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Information on this website is posted for historical reference only. Please visit the Office of the Registrar for current requirements.

History

Chair: P. David Lagomarsino

Vice-Chair: Margaret H. Darrow

Professors C. G. Calloway, P. K. Crossley, M. H. Darrow, H. M. Ermarth, G. R. Garthwaite, M. Navarro, J. B. Nelson, A. Orleck, L. Spitzer, H. W. Whelan, C. S. Wilder, J. Wright; Associate Professors J. A. Byfield, S. J. Ericson, C. B. Estabrook, D. E. Haynes, R. L. Kremer, P. D. Lagomarsino, W. P. Simons; Assistant Professors L. A. Butler, J. F. Cullon, J. J. Kim, E. G. Miller, C. E. Naylor, T. Padilla; Senior Lecturer M. E. Heck; Visiting Professors R. W. Edsforth, A. V. Koop, H. Lehmann, R. Thapar; Visiting Assistant Professor C. W. Schmidt; Visiting Instructor R. A. Karl; Adjunct Assistant Professor S. A. Culbert.

THE STANDARD HISTORY MAJOR

Requirements:

The Standard Major in History comprises the successful completion of at least ten courses including:

1. One course each from the following areas:

a) United States and Canada: 1, 2, 10-39 (except 26, 31, 32, 33);

b) Europe: 3, 40-65 (except 54, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62);

c) AALAC (Africa, Asia, Latin America & Caribbean): 5.1-5.8, 66-87 (except 5.7, 70, 82, 85);

d) Interregional: 5.7, 26, 31, 32, 33, 54, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 70, 82, 85, 94.1-94.9, and all sections of 95. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the Interregional requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html).

2. At least five additional History courses in a geographic or thematic concentration selected in consultation with a faculty adviser.

3. A culminating experience in the form of an upperclass seminar (History 96) taken in the general area of the proposed geographic or thematic concentration.

4. At least five History courses must be taken in residence at Dartmouth College, one of them being the upperclass seminar (History 96).

5. Among the ten courses required for the Standard Major, each student must include either two pre-1700 courses or three pre-1800 courses. The following courses fulfill the pre-1700 requirement: 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 14, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 54, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). The following courses fulfill the pre-1800 requirement: 1, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the pre-1700 and/or pre-1800 requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html).

Special Provisions

1. History 7 (First-Year Seminar) and History 98 (Honors Seminar) may not be counted toward the major.

2. Students may not include more than two of the following courses: 1, 2 or 3.

3. Students may not use more than two upperclass seminars (History 96) or two independent study courses (History 97) in satisfying the major requirements.

4. Major GPA is figured on all History courses taken.

5. The Department will approve transfer credits for History majors and non-majors only for courses taken at institutions with which Dartmouth College has institutional exchange programs (see pages XXX of this Bulletin).

6. Entering first-year students may receive one unspecified credit for a history course by achieving a score of 5 on the College Entrance Examination Board's Advanced Placement Tests or scores of 6 or 7 on the Higher Level International Baccalaureate (IB) exam. This unspecified credit counts as one course credit toward the degree requirement but receives no credit within the major.

HISTORY HONORS PROGRAM

Potentially eligible students should meet with their adviser to plan for the History Honors Major. History majors who have achieved an overall College grade point average of 3.0 and one of 3.5 in History (based on a minimum of five graded History courses) may apply for admission to the Honors Program through a written proposal submitted in the spring term of their junior year. Others interested in the program should petition the Department for admission by August 15th of the summer term preceding their senior year.

The Honors Program consists of the successful completion of the following requirements:

1. The minimum number of courses required for the Standard Major as specified in (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) above.

2. In addition to completing the requirements of the Standard Major, honors majors must complete the Honors Seminar (History 98) in the fall term of their senior year and a thesis (History 99), normally written in the winter and spring terms. History 98 counts as one course credit toward the degree requirement but receives no credit within the major. History 99 may carry up to two credits toward the degree requirement but counts as only one credit toward the Honors Major requirement.

Special Provisions, described under the Standard Major, also apply to the History Honors Program.

THE MODIFIED MAJOR

A Modified Major will be approved only if the student provides a convincing written rationale for the intellectual coherence of the proposed program; this should then be discussed with, approved, and signed by the chairs of the two departments and filed with both departments and the Registrar's Office.

The Modified Major consists of the successful completion of twelve courses, eight of them in History:

1. The minimum number of courses required for the Standard Major as specified in (1) above.

2. At least three additional courses in a geographic or thematic concentration selected in consultation with a faculty adviser.

3. A culminating experience in the form of an upperclass seminar (History 96) taken in the general area of the proposed geographic or thematic concentration.

4. Among the eight History courses required for the Modified Major, each student must include two pre-1800 courses. The following courses fulfill the pre-1800 requirement: 1, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the pre-1700 and/or pre-1800 requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement.

5. Four courses from other departments. None of these may be prerequisite to the major of another department.

Special Provisions, described under the Standard Major, also apply to the Modified Major.

MINOR IN HISTORY

The minor in History consists of the successful completion of seven courses:

1. Minimum number of courses required for the Standard Major as specified in (1) above.

2. At least two additional courses in a geographic or thematic concentration selected in consultation with a faculty adviser.

3. A culminating experience in the form of an upperclass seminar (History 96) taken in the general area of the proposed geographic or thematic concentration.

4. Among the seven courses required for the Minor in History, each student must include two pre-1800 courses. The following courses fulfill the pre-1800 requirement: 1, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the pre-1700 and/or pre-1800 requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html).

Special Provisions, described under the Standard Major, apply to the Minor.

SECTION I: INTRODUCTORY COURSES

1. The United States, 1763-1877

06F: 10 07X, 08W: 10A

An introduction to selected problems of national development in the period beginning with the American Revolution and ending with the Civil War and Reconstruction. Emphasis is placed on the critical assessment of historical writing and the interpretation of historical documents. There are no general course lectures; each student is assigned to a section which works under a single staff member. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

2. History of the United States since 1877

07W: 12 07X: 9 07F: 12 08W: 9

History 2 carries forward the study of national development from 1877, but History 1 is not prerequisite. The course treats such issues as industrialization and its impact; changes in political behavior, ideology, and the American party system; the Black American and the consequences of racism; origins of the Cold War; and the emergence of modern welfare programs. Each student is assigned to a small section which meets with a History faculty member, but section meetings are occasionally supplemented with special lectures, films, or symposia. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Kim, Miller.

3. Europe in Medieval and Early Modern Times

06F, 07F: 9

Emphasizing the analysis of primary sources, this course examines the foundation of Western European civilization from the fall of the Roman Empire to 1715. Topics include the origins of European nation states, the intellectual and cultural achievements of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the rise of constitutionalism and absolutism, the economic and technological roots of Europe's global dominance, as well as the social, political, and religious crises that divided the continent. Lectures and small discussion groups. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Lagomarsino, Simons.

5.1. Pre-Colonial African History (Identical to African and African American Studies 14)

08S: 11

This course will examine the social and economic history of Africa up to 1800. It will focus on several interrelated themes-the organization of production for subsistence and for the market, the expansion of trade, rise of new social classes, as well as the emergence and disintegration of various states. The readings will draw on specific examples from north, east, west and southern Africa to illuminate the various themes.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

5.2. The Eye of the Beholder: Introduction to the Islamic World (Identical to Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 14)

07W, 08W: 10

This course provides an introduction to the range of Islamic history through an examination of the lives and works of key figures. The following topics, among others, will be examined: political and social change, Muhammad and Ataturk; mysticism, Rabia and Rumi; literature, Hafez and Hedayat.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

5.3. The History of China since 1800

06F: 10A 07F: 11

This survey course traces China's social, political, and cultural development from the relative peace and prosperity of the high Qing period, through the devastating wars and imperialist incursions of the nineteenth century, to the efforts, both vain and fruitful, to build an independent and powerful new nation.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Crossley.

5.4. Modern Southeast Asia

07S: 10 08W: 12

This course introduces students to the history of Southeast Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It will examine the development of colonial rule, the impact of imperialism and colonialism on Southeast Asian society and economy, cultural adaptations to foreign rule, nationalism and revolution, and problems of decolonization. Special attention will be paid to the history of the Vietnamese revolution.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Haynes.

5.5. The Emergence of Modern Japan

06F, 07F: 10A

A survey of Japanese history from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Topics to be covered include the building of a modern state and the growth of political opposition, industrialization and its social consequences, the rise and fall of the Japanese colonial empire, and the postwar economic 'miracle.'

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Ericson.

5.6. Pre-Columbian and Colonial America (Identical to Latin American and Caribbean Studies 10)

07S: 10 07F: 11

This course will examine the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Andes and Mesoamerica, the causes and consequences of the Spanish and Portuguese Conquests, and the establishment of colonial societies and economies.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Karl.

6. Experimental Courses in History

06F: 12, 3A 07W: 2, 2A 07S: 10A 07X: 2A 08W: 10A

In 06F at 12 (Section 1), Blacks and Jews in American History and Culture (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 33). Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Karp.

In 06F at 3A (Section 2), The Perception of the Past in Early India. Contemporary politicians supporting an agenda of religious nationalism in India attempt to control the present and future by manipulating the interpretation of India's ancient history. Mindful of that contemporary and contentious debate, this course examines histories relating to South Asia during the period 1000 BCE-1200 CE. Texts are selected to reflect the ways the past was perceived at various points of time within this period-as well as today-and to offer an understanding of the sub-continent's historical changes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Thapar.

In 07W at 2A (Section 1), The Origins and History of the World Peace Movement. This course examines the growth and transformation of the nineteenth-century trans-Atlantic peace movement into what is now an unprecedented global peace culture. Readings and discussions focus especially on issues of war and human nature, delegitimization of war as a political instrument, anti-war movements, resolutions of armed conflicts, and the rise of non-violent politics between and within states. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Edsforth.

In 07W at 2 (Section 2), The Arab World in the Twentieth Century. This course will examine modern Arab history. Earlier nineteenth century history will be examined before turning to twentieth century Arab nationalism; the Arab world in global history; the formation and maintenance of new states; regional rivalries and war; Palestine; and modernization, along with social-particularly that of women-cultural, and religious changes, including the emergence of Islamism. Course reading encompasses general histories and primary sources, literature and memoirs in translation. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

In 07S at 10A, Epidemics in History: Etiologies and Ideologies. This course examines how epidemics are designated, how diseases spread, and different political and public responses to community health. We will explore how diseases and differential immunities become articulated to social identities to signify putative boundaries of morality and to shape uneven political arrangements. While attending to earlier precedents, we will focus on nineteenth- and twentieth-century epidemics using both scientific and discursive analytical methods. Case studies include tuberculosis, plague, influenza, polio, malnutrition, AIDS, and SARS. Kim.

In 07X at 2A, Metropolis: A Comparative History of New York City. "It had gone by the original Indian name Manna-hatta, or. . . 'The Manhattoes;' but this was now decried as savage and heathenish. . . . At length, when the council was almost in despair, a burgher, remarkable for the size and squareness of his head, proposed that they should call it New-Amsterdam," joked Washington Irving in 1808. This class uses a comparative approach to explore the physical and social histories of New York City. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Wilder.

In 08W at 10A, American Jewish History (Identical to Jewish Studies 33, pending approval). This course will explore the history of Jews in the United States from the 1830s to the present. We will trace the migration of German and East European Jews in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and of Holocaust survivors and Soviet Jewish émigrés in the mid-to-late twentieth century. Other topics will include Yiddish culture and media, Jews and the American Left, Jews and the rise of neo-conservatism, and inter-group relations.

