the first in the required sequence (90 and 91) for completion of the Honors Program. Spanish 90 is intended to prepare the student for writing the Honors thesis, through readings in primary and secondary texts, theory and methodology. The course will include periodic written assignments and culminate in a final paper.

Prerequisite: Admission to the Honors Program.

91. Honors Seminar

All terms: Arrange

A prearranged program of study and research during any term of the senior year, on a tutorial basis, with individual faculty members (normally the thesis advisor). A thesis and public presentation are the expected culmination of the course.

Prerequisite: Prior admission to the Department's Honors Program; clear evidence of capability to perform honors level work, normally indicated by completion of Spanish 90 with a grade of B+ or higher.

PORTUGUESE

1. Intensive Portuguese I

07W, 08W: 10/10A

An introduction to Portuguese as a spoken and written language. Classroom and laboratory work provide an opportunity for practice in pronunciation and understanding of the language as it is spoken in both Portugal and Brazil. Elementary readings from both Portuguese and Brazilian literature are analyzed and discussed in class. Readings are complemented with music tapes and films. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive or World Culture Requirements.

3. Intensive Portuguese II

07S, 08S: 10/10A

Review of the fundamentals of Portuguese, intensive work on vocabulary building, extensive reading and discussion. More advanced practice in the use of the spoken language in the classroom, the drill sessions, and the language laboratory. Linguistic and thematic analyses of texts, discussions, and frequent compositions are complemented by lectures and films. Given on campus as the final course in the required sequence. Open to first-year students by qualifying test and to others who have passed Portuguese 1 or the equivalent preparation. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive or World Culture Requirements.

7. First-Year Seminars in Portuguese

Consult special listings

8. Intensive Post-Intermediate Portuguese

06F: D.L.S.A.+

In this course, students will learn to recognize and produce a broad range of linguistic registers, in order to achieve competence in Portuguese grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and oral and written expression. Using newspaper articles, short stories, "cronicas," screen plays, interviews, and reviews, students will analyze, imitate, and produce diverse types and levels of discourse. Course work will entail intensive writing, stylistic analysis, small group discussions, dramatic presentations, and exercises such as conducting interviews, writing reviews and reports. Texts by a range of 20th-Century Brazilian authors. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

10. Brazilian Culture and Civilization

06F: D.L.S.A.+

A course in Brazilian culture and civilization taught in the context of the Language Study Abroad program. Lectures by local personnel concentrate on contemporary political, social, economic, and religious institutions of the country, with attention paid to their historical background. Visits to sites supplement these lectures when appropriate. Assigned work includes preparation of papers and oral presentations, and a final examination. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

12. Introduction to Brazilian Literature

06F: D.L.S.A.+

An introductory course, offered in the context of the Language Study Abroad program, dealing with major figures, themes, or genres of Brazilian/Portuguese literature. Areas of concern include critical reading and analysis, style, historical and social perspective. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

15. Topics in Brazilian Culture

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Further language training based on study of historic and contemporary Brazilian culture drawing on literature, film, music, folklore and social history. Focus may change each time offered; consult instructor. This course, or Portuguese 20 or Portuguese 10 serve as prerequisite for the Portuguese FSP program and as prerequisite for the minor.

Prerequisite: Portuguese 3, or equivalent preparation with permission of instructor.

20. The Portuguese-Speaking World and its Literatures and Cultures: The Definition of an Identity

07W, 08W: 11

This course deals with major figures, themes, and issues of the literatures of the modern Portuguese-speaking world, including continental and insular Portugal, Brazil, Lusophone Africa and Asia, and Luso-America. The course will also discuss different techniques of critical reading and interpretation and their relevance to the study of specific works. Reading selections will be drawn from different genres and periods, and will be supplemented by film, music, and materials from the mass media. Considerable emphasis will be placed on speaking and writing skills. Topics will be announced in advance of each offering.

Open to first-year students by qualifying test and to others who have passed Portuguese 3 or have equivalent preparation. Dist: LIT; WCult: Varies. Franconi.

25. Advanced Portuguese

06F: D.F.S.P

Composition. Intensive essay writing workshop with discussion focusing on Brazilian culture. Advanced grammar, sentence structure and word usage provide a framework for excellence in writing. Exercises are based on readings of materials from diverse sources in contemporary Brazilian culture, history, politics and current events. Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Salvador, Brazil.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

35. Advanced Studies in Brazilian Culture and Civilization

06F: D.F.S.P

A course in Brazilian culture and civilization taught in the context of the Foreign Studies Program. Lectures by local personnel concentrate on contemporary political, social, economic and religious institutions and issues and their historical background. Visits to sites supplement lectures when appropriate. Taught in conjunction with Portuguese 10. Assigned work includes preparation of short papers, oral presentations and exams, assessed at advanced level. Students enrolling in Portuguese 35 will write an additional research paper based on group visits requiring sessions additional to regular classes.

Prerequisites: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program. Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

36. Studies in Contemporary Brazilian Literature

06F: D.F.S.P.

This course explores currents in Brazilian literature from the 1970s to the present. Genres include novels, plays, short stories and poetry, as well as song lyrics of literary quality, from various musical genres. Prominent themes include, but are not limited to, the socio-political experience of the dictatorship, urban and suburban life, and literature by women. The course stresses going beyond the literary canon to seek new literary representations of previously under-represented issues and groups.