7. First-Year Seminars in History

Consult special listings

SECTION II: UNITED STATES AND CANADA

10. Colonial America

06F: 2

A study of the foundations of American civilization. Attention is focused on the ways in which new world conditions influenced the peoples, ideas, and institutions transplanted from Europe. The course also includes material on the ways in which Europeans interacted with Native Americans and Africans in the New World.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

11. The Age of the American Revolution

07S: 11 08S: 2A

This course begins with an examination of relations between England and its American Colonies in the middle of the eighteenth century. It deals with the collapse of British authority in America, emphasizing the social and intellectual sources of rebellion. Treatment of the war years focuses more on the problem of political and economic adjustment than on military history. The final topic covered is the adoption of a federal Constitution.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

12. The American Civil War

07W: 12

The American Civil War was a defining moment in American history. This course examines the causes of the conflict, the war itself, and the period of Reconstruction up to 1877. Topics to be discussed include the diplomatic conduct of the war, political developments in both the north and the south, military developments, the question of race and slavery, emancipation, the participation of African Americans in the war, the women's rights movement and the involvement of women in the war, and medical advances. The social and economic aspects of the war will receive as much emphasis as military and political developments.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Culbert.

13. History of New England

07S: 2

The course focuses primarily on developments within New England but involves some discussion of the region's historical relationship with the rest of the United States and with Canada. Specific topics include the logic of regionalism, the origins of the six New England states, town founding, the dynamics of economic change, immigration and ethnicity, education (both public and private), regional literature, historic preservation, and patterns of community development. The course covers the entire history of the region and concludes with a section on 'New England Today.'

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

14. The Invasion of America: American Indian History, Pre-Contact to 1830 (Identical to Native American Studies 14)

06F: 11 07F: 10

This course surveys the history of the American Indians from contact with Europeans to c. 1830. It provides an overview of the major themes and trends in Indian history, supplemented by case studies from a number of regions and readings that illuminate particular issues. The overall context of the course is the conflict generated by the colonial drive of European nations and the U.S. and their citizens, but the primary focus is the historical experience of Indian peoples and their struggles to retain their cultures and autonomy while adapting to great changes in the conditions of their lives.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Calloway.

15. American Indian History: 1830 to Present (Identical to Native American Studies 15)

07S: 11 08S: 10

This course surveys the history of the American Indians from the year 1830 to the present day. It provides an overview of the major themes and trends in Indian history, supplemented by case studies from a number of regions and readings that illuminate particular issues. The overall context of the course is the expansion of the U.S., the 'Indian policies' adopted by the U.S. government, but the primary focus is the historical experience of Indian peoples and their struggles to retain the cultures and autonomy while adapting to great changes in the conditions of their lives.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Calloway.

16. Black America to the Civil War (Identical to African and African American Studies 12)

06F, 08W: 10

This course deals with the African heritage, origins of white racial attitudes toward blacks, the slave system in colonial and ante-bellum America, and free Black society in North America. Specific emphasis will be placed on the Afro-American experience and on the relationship between blacks and whites in early American society.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Naylor.

17. Black America since the Civil War (Identical to African and African American Studies 13)

08S: 10

This course is a continuation of History 16. Among the topics to be discussed are Black Reconstruction, segregation and disfranchisement, migration, nationalism, Blacks and the New Deal, the impact of war on Blacks, and the 1960s.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

19. United States Political History in the Twentieth Century

07W: 10A

This course defines and examines major themes in the development of twentieth century American politics. There are two versions of this course.

In 07W: This lecture course explores politics, the presidency, and national policy-making in the twentieth century. Special attention will be paid to the evolution of parties, how individual presidents have defined the powers of the presidency, and to the different ways that modern presidents have responded to changing external demands for national leadership in times of prosperity and peace, economic depression, domestic upheaval, and war.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Edsforth.

20. American Thought and Culture to 1865

08W: 11

This course examines leading thinkers, writers, artists, and reformers as a way of understanding American intellectual and cultural history. Some of the issues explored include: the nature and meaning of American Puritanism; the impact of the Enlightenment; the evolution of American political thought; ideas about slavery and race; Transcendentalism and Romantic reform; the American Renaissance in literature; and the role of intellectuals in the Civil War. Almost all of the readings will be drawn from primary texts (including material by Franklin, Jefferson, Emerson, Fuller, Hawthorne, Douglass, and Lincoln).

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

21. Modern American Thought and Culture

07F: 10

This course examines leading thinkers, writers, artists, and reformers as a way of understanding American intellectual and cultural history. Some of the issues explored include: the impact of Darwinism; social science and the modern university; responses to industrialization; the tension between self and society; debates over democracy; the challenge of civil rights and feminism; and recent debates over multiculturalism. Almost of all the reading will be drawn from primary sources (including material by Mark Twain, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William James, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., W.E.B. DuBois, John Dewey; Langston Hughes; Lionel Trilling; Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Malcolm X).

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

22. The Working Class in American Society

08W: 11

This course will examine the development of the American working class in relation to four major themes and time periods: the rise of a labor movement and an awareness of social class in the 19th century; trade unionism and labor radicalism during a watershed era of 'incorporation' (1885-1920); the triumph of industrial unionism in the 1930s and '40s; and the development of labor-management relations and working-class culture in post-World War II America. During each of these time periods the course will pay close attention to the themes of ethnicity, gender, and race.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

23. Recent United States History

07S, 08S: 11

This course will focus on the United States in the period following World War II. It will examine both domestic and international themes, exploring relationships between the two. Specific topics will include U.S. policy in Europe and Asia, National Security, the economy, developments in organized labor, political repression in the 1950s, political parties, mass culture, intellectual and artistic innovations, the civil rights movement, and the student protest movement.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Nelson.

24. American Foreign Relations to 1900

07W: 9

This course explores the history of America's relations with the world from the colonial era to 1900. In addition to examining the diplomatic and military dimensions of American interactions with non-Americans, this course also investigates the economic, cultural and ideological dimensions of those interactions. Specific topics include: American relations with Indian nations; the Wars of 1812 and 1898; the Monroe Doctrine; the colonization of Liberia; Manifest Destiny; and U.S. territorial expansion.

Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

25. American Foreign Relations since 1900

07S: 9

This course explores the expansion of American diplomatic, military and economic power since 1900, with particular attention to the ways that ideas and culture have shaped America's relations with the world. Specific topics include: U.S. imperialism in the Philippines and elsewhere; U.S. anti-imperialism; America's overseas nation building ventures; Wilsonianism; U.S. intervention in the World Wars; the Cold War; and American relations with the "Third World."

Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

26. The Vietnam War

07S: 12

This course examines the conflict which Americans call "The Vietnam War" as a major event in the 20th century histories of both the United States and Vietnam. In addition to exploring the key decisions made by U.S. and Vietnamese leaders, students will also learn about the experiences of ordinary soldiers and civilians. This course incorporates multiple American and Vietnamese sources and perspectives, and also investigates multiple explanations of the war's origins and outcome.

Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

27. Gender and Power in American History, 1607-1920 (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 23.1)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course examines the history of men and women from the period of colonial settlement to the achievement of woman's suffrage. We will explore the construction of gender particularly as it relates to social, political, economic, and cultural power. Topics will include: the role of gender in political thought and practice, the intersection of gender with categories of class and race; gender in the debate over slavery and the Civil War; and the rise and evolution of the woman's rights movement.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

28. American Women's History Since 1920 (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 23.2)

06F: 10 08W: 2A

This course will trace the history of American women from 1920 to the 1980s. Topics to be discussed will include: the breakup of the suffrage alliance during the 1920s; women in the radical social movements of the 1930s; women and war work in the 1940s; women in the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s; the 'second wave' of American feminism; institutionalization of feminism in the 1970s; and the rise of an anti-feminist women's movement in the 1980s. The course will also examine the ways gender definitions have changed in the U.S. during this century, and the ways that race and class have shaped American ideas about gender.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Orleck.

29. Women and American Radicalism Left and Right (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 26.1)

07W: 11

This course will trace the involvement of U.S. women in radical political movements from the mid-nineteenth century to the present including: Abolitionism; Anti-lynching; Socialist Trade Unionism; the Ku Klux Klan; the Communist Party; the National Welfare Rights Organization; the Civil Rights Movement; the New Left; the New Right; the direct-action wing of the anti-abortion movement; Earth First; and the neo-nazi American Front. It will also examine the relationship between feminist ideologies and non-gender-specific radical political ideologies centered on race, class, and other social identifiers.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: CI. Orleck.

30. American Economic and Business History

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This lecture course examines the history of the American economy and business institutions. Topics include the colonial origins of American capitalism; the slave economy; regional specialization and uneven development; the significance of the railroads, electrical power, and the automobile; big business and its impact on markets and work life; mass consumer culture; the military-industrial-university complex; and long-term trends in the distribution of wealth and poverty.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

31. Latinos in the United States: Origins and Histories

08S: 10A

An examination of the diverse social, economic, political, and cultural histories of those who are now commonly identified as Latinos in the United States. Particular emphasis will be placed on the formative historical experiences of Chicanos and mainland Puerto Ricans, although some consideration will also be given to the histories of other Latino groups-e.g., Central Americans, Cubans, and Dominicans. Topics include cultural and geographic origins and ties; imperialism and colonization; the economics of migration; work, women, and the family; racism and other forms of discrimination; the politics of identity; language and popular culture; and the place of Latinos in the U.S. society.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

32. Asians in the Americas to 1905

07S: 10 08W: 2

(Description pending faculty approval) This course traces migrations from China, the Philippines, South Asia, Japan, and Korea to the Americas and Hawai'i as well as U.S. colonial policies in Hawai'i, Guam, Samoa, and the Philippines through 1905. Major themes include labor migration, immigrant exclusion, racialization, anti-Asian violence, and urban ethnic enclave formation. Throughout, we will attend to differences and similarities in the political and social statuses of these groups, as well as their unique gender and class dynamics.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Kim.

33. Asian America in the Twentieth Century

08S: 11

(Description pending faculty approval) The U.S. held different meanings for people from China, the Philippines, Korea, Japan, India, and Southeast Asia during the twentieth century when they arrived as colonial labor migrants; subjects of a nascent Japanese empire, refugees, orphans, and war brides displaced by U.S. militarism; or as exiles challenging imperialism or corrupt regimes in their homelands. In the U.S., they fought against discrimination, pursued civil rights, and settled. We compare and contrast these experiences in their course.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

34. Building America: An Architectural and Social History (Identical to Art History 52)

06F: 11

This course draws upon recent scholarship in anthropology, archaeology, material culture, social history and architectural history in its review of five centuries of American architecture. Course lectures not only emphasize America's principal architects and their designs, but also summarize the social and cultural forces that shaped the country's built landscape. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Heck.

35. The Creation of 'America' in the Age of Jefferson

07W: 11

The years between the close of the American Revolution and the start of the Age of Jackson have been described as the "most neglected, if not the most despised period of American history." Without the drama of the Revolutionary years or the ominous tension of the Civil War's approach, the Early Republic has been seen as a dull interval between the country's defining events. Now, new methods in the study of American history have completely changed the way we understand the period. This course will focus on the seminal task of nation building, when distinctively American political parties, cities and villages, gender roles, educational systems, decorative arts, cultural institutions, attitudes toward Native peoples, architecture and economic policies took form. Thomas Jefferson actively shaped the debates over these issues, and he serves as the pivotal figure in our study of the formation of a new and specifically American culture in the Early Republican period.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heck.

36. Health Care in American Society: History and Current Issues

06F: 12

This course is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of critical issues in health care through the study of the historical development of the United States health care system. The course illuminates the influence of historical forces and cultural factors on the delivery of health care and on the discourse about health care reform in American history. By studying the components and relationships within the American health care system, students are enabled to acquire an understanding of the relationship between American history and the health care system, and also enabled to obtain a working contextual knowledge of the current problems of the American health care system and their proposed solutions. Each topic is presented from an historical perspective. Through an historical investigation of health, disease, and medicine students should be able to understand and discuss the changing organization of health care delivery in American history, the changing methods of financing of health care, the distinctive role of technology in health care, primary ethical issues in health care, comparative features of health care systems of other cultures, the historical changes in public health precepts, images of health care in popular culture, and the process of health care reform in American history.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Koop.

37. The Black Radical Tradition in America

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Throughout the history of the United States, African Americans have offered alternative visions of their nation's future and alternative definitions of their nation's progress. Not limited to reforming the worst social ills, these discourses have called for a fundamental restructuring of our political, economic, and social relations. A radical tradition provided the intellectual continuity and ideological coherence of these critiques, and it allowed African Americans to cultivate and pass on a legacy of social resistance.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

39. Slave Resistance in the United States (Identical to African and African-American Studies 17)

06F, 08W: 12

In this class we will analyze the multifaceted nature of one significant aspect of the "peculiar institution"-slave resistance. We will discuss how scholars have portrayed and theorized about slave resistance, as well as its relation to social control. In addition, we will examine the various pathways of resistance of African/African-American slaves. Because of the dynamic nature of slave resistance, we will approach this subject matter utilizing a variety of primary and secondary sources. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Naylor.

SECTION III: EUROPE

40. Foreign Study Program: London in History

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

Graded credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed a course on London and British history at University College London, while a member of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in History.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Ermarth.

41. Foreign Study Program: History Through Film

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

Using London's unmatched documentary film archives and filmic resources, this course focuses on the representation and reflection of European historical events and life in the period between 1930 and 1950. Lectures, discussions, and viewing assignments explore the strengths and limitations of filmic records as a historical tool, analyzing film both as visual document and aspect of public opinion.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Ermarth.

42. Gender and European Society from Antiquity to the Reformation (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 22.1)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course examines the roles of women and men in Western Europe from Antiquity through the Reformation period. Emphasis will be placed on the intellectual and social structures that had a long-term effect on the concept and role of gender in European society. Topics included are biological and mythological foundations of gender concepts, attitudes toward the body and sex in pre-Christian and Christian culture, sin and ecclesiastical legislation on sex and marriage, family life and education, the individual and kinship, heresy and charismatic religion, and the impact of social-economic development on gender in professional life. We will discuss the textual and visual sources for our inquiry, as well as the changing contemporary views on gender roles in pre-industrial Europe.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: CI.

43. European Intellectual and Cultural History, 400-1300

07W, 08W: 10

A course on the intellectual and cultural origins of European civilization, from the fall of Rome to the advent of the Renaissance. After a review of the Judeo-Christian, Greco-Roman, Celtic, and Germanic components of medieval culture, we will examine the rise of the Christian Church and its impact on values and behavior of Europeans during the middle ages. Of special interest will be the relationship between medieval thinkers and the society in which they lived, the role of ritual, ceremony, and magic, and the persistence of heresy. Along with the products of high culture associated with such intellectuals as Augustine, Peter Abelard, Hildegard of Bingen, and Thomas Aquinas, we will thus review the fundamental values of medieval society at large and explore ways in which popular and elite culture converged or contrasted.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Simons.

44. Medieval France, 400-1494

08W: 12

The course traces the medieval foundations of the French nation, from the Roman Era to the end of the fifteenth century, with emphasis on institutional, social, and cultural development. Topics include: the Merovingian origins of 'France,' the construction and impact of feudal relationships, the emergence of French vernacular culture, regional diversity within centralized rule, and the formation of a French national identity. In addition we will examine how French medieval history became a testing-ground for innovative research on the Middle Ages, and to what extent these views have changed our concept of medieval France in the last decades.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

45. Early Modern Europe (1300-1650)

07X: 10

A study of Western Europe's transition from medieval to modern times, tracing the impact of new forces on traditional structures. Among the topics covered are Italian culture and society in the 14th-15th centuries; the concept of the Renaissance; intellectual and religious themes of the Reformation; the emergence of the basic forms of the modern state; developments in warfare and international relations; the political and ideological polarization of Europe after Luther; the 'general crisis' of the mid-17th century.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Lagomarsino.

46. Spain in the Golden Age

07W: 11

The course deals with the unification of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella, its rise to world primacy in the sixteenth century, and its decline in the seventeenth. Among topics examined are the development of a system of imperial government, the impact on Spain of colonial empire, the problems of multi-cultural society within the Iberian peninsula, the struggle against heresy, and the political challenges of the great European powers.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Lagomarsino.

47. The French Revolution and Napoleon

07S: 10 08S: 11

The course studies the French Revolution and its implications for Europe and the world. It considers the social, political and ideological causes of the Revolution in 1789 and then pays close attention to the successive stages of revolution from the experiment with constitutional monarchy to the radical republic and the Terror to Napoleon's popular dictatorship. The revolutionary wars, the development of democratic and nationalist ideology and their spread beyond France and beyond Europe, and also beyond elite men to peasants, city workers, Blacks and women are important themes.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Darrow.

48. European Society in the Industrial Age

06F: 10

This course traces the transformation of Western European society through the industrial period from the mid-18th century to the mid-20th century. Focusing upon social class and gender, it examines how economic and social change intertwined to produce the world's first industrial societies. Work, family, leisure and nationalism are topics of specific attention. Although the course deals primarily with the core societies of Western Europe-France, Germany and Great Britain-it provides the opportunity for student research in other areas such as Italy, Ireland, Spain and Eastern Europe.

Open to all students. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI. Darrow.

49. Early Modern England, 1485-1780

06F: 10 07F: 2

This course explores the relationships among economic, social, cultural and political developments in England during the Tudor, Stuart, and Hanoverian periods. Topics for discussion include: family and gender; village and city life; religious reformation and the reformation of government; the Elizabethan renaissance; responses to poverty, crime, and nonconformity; the development of political parties; the British enlightenment; commercialization and consumerism; the interaction of 'plebeians' and 'patricians'; rebellions and civil wars; and radicalism, conservatism, and imperialism.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

50. Modern Britain, 1780 to Present

07S: 10 08S: 2

This course explores the relationships among economic, social, cultural and political developments in Britain from the modern industrial revolution to Thatcherism and New Labour. Topics for discussion include: industrialization and its effects; Liberals, Conservatives, and Parliamentary politics; enduring Victorian attitudes about class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, and race; the rise of Labour politics; suffragism; the Irish question; the impact of imperialism and world wars on British subjects; and responses to Britain's postwar decline and post-colonial multiculturalism.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

51. Modern European Intellectual History, the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

08S: 9

This course treats the ideas of selected major European thinkers and their interpreters in a broader historical context. The thought of the early Enlightenment, the Encyclopedists, Rousseau, Kant, Adam Smith, Burke, Hegel, de Stäel, Comte, Marx, Mill, Darwin, and Nietzsche is examined with attention to formative impulses and general impact. Recurrent topics to be discussed include subjectivity and the social world, nature and history as forms of intelligibility and sources of norm and meaning, the relation of theory and practice, criticism and tradition, the nature and scope of science, and the motifs of immanence and transcendence. The counterpoint to differing conceptions of 'being, knowing, doing, and having' is provided by changing patterns in European society.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

52. Modern Germany: 1800-1945

08S: 12

An examination of modern German history focusing on decisive turning points and broader social, political, and cultural currents. Specific topics to be treated include the legacy of the French Revolution and Napoleonic occupation, German "awakening," the revolutions of 1848, Bismarckian unification and Prussian preponderance, the emergence of mass-movements, the origins and impact of the First World War, the diversity and promise of the Weimar republic, and the rise and fall of Nazi Germany.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

53. Europe in the Twentieth Century (renumbered 65)

54. The Russian Empire

08S: 10

After a review of Kievan and Muscovite antecedents, the course surveys the history of Russia from the Time of Troubles to the beginning of the twentieth century. Special emphasis will be placed on the role of the Russian autocrat, on the institution of serfdom, and the development of the 19th century intelligentsia. Intended to precede, but not prerequisite to, History 55.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

55. The Russian Revolutions and the New Regime

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Following an introductory survey of the social and political problems confronting Imperial Russia, the course concentrates on the causes and processes underlying the Revolutions of 1905 and 1917, the development of Marxism-Leninism, and the eventual establishment and consolidation of the new Soviet Regime.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

56. Twentieth-Century Russia

07X: 9

An examination of major developments and problems in twentieth century Russian history with particular attention to the consequences of the October Revolution, Leninism, civil war and its impact, politics and society during the New Economic Policy of the 1920s, the formation of the Stalinist system and its historical legacy, the Krushchev era, the Brezhnev years of "stagnation," Gorbachev's perestroika and the problems of transition to a law based on democratic and open market system of the Russian Federation, the successor state to the Soviet Union.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Whelan.

57. Scientific Revolutions and Modern Society

07F: 12

An introduction to major revolutions in Western science since 1700, focusing on changing definitions of science; on political and religious implications of scientific theories; and on the effect of national contexts on scientific practice. Topics include Newton and Newtonianism in the 18th century, the Darwinian Revolution, Einstein and the birth of modern physics, and science under 'banners' in revolutionary France, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Russia.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: SOC; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

58. History of the Holocaust (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 37.1)

07W: 2A

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heschel.

59. History of Warfare

07X: 11

This course examines the relationship between warfare and the way society has developed in the past. Primary emphasis will be placed on the evolution of Western society, showing how political, economic, social and technological developments governed the decisions achieved in war and vice versa. Warfare is a cultural activity and the story of war looms large in the history of western civilization. Topics will include human aggressiveness, the origins of organized conflict, violence limitations and just war theories, bronze and iron warfare, Greek hoplite warfare, Alexander the Great, the Roman legions, the Chinese way of war, barbarian kingdoms, feudal warfare, the crusades and the Mongols, the military revolution, limited warfare during the Age of Reason, the French Revolution and Napoleon, Nineteenth-Century warfare, the commercialization and industrialization of war, World War I and II.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Whelan.

60. "A Nation Once Again": Ireland, 1798-1923

07F: 12

This course will focus on Irish history, from the ill-fated Uprising of 1798 to the emergence of the Irish Free State in the early 1920s. Major themes will include: the making of the Protestant Ascendancy; agrarian protest in pre-Famine Ireland; the Great Famine and its consequences; the rise of a new Irish nationalism and revitalized Catholic Church; and the struggle for independence that culminated in the achievement of a truncated and quasi-independent "Free State".

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

61. Britain and the Atlantic World, 1480-1780

08S: 2A

This course focuses on Atlantic society, economy, politics and culture shaped by the nature of maritime life in early modern times. Topics include: British voyages of trans-Atlantic exploration; the effects of trans-Atlantic contacts on communal life and settlement patterns; navies, merchant seamen, and pirates; the slave trade; life in port towns and coastal villages; the lore and creative traditions of Anglo-American maritime culture; and the impact of European competition on the British vision of an Anglo-Atlantic world.

Open to all students. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W.

62. The First World War

06F: 12 07F: 9

The First World War was fought in Europe for the most part but it involved belligerents from every continent and had global effects, many of which bedevil our world today. This course introduces you to the vast subject of what the British still call The Great War, its causes, combat, homefronts and far-reaching consequences as well as to some of the unresolved questions that continue to propel our research.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Darrow.