Prerequisite: acceptance into the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

60. Portuguese Literature I: Middle Ages to the Early Nineteenth Century

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

The first part of this course will cover the creation of the Portuguese nation in the middle of the twelfth century, and consider its extraordinary geographical expansion in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, until its loss of political autonomy with the disappearance of its King, Dom Sebastão. Among the readings will be selections from the poetry of the Cancioneiros and from Os Lusíadas, by Luís Vaz de Camoes-the epic poem on Vasco da Gama's discovery of the route to India through the south seas-and the literature of the Baroque period, nuanced by Portugal's contacts with India, China, and Japan. The second part of the course will cover the Enlightenment and its Arcadian poets, the satirical and obscene poetry of Bocage, and the plays of the gifted 'cristão-novo' Antonio José da Silva, who was burned by the Inquisition. The course will conclude with a consideration of the Romantic period, heralded by the writings of Almeida Garrett, and characterized, on the one hand, by its nostalgia for the Middle Ages (in the novels of Alexandre Herculano), and, on the other, the innovative trends of the revolutionary movement (Júlio Dinis, João de Deus).

Prerequisite: Portuguese 20 or equivalent preparation. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

61. Brazilian Literature I: Sixteenth to Early Nineteenth Centuries

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course focuses on the main literary movements of Brazilian literature from its origins-Caminha's Letter of Discovery (1500)-to independence. The so-called 'absence' of Brazilian cultures is seen in chronicles of the Portuguese conquest and resistance, and in the Jesuits' catechistic plays, written to be performed by the natives. The Colonial Baroque is analyzed through the discussion of lyrical, mystical, epic and satirical poems, and sermons. We will discuss the Independence Movement of Vila Rica, the richest city of the Americas in the early 18th century, through readings of the 'inconfidentes'-the unfaithful ones to the Portuguese Crown. Romanticism, which in Brazil coincided with the beginning of Brazil's Empire, will be studied through readings about the mythical creation of Brazil in the indianist poems of Gonçalves Dias and José de Alencar's novels, the abolitionist poems by Castro Alves, and Martins Pena's plays dealing with the first struggles between the city and country.

Prerequisite: Portuguese 20 or equivalent preparation. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

62. Portuguese Literature II: Late Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

07S: Arrange

The course begins by studying Realismo through the great writer Eça de Queirós in his famous novel O Primo Basílio, and moves on to Antero de Quental's philosophical poetry. The Modernista movement will be studied in selections from the poetry of Mário de Sá-Carneiro, Almada Negreiros, and Fernando Pessoa, recognized as one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. The class struggle between the upper and middle bourgeoisie will be studied in the sociopolitical novels of Neo-Realism by such major contemporary writers as Fernando Namora, Miguel Torga, and Vergílio Ferreira. Special attention will be given to the best of contemporary poetry and drama, focusing on such poets as Antonio Ramos Rosa, Herberto Hélder, and Sofia de Melo Breyner Andresen, and the playwright Bernardo Santareno. We will also examine such post-revolutionary authors as Lídia Jorge and José Saramago, whose most recent works are best-sellers in and outside of Portugal.

Prerequisite: Portuguese 20 or equivalent preparation, and preferably, Portuguese 61. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Franconi.

63. Brazilian Literature II: Late Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

08S: Arrange

This course will begin by examining the contribution to world literature of the great writer Machado de Assis, his skeptical world view and his particular version of Realism. It will move on to study the Naturalism of Adolfo Caminha's Bom Crioulo, according to many the first published 'gay' novel in modern Western society; the avant-garde creation of Mário de Andrade's 'rhapsody' Macunaíma, 'the hero with no character,' and Oswald de Andrade's 'Manifesto Antropófago,' a condemnation of all that comes from European civilization. 'Tupi or not tupi that is the question,' posed by the 'Manifesto.' The regionalism of the Northeast, the poverty, mysticism and social injustice of the backlands, and the urbanism of the Southern cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, are discussed through the oral poetry of the 'romances de cordel' and through such well-known writers and playwrights as Jorge Amado, João Guimarães Rosa, Clarice Lispector, and Nélson Rodrigues, and through the lyrics of Bossa Nova composers, Chico Buarque, and others. The course ends with an overview of major issues (gender, class, and race) in Brazilian postmodern poetry and fiction.

Prerequisite: Portuguese 20 or equivalent preparation, and preferably, Portuguese 62. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

80. Seminar

All terms: Arrange

Topics vary. For the next offering, consult the Department newsletter.

Prerequisite: Portuguese 1, 2, 3 and 10, or permission of the instructor. Dist: LIT; WCult: Varies.

87. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

A program of individual study directed by a member of the Spanish and Portuguese faculty. Portuguese 87 will normally consist of a program of reading and research which is not covered in standard course offerings during a two-year period. Under exceptional circumstances it may serve as the vehicle for satisfying a course requirement that a student has been otherwise unable to satisfy through the regularly-scheduled curriculum offerings. All Independent Study proposals must be submitted for consideration and approval to the Department, and require the signature of the Major Adviser. By special permission the course may be taken more than once.

90. Honors Course

All terms: Arrange

Supervised independent research under the direction of a designated advisor. Honors students will normally elect this course as the first in the required sequence (90 and 91) for completion of the Honors Program. Portuguese 90 is intended to prepare the student for writing the Honors thesis, through readings in primary and secondary texts, theory and methodology. The course will include periodic written assignments and culminate in a final paper.

Prerequisite: Admission to the Honors Program.

91. Honors Seminar

All terms: Arrange

A prearranged program of study and research during any term of the senior year, on a tutorial basis, with individual faculty members (normally the thesis advisor). A thesis and public presentation are the expected culmination of the course.

Prerequisite: Prior admission to the Department's Honors Program; clear evidence of capability to perform honors level work, normally indicated by completion of Portuguese 90 with a grade of B+ or higher.