63. History of Recent Science and Technology

08S: 10A

This course will consider selected case studies of scientific and technological work since 1960, using analytical tools from science studies, historical sociology, philosophy of science and gender studies. Participants will read classic books deploying these tools, and then will research and present their own case studies on topics such as the development of the personal computer, invention of the "abortion pill" RU-486, or disposal of high level nuclear waste.

Open to all classes. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

64. Modern Europe: The Enlightenment Through World War I

07S, 08S: 9

An examination of the major political, social, economic and cultural developments in Europe from the early eighteenth century through the First World War. In this crucial period of world history, Europe generated the Enlightenment, constitutional democracy, industrial capitalism, advanced technology and global imperialism. Topics include: political revolutions in France, the Germanies and Russia; the industrial revolution and its consequences; liberalism, nationalism and imperialism, the rise of socialism and world wars over the course of two centuries.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

65. Modern Europe: The Twentieth Century (formerly History 53)

07S: 12

An examination of major political, social, economic, and cultural developments in twentieth century Europe. Topics to be treated include the impact of the World Wars and Cold War, the Great Depression, the growth of totalitarianism, the recession and integration of Europe. A subsidiary focus of the course will be the perspective taken on these developments by some major European thinkers.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W. Koop.

SECTION IV: LATIN AMERICA, AFRICA, AND ASIA

66. History of Africa since 1800 (Identical to African and African American Studies 15)

06F: 11

This course explores some of the major historical processes unfolding in Africa since 1800. Our analysis will focus on social and economic history as we examine Africa's integration into the international economy during the nineteenth century, the rise of new social classes, and the creation of the colonial state. Our primary examples will be drawn from east and west Africa to highlight both the similarities and differences of their historical development.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

67. The History of Modern South Africa (Identical to African and African American Studies 46)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

After an initial overview of colonialism in Africa, this course will concentrate on Southern Africa, with special emphasis on the historical development, effects, and implications of the racial situation in the Republic of South Africa. Readings will be drawn from primary and secondary materials and from works of fiction. Illustrative films will be shown, and some opportunity offered to compare the history of race relations in South Africa with that in other African countries and in the United States.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

68. Nationalism and Decolonization in Modern Africa (Identical to African and African American Studies 48)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Focusing on selected case studies, this course compares African intellectual, social, political, and military responses to colonialism, the growth of nationalism, and the problems of decolonization.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

69. History and Popular Culture in Africa (Identical to African and African American Studies 18)

07X: 10A

This course uses a multidisciplinary approach to explore the complex relationship between history and popular culture in several African countries. Examining old as well as new forms of popular culture, we will explore the ways in which artists, writers, film makers and musicians use moments of great historical significance or key historical actors as aof departure for critique and reflection on the present. Examples will be taken from east, west and southern Africa.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

70. Topics in Middle East History

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

History of the Middle East, 1258-1914. This course will survey the history of the Ottoman Empire and Safavid-Qajar Iran. Emphasis will be placed on political, social, and cultural history, and comparisons will be made between the two empires. Finally, their various responses to Western Europe from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries will be examined.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

History of the Middle East, 622 to 1258. Following a brief treatment of pre-Islamic Middle Eastern history, the course will focus on Muhammad and the rise of Islam, the caliphate and the Turkic-Mongol invasions. In additional Islamic institutions and the nature of society and its culture will be studied.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

71. Social History of the Contemporary Middle East

06F: 11 08W: 12

Not since the seventh century and the rise of Islam has the Middle East experienced such profound change as caused by the western impact in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This course, set primarily in the post-World War I period, will examine the scope of this change and its impact on society and traditional values and various Middle Eastern responses. Although the course will center on Turkey, Egypt, and Iran, it will include Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and Israel as well. Readings will include primary sources and literature available in translation.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

72. Imperial China in a Global Context

08W: 10A

China's history, from the 3rd century BCE to the twentieth century, examined in the context of global developments in demography, economy, urbanization, technology, trade, and the arts.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

73. Early Chinese Culture (Identical to Chinese 62)

08S: 2A

A survey of early Chinese culture. The literary tradition will be taken as the primary evidence in the reconstruction and students will read early Chinese poetry and historical texts in translation. This tradition will then be examined in the light of new evidence from archaeological excavations concerning the material culture of ancient China and from ancient inscriptions. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

74. Intellectual History of East Asia

07W, 08W: 2A

A comparative exploration of Chinese and Japanese thought, from the formation of Confucianism in the Warring States period to the confrontation between traditional thought andimported ideologies of the twentieth centuries. In writing assignments, students may concentrate upon either Chinese or Japanese topics.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: NW. Crossley.

75. The Environmental History of South and Southeast Asia

07W: 12 08W: 10

This course provides an overview of the patterns of historical interaction between humans and their environment in South and Southeast Asia. The course will address: 1) the ways in which different kinds of communities coped with and affected the environment before 1800; 2) how colonialism and the expansion of industrial capitalism altered human-environment relations during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; 3) the environmental impact of "development" and the emergence of environmental movements in post-colonial South and Southeast Asia.

Open to all students. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Haynes.

76. The History of Modern India

07W, 08S: 10

This course examines the history of South Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Themes of the course include the development of British imperialism, the impact of colonial rule on Indian rural society and economy, processes of cultural change, the development of nationalism, the historical role of Gandhi, the emergence of Hindu-Muslim conflict, and the character of post-colonial South Asia.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Haynes.

77. Imperialism in Modern East Asia

07S: 10A

An examination of Western and Japanese imperialism in East Asia from the Opium War to the Pacific War. Subjects to be treated include the imposition of unequal treaties, the "scramble for concessions" in China, the creation of Japan's formal and informal empires, and the rise and fall of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR or INT; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: NW. Ericson.

79. Postwar Japan: From Occupied Nation to Economic Superpower

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course examines the internal and external forces that have shaped Japan's government, economy, and society since 1945. Topics to be treated include American Occupation reforms, the conservative hegemony in politics, rapid economic growth and its costs, the mass middle-class society, and Japan's changing world role.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

82. Popular Struggle, Political Change and U.S. Intervention in Central America

08S: 2A

This course will explore the history of popular struggles, political change and U.S. intervention in Central America. The region's rich and complex history has been marked both by repressive dictatorships and by struggles for national liberation, social justice and indigenous rights. We will look at the different factors that played a part in determining this history including commodity production, labor systems, U.S. foreign policy, race relations, liberation theology and revolution.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

83. Twentieth-Century Latin America

07S: 12 08S: 11

This course seeks to address major issues in twentieth century Latin America through the history of three or four countries. Topics discussed will include development, imperialism, nationalism, revolution, state formation and violence.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Karl.

85. Plantations, Sugar and Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (Identical to African and African American Studies 64)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will examine the social, economic and cultural history of African slavery in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Topics to be discussed will include: slavery, sugar production and underdevelopment; the Atlantic slave trade; gender, race and hierarchy in the world of the sugar plantation; resistance to slavery; the abolition of slavery and the legacies of slavery.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

86. Caribbean History (Identical to African and African American Studies 23)

06F: 2

This course explores some of the issues that have profoundly shaped Caribbean development from the fifteenth century to the present. It begins with an examination of Amerindian society and explores the impact of European colonization. However, much of our attention will focus on the development of the plantation economy, slavery, post-emancipation and post-colonial society. Our readings and discussions draw largely on three islands-Jamaica, Haiti and Cuba-but there will be opportunities to examine other islands.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

87. The History of Mexico, 1876 to the Present (Identical to Latin American and Caribbean Studies 76)

08W: 11

From the Porfiriato and the Revolution to the present, a survey of Mexican society and politics, with emphasis on the connections between economic developments, social justice, and political organization. Topics include fin de siècle modernization and the agrarian problem; causes and consequences of the Revolution of 1910; the making of the modern Mexican State; relations with the United States; industrialism and land reform; urbanization and migration; ethnicity, culture, and nationalism; neoliberalism and social inequality; the problems of political reform; and the zapatista rebellion in Chiapas.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

SECTION V: INTERREGIONAL

94.2. Science, Technology and Culture in the Nuclear Age

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

An examination of the social, political and cultural dimensions of nuclear technology from the discovery of fission in 1938 through the 1980s. We will consider how contexts and politics shaped the development of nuclear weapons and power reactors, and howtechnologies in turn affected politics and culture. Topics include efforts in Germany, USA, USSR, Japan and England to build fission weapons during World War II; Hiroshima and Nagasaki in American and Japanese memory; the arms race, atomic scientists and the Cold War; the nuclear power industry in international comparison; living in and resisting the Nuclear Age; literary and film representations of the Nuclear Age; and the impact of the Nuclear Age on the development of science and technology since 1945.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU or NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

94.3. Greek History: Archaic and Classical Greece (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 14)

06F, 07F: 12

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Christesen.

94.4. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Kings (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 15)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

94.5. Roman History: The Republic (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 17)

07W: 12

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Stewart.

94.6. History of the Roman Empire: Roman Principate to Christian Empire (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 18)

08W: 12

Dist: INT or SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

94.7. Methods and Theory in Ancient History (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 19)

08W: 10A

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

94.8. History and Culture of the Jews: The Classical Period (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 10)

06F: 10 07X: 11

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Karp.

94.9. History and Culture of the Jews: The Modern Period (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 11)

08W: 11

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heschel.

SECTION VI: COLLOQUIA IN HISTORY

95. The Mongols

06F: 2A

Primarily centered on the empire of the Great Khans, the Ilkhans in Persia and the Yuan dynasty in China, this course analyzes the phenomenon of the Mongolian conquests and state building from the perspective both of the cultural and political history of the Eurasian steppe, and from the perspective of world economic, cultural, and political development in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Crossley.

95. Anthropology and History (Identical to, and described under, Anthropology 49)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Dist: SOC.

95. Ethiopia and Ethiopianism (Identical to African and African American Studies 63)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Ethiopia, which traces its history to the ancient kingdom of Axum that emerged in the first century A.D., was one of only two African states to retain its autonomy following Europe's division of African states and societies into colonial estates. Ethiopia became a symbol of African achievement, while its independence was a beacon of hope for colonized Africans as well as Africans in the diaspora. Ethiopianism, a complex array of cultural, religious, and political movements, used Ethiopia as part of a larger lexicon of symbols to critique and challenge their subjugation. This course examines Ethiopia's history and culture as well as its intersection and divergence from Ethiopianism that developed in South Africa, the United States and Jamaica.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

95. Marriage and Divorce in the African Context (Identical to Women and Gender Studies 25.1)

07S: 10A

Marriage was the widely expected norm for men and women within African societies. The institution was an important marker of adulthood and it linked individuals and lineages in a network of mutual cooperation and support. This course explores marriage and divorce from the pre-colonial to the post-colonial eras. Using examples from East, West and Southern Africa, it highlights women's agency, masculinity, and changing gender relations of power as the political economies of African societies transformed.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

95. Black Atlantic/Green Atlantic: Irish and African Diaspora Nationalism(s), 1845-1925

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

In this colloquium, we will interrogate the complex and ever-changing meanings of terms such as "nation," "race," and "diaspora," in a multinational, and "Atlantic World," setting. The focal points of our study will include Ireland, Great Britain, the United States, the islands of the Anglophone Caribbean, and Africa. But our main focus will be Irish and African Diaspora nationalism(s), from the nineteenth to the early twentieth century.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU or NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: INT; WCult: W.

95. Advanced Topics on Holocaust Historiography (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 80)

07W: 3A

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heschel.

SECTION VII: SEMINARS

96. Seminars in History

Open with written permission of the instructor to juniors and seniors. The following seminars will be offered in 2006-2007. For details concerning individual seminars consult the Department. Section numbers follow the decimals.

96.1 Race, Ethnicity and Immigration in U.S. History

06F: 2. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: CI. Orleck.

96.2 The Great Depression

06F: 10A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR or INT; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W. Edsforth.

96.2 Topics in British History

06F: 11. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

96.3 The Arab-Israeli Conflict

06F: 2A. Dist: INT; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

96.1 American Odysseys: Lewis and Clark, Indian Country, and the New Nation (Identical to Native American Studies 81)

07W: 2A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Calloway.

96.2 Personal Narratives in the Age of the American Revolution

07W: 2A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Cullon.

96.3 Topics in Medieval History

07W: 10A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Simons.

96.4 Empires, Imperialism and the United States

07W: 3A. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

96.5 Europe since World War II

07W: 2A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Koop.

96.1 Topics in Modern French Politics and Culture

07S: 10A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Darrow.

96.2 World War II

07S: 3A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist:

WCult: W. Whelan.

96.3 Topics in Modern Japanese History

07S: Arrange. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Ericson.

96.4 Bondage and Freedom in Narratives of Slaves

07S: 3A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Naylor.

SECTION VIII: INDEPENDENT STUDY AND HONORS

97. Independent Study

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P. Independent Field Project

In consultation with members of the Dartmouth faculty, each student will design and carry out an independent project which makes use of London's unique research opportunities. The project may relate to any aspect of British, European, and World History.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Ermarth.

All terms: Arrange. Independent Study and Research

This course offers an opportunity for a student to pursue some subject of special interest under the direction of a member of the Department through a specially designed program of readings and reports.

Open to qualified students with written permission of the instructor and the Chair.

98. Honors Seminar

06F, 07F: Arrange

The focus of the seminar is historiographic and great emphasis will be placed on the skills needed to write a research thesis in History. This course does not fulfill the seminar requirement of the Major and it may be taken only once. Simons.

99. Thesis

07W, 07S, 08W, 08S: Arrange

This course involves an extensive investigation of some topic and submission of an bound undergraduate thesis by the designated deadline. Only students enrolled in the Honors Program may take History 99; permission of the instructor and the Chair.

History

Chair: P. David Lagomarsino

Vice-Chair: Margaret H. Darrow

Professors C. G. Calloway, P. K. Crossley, M. H. Darrow, H. M. Ermarth, G. R. Garthwaite, M. Navarro, J. B. Nelson, A. Orleck, L. Spitzer, H. W. Whelan, C. S. Wilder, J. Wright; Associate Professors J. A. Byfield, S. J. Ericson, C. B. Estabrook, D. E. Haynes, R. L. Kremer, P. D. Lagomarsino, W. P. Simons; Assistant Professors L. A. Butler, J. F. Cullon, J. J. Kim, E. G. Miller, C. E. Naylor, T. Padilla; Senior Lecturer M. E. Heck; Visiting Professors R. W. Edsforth, A. V. Koop, H. Lehmann, R. Thapar; Visiting Assistant Professor C. W. Schmidt; Visiting Instructor R. A. Karl; Adjunct Assistant Professor S. A. Culbert.

THE STANDARD HISTORY MAJOR

Requirements:

The Standard Major in History comprises the successful completion of at least ten courses including:

1. One course each from the following areas:

a) United States and Canada: 1, 2, 10-39 (except 26, 31, 32, 33);

b) Europe: 3, 40-65 (except 54, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62);

c) AALAC (Africa, Asia, Latin America & Caribbean): 5.1-5.8, 66-87 (except 5.7, 70, 82, 85);

d) Interregional: 5.7, 26, 31, 32, 33, 54, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 70, 82, 85, 94.1-94.9, and all sections of 95. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the Interregional requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html).

2. At least five additional History courses in a geographic or thematic concentration selected in consultation with a faculty adviser.

3. A culminating experience in the form of an upperclass seminar (History 96) taken in the general area of the proposed geographic or thematic concentration.

4. At least five History courses must be taken in residence at Dartmouth College, one of them being the upperclass seminar (History 96).

5. Among the ten courses required for the Standard Major, each student must include either two pre-1700 courses or three pre-1800 courses. The following courses fulfill the pre-1700 requirement: 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 14, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 54, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). The following courses fulfill the pre-1800 requirement: 1, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the pre-1700 and/or pre-1800 requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html).

Special Provisions

1. History 7 (First-Year Seminar) and History 98 (Honors Seminar) may not be counted toward the major.

2. Students may not include more than two of the following courses: 1, 2 or 3.

3. Students may not use more than two upperclass seminars (History 96) or two independent study courses (History 97) in satisfying the major requirements.

4. Major GPA is figured on all History courses taken.

5. The Department will approve transfer credits for History majors and non-majors only for courses taken at institutions with which Dartmouth College has institutional exchange programs (see pages XXX of this Bulletin).

6. Entering first-year students may receive one unspecified credit for a history course by achieving a score of 5 on the College Entrance Examination Board's Advanced Placement Tests or scores of 6 or 7 on the Higher Level International Baccalaureate (IB) exam. This unspecified credit counts as one course credit toward the degree requirement but receives no credit within the major.

HISTORY HONORS PROGRAM

Potentially eligible students should meet with their adviser to plan for the History Honors Major. History majors who have achieved an overall College grade point average of 3.0 and one of 3.5 in History (based on a minimum of five graded History courses) may apply for admission to the Honors Program through a written proposal submitted in the spring term of their junior year. Others interested in the program should petition the Department for admission by August 15th of the summer term preceding their senior year.

The Honors Program consists of the successful completion of the following requirements:

1. The minimum number of courses required for the Standard Major as specified in (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5) above.

2. In addition to completing the requirements of the Standard Major, honors majors must complete the Honors Seminar (History 98) in the fall term of their senior year and a thesis (History 99), normally written in the winter and spring terms. History 98 counts as one course credit toward the degree requirement but receives no credit within the major. History 99 may carry up to two credits toward the degree requirement but counts as only one credit toward the Honors Major requirement.

Special Provisions, described under the Standard Major, also apply to the History Honors Program.

THE MODIFIED MAJOR

A Modified Major will be approved only if the student provides a convincing written rationale for the intellectual coherence of the proposed program; this should then be discussed with, approved, and signed by the chairs of the two departments and filed with both departments and the Registrar's Office.

The Modified Major consists of the successful completion of twelve courses, eight of them in History:

1. The minimum number of courses required for the Standard Major as specified in (1) above.

2. At least three additional courses in a geographic or thematic concentration selected in consultation with a faculty adviser.

3. A culminating experience in the form of an upperclass seminar (History 96) taken in the general area of the proposed geographic or thematic concentration.

4. Among the eight History courses required for the Modified Major, each student must include two pre-1800 courses. The following courses fulfill the pre-1800 requirement: 1, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the pre-1700 and/or pre-1800 requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement.

5. Four courses from other departments. None of these may be prerequisite to the major of another department.

Special Provisions, described under the Standard Major, also apply to the Modified Major.

MINOR IN HISTORY

The minor in History consists of the successful completion of seven courses:

1. Minimum number of courses required for the Standard Major as specified in (1) above.

2. At least two additional courses in a geographic or thematic concentration selected in consultation with a faculty adviser.

3. A culminating experience in the form of an upperclass seminar (History 96) taken in the general area of the proposed geographic or thematic concentration.

4. Among the seven courses required for the Minor in History, each student must include two pre-1800 courses. The following courses fulfill the pre-1800 requirement: 1, 3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 27, 34, 35, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 54, 55, 57, 59, 61, 70, 72, 73, 74, 94.3-94.8, 95 (specifically The Mongols and Scientific Worldviews in Antiquity and the Middle Ages). All other courses fulfill the post-1800 requirement. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the pre-1700 and/or pre-1800 requirement, please see Calendar of Courses on the History Department's website (https://www.dartmouth.edu/~history/calendar.html).

Special Provisions, described under the Standard Major, apply to the Minor.

SECTION I: INTRODUCTORY COURSES

1. The United States, 1763-1877

06F: 10 07X, 08W: 10A

An introduction to selected problems of national development in the period beginning with the American Revolution and ending with the Civil War and Reconstruction. Emphasis is placed on the critical assessment of historical writing and the interpretation of historical documents. There are no general course lectures; each student is assigned to a section which works under a single staff member. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

2. History of the United States since 1877

07W: 12 07X: 9 07F: 12 08W: 9

History 2 carries forward the study of national development from 1877, but History 1 is not prerequisite. The course treats such issues as industrialization and its impact; changes in political behavior, ideology, and the American party system; the Black American and the consequences of racism; origins of the Cold War; and the emergence of modern welfare programs. Each student is assigned to a small section which meets with a History faculty member, but section meetings are occasionally supplemented with special lectures, films, or symposia. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Kim, Miller.

3. Europe in Medieval and Early Modern Times

06F, 07F: 9

Emphasizing the analysis of primary sources, this course examines the foundation of Western European civilization from the fall of the Roman Empire to 1715. Topics include the origins of European nation states, the intellectual and cultural achievements of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the rise of constitutionalism and absolutism, the economic and technological roots of Europe's global dominance, as well as the social, political, and religious crises that divided the continent. Lectures and small discussion groups. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Lagomarsino, Simons.

5.1. Pre-Colonial African History (Identical to African and African American Studies 14)

08S: 11

This course will examine the social and economic history of Africa up to 1800. It will focus on several interrelated themes-the organization of production for subsistence and for the market, the expansion of trade, rise of new social classes, as well as the emergence and disintegration of various states. The readings will draw on specific examples from north, east, west and southern Africa to illuminate the various themes.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

5.2. The Eye of the Beholder: Introduction to the Islamic World (Identical to Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 14)

07W, 08W: 10

This course provides an introduction to the range of Islamic history through an examination of the lives and works of key figures. The following topics, among others, will be examined: political and social change, Muhammad and Ataturk; mysticism, Rabia and Rumi; literature, Hafez and Hedayat.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

5.3. The History of China since 1800

06F: 10A 07F: 11

This survey course traces China's social, political, and cultural development from the relative peace and prosperity of the high Qing period, through the devastating wars and imperialist incursions of the nineteenth century, to the efforts, both vain and fruitful, to build an independent and powerful new nation.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Crossley.

5.4. Modern Southeast Asia

07S: 10 08W: 12

This course introduces students to the history of Southeast Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It will examine the development of colonial rule, the impact of imperialism and colonialism on Southeast Asian society and economy, cultural adaptations to foreign rule, nationalism and revolution, and problems of decolonization. Special attention will be paid to the history of the Vietnamese revolution.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Haynes.

5.5. The Emergence of Modern Japan

06F, 07F: 10A

A survey of Japanese history from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Topics to be covered include the building of a modern state and the growth of political opposition, industrialization and its social consequences, the rise and fall of the Japanese colonial empire, and the postwar economic 'miracle.'

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Ericson.

5.6. Pre-Columbian and Colonial America (Identical to Latin American and Caribbean Studies 10)

07S: 10 07F: 11

This course will examine the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Andes and Mesoamerica, the causes and consequences of the Spanish and Portuguese Conquests, and the establishment of colonial societies and economies.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Karl.

6. Experimental Courses in History

06F: 12, 3A 07W: 2, 2A 07S: 10A 07X: 2A 08W: 10A

In 06F at 12 (Section 1), Blacks and Jews in American History and Culture (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 33). Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Karp.

In 06F at 3A (Section 2), The Perception of the Past in Early India. Contemporary politicians supporting an agenda of religious nationalism in India attempt to control the present and future by manipulating the interpretation of India's ancient history. Mindful of that contemporary and contentious debate, this course examines histories relating to South Asia during the period 1000 BCE-1200 CE. Texts are selected to reflect the ways the past was perceived at various points of time within this period-as well as today-and to offer an understanding of the sub-continent's historical changes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Thapar.

In 07W at 2A (Section 1), The Origins and History of the World Peace Movement. This course examines the growth and transformation of the nineteenth-century trans-Atlantic peace movement into what is now an unprecedented global peace culture. Readings and discussions focus especially on issues of war and human nature, delegitimization of war as a political instrument, anti-war movements, resolutions of armed conflicts, and the rise of non-violent politics between and within states. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Edsforth.

In 07W at 2 (Section 2), The Arab World in the Twentieth Century. This course will examine modern Arab history. Earlier nineteenth century history will be examined before turning to twentieth century Arab nationalism; the Arab world in global history; the formation and maintenance of new states; regional rivalries and war; Palestine; and modernization, along with social-particularly that of women-cultural, and religious changes, including the emergence of Islamism. Course reading encompasses general histories and primary sources, literature and memoirs in translation. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

In 07S at 10A, Epidemics in History: Etiologies and Ideologies. This course examines how epidemics are designated, how diseases spread, and different political and public responses to community health. We will explore how diseases and differential immunities become articulated to social identities to signify putative boundaries of morality and to shape uneven political arrangements. While attending to earlier precedents, we will focus on nineteenth- and twentieth-century epidemics using both scientific and discursive analytical methods. Case studies include tuberculosis, plague, influenza, polio, malnutrition, AIDS, and SARS. Kim.

In 07X at 2A, Metropolis: A Comparative History of New York City. "It had gone by the original Indian name Manna-hatta, or. . . 'The Manhattoes;' but this was now decried as savage and heathenish. . . . At length, when the council was almost in despair, a burgher, remarkable for the size and squareness of his head, proposed that they should call it New-Amsterdam," joked Washington Irving in 1808. This class uses a comparative approach to explore the physical and social histories of New York City. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Wilder.

In 08W at 10A, American Jewish History (Identical to Jewish Studies 33, pending approval). This course will explore the history of Jews in the United States from the 1830s to the present. We will trace the migration of German and East European Jews in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and of Holocaust survivors and Soviet Jewish émigrés in the mid-to-late twentieth century. Other topics will include Yiddish culture and media, Jews and the American Left, Jews and the rise of neo-conservatism, and inter-group relations.

7. First-Year Seminars in History

Consult special listings

SECTION II: UNITED STATES AND CANADA

10. Colonial America

06F: 2

A study of the foundations of American civilization. Attention is focused on the ways in which new world conditions influenced the peoples, ideas, and institutions transplanted from Europe. The course also includes material on the ways in which Europeans interacted with Native Americans and Africans in the New World.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

11. The Age of the American Revolution

07S: 11 08S: 2A

This course begins with an examination of relations between England and its American Colonies in the middle of the eighteenth century. It deals with the collapse of British authority in America, emphasizing the social and intellectual sources of rebellion. Treatment of the war years focuses more on the problem of political and economic adjustment than on military history. The final topic covered is the adoption of a federal Constitution.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

12. The American Civil War

07W: 12

The American Civil War was a defining moment in American history. This course examines the causes of the conflict, the war itself, and the period of Reconstruction up to 1877. Topics to be discussed include the diplomatic conduct of the war, political developments in both the north and the south, military developments, the question of race and slavery, emancipation, the participation of African Americans in the war, the women's rights movement and the involvement of women in the war, and medical advances. The social and economic aspects of the war will receive as much emphasis as military and political developments.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Culbert.

13. History of New England

07S: 2

The course focuses primarily on developments within New England but involves some discussion of the region's historical relationship with the rest of the United States and with Canada. Specific topics include the logic of regionalism, the origins of the six New England states, town founding, the dynamics of economic change, immigration and ethnicity, education (both public and private), regional literature, historic preservation, and patterns of community development. The course covers the entire history of the region and concludes with a section on 'New England Today.'

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Cullon.

14. The Invasion of America: American Indian History, Pre-Contact to 1830 (Identical to Native American Studies 14)

06F: 11 07F: 10

This course surveys the history of the American Indians from contact with Europeans to c. 1830. It provides an overview of the major themes and trends in Indian history, supplemented by case studies from a number of regions and readings that illuminate particular issues. The overall context of the course is the conflict generated by the colonial drive of European nations and the U.S. and their citizens, but the primary focus is the historical experience of Indian peoples and their struggles to retain their cultures and autonomy while adapting to great changes in the conditions of their lives.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Calloway.

15. American Indian History: 1830 to Present (Identical to Native American Studies 15)

07S: 11 08S: 10

This course surveys the history of the American Indians from the year 1830 to the present day. It provides an overview of the major themes and trends in Indian history, supplemented by case studies from a number of regions and readings that illuminate particular issues. The overall context of the course is the expansion of the U.S., the 'Indian policies' adopted by the U.S. government, but the primary focus is the historical experience of Indian peoples and their struggles to retain the cultures and autonomy while adapting to great changes in the conditions of their lives.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Calloway.

16. Black America to the Civil War (Identical to African and African American Studies 12)

06F, 08W: 10

This course deals with the African heritage, origins of white racial attitudes toward blacks, the slave system in colonial and ante-bellum America, and free Black society in North America. Specific emphasis will be placed on the Afro-American experience and on the relationship between blacks and whites in early American society.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Naylor.

17. Black America since the Civil War (Identical to African and African American Studies 13)

08S: 10

This course is a continuation of History 16. Among the topics to be discussed are Black Reconstruction, segregation and disfranchisement, migration, nationalism, Blacks and the New Deal, the impact of war on Blacks, and the 1960s.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

19. United States Political History in the Twentieth Century

07W: 10A

This course defines and examines major themes in the development of twentieth century American politics. There are two versions of this course.

In 07W: This lecture course explores politics, the presidency, and national policy-making in the twentieth century. Special attention will be paid to the evolution of parties, how individual presidents have defined the powers of the presidency, and to the different ways that modern presidents have responded to changing external demands for national leadership in times of prosperity and peace, economic depression, domestic upheaval, and war.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Edsforth.

20. American Thought and Culture to 1865

08W: 11

This course examines leading thinkers, writers, artists, and reformers as a way of understanding American intellectual and cultural history. Some of the issues explored include: the nature and meaning of American Puritanism; the impact of the Enlightenment; the evolution of American political thought; ideas about slavery and race; Transcendentalism and Romantic reform; the American Renaissance in literature; and the role of intellectuals in the Civil War. Almost all of the readings will be drawn from primary texts (including material by Franklin, Jefferson, Emerson, Fuller, Hawthorne, Douglass, and Lincoln).

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

21. Modern American Thought and Culture

07F: 10

This course examines leading thinkers, writers, artists, and reformers as a way of understanding American intellectual and cultural history. Some of the issues explored include: the impact of Darwinism; social science and the modern university; responses to industrialization; the tension between self and society; debates over democracy; the challenge of civil rights and feminism; and recent debates over multiculturalism. Almost of all the reading will be drawn from primary sources (including material by Mark Twain, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, William James, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., W.E.B. DuBois, John Dewey; Langston Hughes; Lionel Trilling; Martin Luther King, Jr.; and Malcolm X).

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

22. The Working Class in American Society

08W: 11

This course will examine the development of the American working class in relation to four major themes and time periods: the rise of a labor movement and an awareness of social class in the 19th century; trade unionism and labor radicalism during a watershed era of 'incorporation' (1885-1920); the triumph of industrial unionism in the 1930s and '40s; and the development of labor-management relations and working-class culture in post-World War II America. During each of these time periods the course will pay close attention to the themes of ethnicity, gender, and race.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

23. Recent United States History

07S, 08S: 11

This course will focus on the United States in the period following World War II. It will examine both domestic and international themes, exploring relationships between the two. Specific topics will include U.S. policy in Europe and Asia, National Security, the economy, developments in organized labor, political repression in the 1950s, political parties, mass culture, intellectual and artistic innovations, the civil rights movement, and the student protest movement.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Nelson.

24. American Foreign Relations to 1900

07W: 9

This course explores the history of America's relations with the world from the colonial era to 1900. In addition to examining the diplomatic and military dimensions of American interactions with non-Americans, this course also investigates the economic, cultural and ideological dimensions of those interactions. Specific topics include: American relations with Indian nations; the Wars of 1812 and 1898; the Monroe Doctrine; the colonization of Liberia; Manifest Destiny; and U.S. territorial expansion.

Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

25. American Foreign Relations since 1900

07S: 9

This course explores the expansion of American diplomatic, military and economic power since 1900, with particular attention to the ways that ideas and culture have shaped America's relations with the world. Specific topics include: U.S. imperialism in the Philippines and elsewhere; U.S. anti-imperialism; America's overseas nation building ventures; Wilsonianism; U.S. intervention in the World Wars; the Cold War; and American relations with the "Third World."

Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

26. The Vietnam War

07S: 12

This course examines the conflict which Americans call "The Vietnam War" as a major event in the 20th century histories of both the United States and Vietnam. In addition to exploring the key decisions made by U.S. and Vietnamese leaders, students will also learn about the experiences of ordinary soldiers and civilians. This course incorporates multiple American and Vietnamese sources and perspectives, and also investigates multiple explanations of the war's origins and outcome.

Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

27. Gender and Power in American History, 1607-1920 (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 23.1)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course examines the history of men and women from the period of colonial settlement to the achievement of woman's suffrage. We will explore the construction of gender particularly as it relates to social, political, economic, and cultural power. Topics will include: the role of gender in political thought and practice, the intersection of gender with categories of class and race; gender in the debate over slavery and the Civil War; and the rise and evolution of the woman's rights movement.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

28. American Women's History Since 1920 (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 23.2)

06F: 10 08W: 2A

This course will trace the history of American women from 1920 to the 1980s. Topics to be discussed will include: the breakup of the suffrage alliance during the 1920s; women in the radical social movements of the 1930s; women and war work in the 1940s; women in the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s; the 'second wave' of American feminism; institutionalization of feminism in the 1970s; and the rise of an anti-feminist women's movement in the 1980s. The course will also examine the ways gender definitions have changed in the U.S. during this century, and the ways that race and class have shaped American ideas about gender.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Orleck.

29. Women and American Radicalism Left and Right (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 26.1)

07W: 11

This course will trace the involvement of U.S. women in radical political movements from the mid-nineteenth century to the present including: Abolitionism; Anti-lynching; Socialist Trade Unionism; the Ku Klux Klan; the Communist Party; the National Welfare Rights Organization; the Civil Rights Movement; the New Left; the New Right; the direct-action wing of the anti-abortion movement; Earth First; and the neo-nazi American Front. It will also examine the relationship between feminist ideologies and non-gender-specific radical political ideologies centered on race, class, and other social identifiers.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: CI. Orleck.

30. American Economic and Business History

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This lecture course examines the history of the American economy and business institutions. Topics include the colonial origins of American capitalism; the slave economy; regional specialization and uneven development; the significance of the railroads, electrical power, and the automobile; big business and its impact on markets and work life; mass consumer culture; the military-industrial-university complex; and long-term trends in the distribution of wealth and poverty.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

31. Latinos in the United States: Origins and Histories

08S: 10A

An examination of the diverse social, economic, political, and cultural histories of those who are now commonly identified as Latinos in the United States. Particular emphasis will be placed on the formative historical experiences of Chicanos and mainland Puerto Ricans, although some consideration will also be given to the histories of other Latino groups-e.g., Central Americans, Cubans, and Dominicans. Topics include cultural and geographic origins and ties; imperialism and colonization; the economics of migration; work, women, and the family; racism and other forms of discrimination; the politics of identity; language and popular culture; and the place of Latinos in the U.S. society.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

32. Asians in the Americas to 1905

07S: 10 08W: 2

(Description pending faculty approval) This course traces migrations from China, the Philippines, South Asia, Japan, and Korea to the Americas and Hawai'i as well as U.S. colonial policies in Hawai'i, Guam, Samoa, and the Philippines through 1905. Major themes include labor migration, immigrant exclusion, racialization, anti-Asian violence, and urban ethnic enclave formation. Throughout, we will attend to differences and similarities in the political and social statuses of these groups, as well as their unique gender and class dynamics.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Kim.

33. Asian America in the Twentieth Century

08S: 11

(Description pending faculty approval) The U.S. held different meanings for people from China, the Philippines, Korea, Japan, India, and Southeast Asia during the twentieth century when they arrived as colonial labor migrants; subjects of a nascent Japanese empire, refugees, orphans, and war brides displaced by U.S. militarism; or as exiles challenging imperialism or corrupt regimes in their homelands. In the U.S., they fought against discrimination, pursued civil rights, and settled. We compare and contrast these experiences in their course.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

34. Building America: An Architectural and Social History (Identical to Art History 52)

06F: 11

This course draws upon recent scholarship in anthropology, archaeology, material culture, social history and architectural history in its review of five centuries of American architecture. Course lectures not only emphasize America's principal architects and their designs, but also summarize the social and cultural forces that shaped the country's built landscape. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Heck.

35. The Creation of 'America' in the Age of Jefferson

07W: 11

The years between the close of the American Revolution and the start of the Age of Jackson have been described as the "most neglected, if not the most despised period of American history." Without the drama of the Revolutionary years or the ominous tension of the Civil War's approach, the Early Republic has been seen as a dull interval between the country's defining events. Now, new methods in the study of American history have completely changed the way we understand the period. This course will focus on the seminal task of nation building, when distinctively American political parties, cities and villages, gender roles, educational systems, decorative arts, cultural institutions, attitudes toward Native peoples, architecture and economic policies took form. Thomas Jefferson actively shaped the debates over these issues, and he serves as the pivotal figure in our study of the formation of a new and specifically American culture in the Early Republican period.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heck.

36. Health Care in American Society: History and Current Issues

06F: 12

This course is designed to provide students with a basic understanding of critical issues in health care through the study of the historical development of the United States health care system. The course illuminates the influence of historical forces and cultural factors on the delivery of health care and on the discourse about health care reform in American history. By studying the components and relationships within the American health care system, students are enabled to acquire an understanding of the relationship between American history and the health care system, and also enabled to obtain a working contextual knowledge of the current problems of the American health care system and their proposed solutions. Each topic is presented from an historical perspective. Through an historical investigation of health, disease, and medicine students should be able to understand and discuss the changing organization of health care delivery in American history, the changing methods of financing of health care, the distinctive role of technology in health care, primary ethical issues in health care, comparative features of health care systems of other cultures, the historical changes in public health precepts, images of health care in popular culture, and the process of health care reform in American history.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Koop.

37. The Black Radical Tradition in America

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Throughout the history of the United States, African Americans have offered alternative visions of their nation's future and alternative definitions of their nation's progress. Not limited to reforming the worst social ills, these discourses have called for a fundamental restructuring of our political, economic, and social relations. A radical tradition provided the intellectual continuity and ideological coherence of these critiques, and it allowed African Americans to cultivate and pass on a legacy of social resistance.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

39. Slave Resistance in the United States (Identical to African and African-American Studies 17)

06F, 08W: 12

In this class we will analyze the multifaceted nature of one significant aspect of the "peculiar institution"-slave resistance. We will discuss how scholars have portrayed and theorized about slave resistance, as well as its relation to social control. In addition, we will examine the various pathways of resistance of African/African-American slaves. Because of the dynamic nature of slave resistance, we will approach this subject matter utilizing a variety of primary and secondary sources. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Naylor.

SECTION III: EUROPE

40. Foreign Study Program: London in History

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

Graded credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed a course on London and British history at University College London, while a member of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in History.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Ermarth.

41. Foreign Study Program: History Through Film

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P.

Using London's unmatched documentary film archives and filmic resources, this course focuses on the representation and reflection of European historical events and life in the period between 1930 and 1950. Lectures, discussions, and viewing assignments explore the strengths and limitations of filmic records as a historical tool, analyzing film both as visual document and aspect of public opinion.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Ermarth.

42. Gender and European Society from Antiquity to the Reformation (Identical to Women's and Gender Studies 22.1)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course examines the roles of women and men in Western Europe from Antiquity through the Reformation period. Emphasis will be placed on the intellectual and social structures that had a long-term effect on the concept and role of gender in European society. Topics included are biological and mythological foundations of gender concepts, attitudes toward the body and sex in pre-Christian and Christian culture, sin and ecclesiastical legislation on sex and marriage, family life and education, the individual and kinship, heresy and charismatic religion, and the impact of social-economic development on gender in professional life. We will discuss the textual and visual sources for our inquiry, as well as the changing contemporary views on gender roles in pre-industrial Europe.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: CI.

43. European Intellectual and Cultural History, 400-1300

07W, 08W: 10

A course on the intellectual and cultural origins of European civilization, from the fall of Rome to the advent of the Renaissance. After a review of the Judeo-Christian, Greco-Roman, Celtic, and Germanic components of medieval culture, we will examine the rise of the Christian Church and its impact on values and behavior of Europeans during the middle ages. Of special interest will be the relationship between medieval thinkers and the society in which they lived, the role of ritual, ceremony, and magic, and the persistence of heresy. Along with the products of high culture associated with such intellectuals as Augustine, Peter Abelard, Hildegard of Bingen, and Thomas Aquinas, we will thus review the fundamental values of medieval society at large and explore ways in which popular and elite culture converged or contrasted.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Simons.

44. Medieval France, 400-1494

08W: 12

The course traces the medieval foundations of the French nation, from the Roman Era to the end of the fifteenth century, with emphasis on institutional, social, and cultural development. Topics include: the Merovingian origins of 'France,' the construction and impact of feudal relationships, the emergence of French vernacular culture, regional diversity within centralized rule, and the formation of a French national identity. In addition we will examine how French medieval history became a testing-ground for innovative research on the Middle Ages, and to what extent these views have changed our concept of medieval France in the last decades.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

45. Early Modern Europe (1300-1650)

07X: 10

A study of Western Europe's transition from medieval to modern times, tracing the impact of new forces on traditional structures. Among the topics covered are Italian culture and society in the 14th-15th centuries; the concept of the Renaissance; intellectual and religious themes of the Reformation; the emergence of the basic forms of the modern state; developments in warfare and international relations; the political and ideological polarization of Europe after Luther; the 'general crisis' of the mid-17th century.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Lagomarsino.

46. Spain in the Golden Age

07W: 11

The course deals with the unification of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella, its rise to world primacy in the sixteenth century, and its decline in the seventeenth. Among topics examined are the development of a system of imperial government, the impact on Spain of colonial empire, the problems of multi-cultural society within the Iberian peninsula, the struggle against heresy, and the political challenges of the great European powers.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Lagomarsino.

47. The French Revolution and Napoleon

07S: 10 08S: 11

The course studies the French Revolution and its implications for Europe and the world. It considers the social, political and ideological causes of the Revolution in 1789 and then pays close attention to the successive stages of revolution from the experiment with constitutional monarchy to the radical republic and the Terror to Napoleon's popular dictatorship. The revolutionary wars, the development of democratic and nationalist ideology and their spread beyond France and beyond Europe, and also beyond elite men to peasants, city workers, Blacks and women are important themes.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Darrow.

48. European Society in the Industrial Age

06F: 10

This course traces the transformation of Western European society through the industrial period from the mid-18th century to the mid-20th century. Focusing upon social class and gender, it examines how economic and social change intertwined to produce the world's first industrial societies. Work, family, leisure and nationalism are topics of specific attention. Although the course deals primarily with the core societies of Western Europe-France, Germany and Great Britain-it provides the opportunity for student research in other areas such as Italy, Ireland, Spain and Eastern Europe.

Open to all students. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI. Darrow.

49. Early Modern England, 1485-1780

06F: 10 07F: 2

This course explores the relationships among economic, social, cultural and political developments in England during the Tudor, Stuart, and Hanoverian periods. Topics for discussion include: family and gender; village and city life; religious reformation and the reformation of government; the Elizabethan renaissance; responses to poverty, crime, and nonconformity; the development of political parties; the British enlightenment; commercialization and consumerism; the interaction of 'plebeians' and 'patricians'; rebellions and civil wars; and radicalism, conservatism, and imperialism.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

50. Modern Britain, 1780 to Present

07S: 10 08S: 2

This course explores the relationships among economic, social, cultural and political developments in Britain from the modern industrial revolution to Thatcherism and New Labour. Topics for discussion include: industrialization and its effects; Liberals, Conservatives, and Parliamentary politics; enduring Victorian attitudes about class, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, and race; the rise of Labour politics; suffragism; the Irish question; the impact of imperialism and world wars on British subjects; and responses to Britain's postwar decline and post-colonial multiculturalism.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

51. Modern European Intellectual History, the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

08S: 9

This course treats the ideas of selected major European thinkers and their interpreters in a broader historical context. The thought of the early Enlightenment, the Encyclopedists, Rousseau, Kant, Adam Smith, Burke, Hegel, de Stäel, Comte, Marx, Mill, Darwin, and Nietzsche is examined with attention to formative impulses and general impact. Recurrent topics to be discussed include subjectivity and the social world, nature and history as forms of intelligibility and sources of norm and meaning, the relation of theory and practice, criticism and tradition, the nature and scope of science, and the motifs of immanence and transcendence. The counterpoint to differing conceptions of 'being, knowing, doing, and having' is provided by changing patterns in European society.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

52. Modern Germany: 1800-1945

08S: 12

An examination of modern German history focusing on decisive turning points and broader social, political, and cultural currents. Specific topics to be treated include the legacy of the French Revolution and Napoleonic occupation, German "awakening," the revolutions of 1848, Bismarckian unification and Prussian preponderance, the emergence of mass-movements, the origins and impact of the First World War, the diversity and promise of the Weimar republic, and the rise and fall of Nazi Germany.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

53. Europe in the Twentieth Century (renumbered 65)

54. The Russian Empire

08S: 10

After a review of Kievan and Muscovite antecedents, the course surveys the history of Russia from the Time of Troubles to the beginning of the twentieth century. Special emphasis will be placed on the role of the Russian autocrat, on the institution of serfdom, and the development of the 19th century intelligentsia. Intended to precede, but not prerequisite to, History 55.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

55. The Russian Revolutions and the New Regime

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Following an introductory survey of the social and political problems confronting Imperial Russia, the course concentrates on the causes and processes underlying the Revolutions of 1905 and 1917, the development of Marxism-Leninism, and the eventual establishment and consolidation of the new Soviet Regime.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

56. Twentieth-Century Russia

07X: 9

An examination of major developments and problems in twentieth century Russian history with particular attention to the consequences of the October Revolution, Leninism, civil war and its impact, politics and society during the New Economic Policy of the 1920s, the formation of the Stalinist system and its historical legacy, the Krushchev era, the Brezhnev years of "stagnation," Gorbachev's perestroika and the problems of transition to a law based on democratic and open market system of the Russian Federation, the successor state to the Soviet Union.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Whelan.

57. Scientific Revolutions and Modern Society

07F: 12

An introduction to major revolutions in Western science since 1700, focusing on changing definitions of science; on political and religious implications of scientific theories; and on the effect of national contexts on scientific practice. Topics include Newton and Newtonianism in the 18th century, the Darwinian Revolution, Einstein and the birth of modern physics, and science under 'banners' in revolutionary France, Nazi Germany, and Soviet Russia.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: SOC; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

58. History of the Holocaust (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 37.1)

07W: 2A

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heschel.

59. History of Warfare

07X: 11

This course examines the relationship between warfare and the way society has developed in the past. Primary emphasis will be placed on the evolution of Western society, showing how political, economic, social and technological developments governed the decisions achieved in war and vice versa. Warfare is a cultural activity and the story of war looms large in the history of western civilization. Topics will include human aggressiveness, the origins of organized conflict, violence limitations and just war theories, bronze and iron warfare, Greek hoplite warfare, Alexander the Great, the Roman legions, the Chinese way of war, barbarian kingdoms, feudal warfare, the crusades and the Mongols, the military revolution, limited warfare during the Age of Reason, the French Revolution and Napoleon, Nineteenth-Century warfare, the commercialization and industrialization of war, World War I and II.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Whelan.

60. "A Nation Once Again": Ireland, 1798-1923

07F: 12

This course will focus on Irish history, from the ill-fated Uprising of 1798 to the emergence of the Irish Free State in the early 1920s. Major themes will include: the making of the Protestant Ascendancy; agrarian protest in pre-Famine Ireland; the Great Famine and its consequences; the rise of a new Irish nationalism and revitalized Catholic Church; and the struggle for independence that culminated in the achievement of a truncated and quasi-independent "Free State".

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

61. Britain and the Atlantic World, 1480-1780

08S: 2A

This course focuses on Atlantic society, economy, politics and culture shaped by the nature of maritime life in early modern times. Topics include: British voyages of trans-Atlantic exploration; the effects of trans-Atlantic contacts on communal life and settlement patterns; navies, merchant seamen, and pirates; the slave trade; life in port towns and coastal villages; the lore and creative traditions of Anglo-American maritime culture; and the impact of European competition on the British vision of an Anglo-Atlantic world.

Open to all students. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W.

62. The First World War

06F: 12 07F: 9

The First World War was fought in Europe for the most part but it involved belligerents from every continent and had global effects, many of which bedevil our world today. This course introduces you to the vast subject of what the British still call The Great War, its causes, combat, homefronts and far-reaching consequences as well as to some of the unresolved questions that continue to propel our research.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Darrow.

63. History of Recent Science and Technology

08S: 10A

This course will consider selected case studies of scientific and technological work since 1960, using analytical tools from science studies, historical sociology, philosophy of science and gender studies. Participants will read classic books deploying these tools, and then will research and present their own case studies on topics such as the development of the personal computer, invention of the "abortion pill" RU-486, or disposal of high level nuclear waste.

Open to all classes. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W.

64. Modern Europe: The Enlightenment Through World War I

07S, 08S: 9

An examination of the major political, social, economic and cultural developments in Europe from the early eighteenth century through the First World War. In this crucial period of world history, Europe generated the Enlightenment, constitutional democracy, industrial capitalism, advanced technology and global imperialism. Topics include: political revolutions in France, the Germanies and Russia; the industrial revolution and its consequences; liberalism, nationalism and imperialism, the rise of socialism and world wars over the course of two centuries.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

65. Modern Europe: The Twentieth Century (formerly History 53)

07S: 12

An examination of major political, social, economic, and cultural developments in twentieth century Europe. Topics to be treated include the impact of the World Wars and Cold War, the Great Depression, the growth of totalitarianism, the recession and integration of Europe. A subsidiary focus of the course will be the perspective taken on these developments by some major European thinkers.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W. Koop.

SECTION IV: LATIN AMERICA, AFRICA, AND ASIA

66. History of Africa since 1800 (Identical to African and African American Studies 15)

06F: 11

This course explores some of the major historical processes unfolding in Africa since 1800. Our analysis will focus on social and economic history as we examine Africa's integration into the international economy during the nineteenth century, the rise of new social classes, and the creation of the colonial state. Our primary examples will be drawn from east and west Africa to highlight both the similarities and differences of their historical development.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

67. The History of Modern South Africa (Identical to African and African American Studies 46)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

After an initial overview of colonialism in Africa, this course will concentrate on Southern Africa, with special emphasis on the historical development, effects, and implications of the racial situation in the Republic of South Africa. Readings will be drawn from primary and secondary materials and from works of fiction. Illustrative films will be shown, and some opportunity offered to compare the history of race relations in South Africa with that in other African countries and in the United States.

Open to all classes. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

68. Nationalism and Decolonization in Modern Africa (Identical to African and African American Studies 48)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Focusing on selected case studies, this course compares African intellectual, social, political, and military responses to colonialism, the growth of nationalism, and the problems of decolonization.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

69. History and Popular Culture in Africa (Identical to African and African American Studies 18)

07X: 10A

This course uses a multidisciplinary approach to explore the complex relationship between history and popular culture in several African countries. Examining old as well as new forms of popular culture, we will explore the ways in which artists, writers, film makers and musicians use moments of great historical significance or key historical actors as a point of departure for critique and reflection on the present. Examples will be taken from east, west and southern Africa.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

70. Topics in Middle East History

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

History of the Middle East, 1258-1914. This course will survey the history of the Ottoman Empire and Safavid-Qajar Iran. Emphasis will be placed on political, social, and cultural history, and comparisons will be made between the two empires. Finally, their various responses to Western Europe from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries will be examined.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

History of the Middle East, 622 to 1258. Following a brief treatment of pre-Islamic Middle Eastern history, the course will focus on Muhammad and the rise of Islam, the caliphate and the Turkic-Mongol invasions. In additional Islamic institutions and the nature of society and its culture will be studied.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: NW.

71. Social History of the Contemporary Middle East

06F: 11 08W: 12

Not since the seventh century and the rise of Islam has the Middle East experienced such profound change as caused by the western impact in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This course, set primarily in the post-World War I period, will examine the scope of this change and its impact on society and traditional values and various Middle Eastern responses. Although the course will center on Turkey, Egypt, and Iran, it will include Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and Israel as well. Readings will include primary sources and literature available in translation.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

72. Imperial China in a Global Context

08W: 10A

China's history, from the 3rd century BCE to the twentieth century, examined in the context of global developments in demography, economy, urbanization, technology, trade, and the arts.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

73. Early Chinese Culture (Identical to Chinese 62)

08S: 2A

A survey of early Chinese culture. The literary tradition will be taken as the primary evidence in the reconstruction and students will read early Chinese poetry and historical texts in translation. This tradition will then be examined in the light of new evidence from archaeological excavations concerning the material culture of ancient China and from ancient inscriptions. Dist: LIT; WCult: NW.

74. Intellectual History of East Asia

07W, 08W: 2A

A comparative exploration of Chinese and Japanese thought, from the formation of Confucianism in the Warring States period to the confrontation between traditional thought and the imported ideologies of the twentieth centuries. In writing assignments, students may concentrate upon either Chinese or Japanese topics.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: NW. Crossley.

75. The Environmental History of South and Southeast Asia

07W: 12 08W: 10

This course provides an overview of the patterns of historical interaction between humans and their environment in South and Southeast Asia. The course will address: 1) the ways in which different kinds of communities coped with and affected the environment before 1800; 2) how colonialism and the expansion of industrial capitalism altered human-environment relations during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; 3) the environmental impact of "development" and the emergence of environmental movements in post-colonial South and Southeast Asia.

Open to all students. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Haynes.

76. The History of Modern India

07W, 08S: 10

This course examines the history of South Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Themes of the course include the development of British imperialism, the impact of colonial rule on Indian rural society and economy, processes of cultural change, the development of nationalism, the historical role of Gandhi, the emergence of Hindu-Muslim conflict, and the character of post-colonial South Asia.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Haynes.

77. Imperialism in Modern East Asia

07S: 10A

An examination of Western and Japanese imperialism in East Asia from the Opium War to the Pacific War. Subjects to be treated include the imposition of unequal treaties, the "scramble for concessions" in China, the creation of Japan's formal and informal empires, and the rise and fall of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR or INT; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: NW. Ericson.

79. Postwar Japan: From Occupied Nation to Economic Superpower

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course examines the internal and external forces that have shaped Japan's government, economy, and society since 1945. Topics to be treated include American Occupation reforms, the conservative hegemony in politics, rapid economic growth and its costs, the mass middle-class society, and Japan's changing world role.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

82. Popular Struggle, Political Change and U.S. Intervention in Central America

08S: 2A

This course will explore the history of popular struggles, political change and U.S. intervention in Central America. The region's rich and complex history has been marked both by repressive dictatorships and by struggles for national liberation, social justice and indigenous rights. We will look at the different factors that played a part in determining this history including commodity production, labor systems, U.S. foreign policy, race relations, liberation theology and revolution.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

83. Twentieth-Century Latin America

07S: 12 08S: 11

This course seeks to address major issues in twentieth century Latin America through the history of three or four countries. Topics discussed will include development, imperialism, nationalism, revolution, state formation and violence.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Karl.

85. Plantations, Sugar and Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (Identical to African and African American Studies 64)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will examine the social, economic and cultural history of African slavery in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Topics to be discussed will include: slavery, sugar production and underdevelopment; the Atlantic slave trade; gender, race and hierarchy in the world of the sugar plantation; resistance to slavery; the abolition of slavery and the legacies of slavery.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

86. Caribbean History (Identical to African and African American Studies 23)

06F: 2

This course explores some of the issues that have profoundly shaped Caribbean development from the fifteenth century to the present. It begins with an examination of Amerindian society and explores the impact of European colonization. However, much of our attention will focus on the development of the plantation economy, slavery, post-emancipation and post-colonial society. Our readings and discussions draw largely on three islands-Jamaica, Haiti and Cuba-but there will be opportunities to examine other islands.

Open to sophomores, juniors and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

87. The History of Mexico, 1876 to the Present (Identical to Latin American and Caribbean Studies 76)

08W: 11

From the Porfiriato and the Revolution to the present, a survey of Mexican society and politics, with emphasis on the connections between economic developments, social justice, and political organization. Topics include fin de siècle modernization and the agrarian problem; causes and consequences of the Revolution of 1910; the making of the modern Mexican State; relations with the United States; industrialism and land reform; urbanization and migration; ethnicity, culture, and nationalism; neoliberalism and social inequality; the problems of political reform; and the zapatista rebellion in Chiapas.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

SECTION V: INTERREGIONAL

94.2. Science, Technology and Culture in the Nuclear Age

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

An examination of the social, political and cultural dimensions of nuclear technology from the discovery of fission in 1938 through the 1980s. We will consider how contexts and politics shaped the development of nuclear weapons and power reactors, and how these technologies in turn affected politics and culture. Topics include efforts in Germany, USA, USSR, Japan and England to build fission weapons during World War II; Hiroshima and Nagasaki in American and Japanese memory; the arms race, atomic scientists and the Cold War; the nuclear power industry in international comparison; living in and resisting the Nuclear Age; literary and film representations of the Nuclear Age; and the impact of the Nuclear Age on the development of science and technology since 1945.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU or NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

94.3. Greek History: Archaic and Classical Greece (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 14)

06F, 07F: 12

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Christesen.

94.4. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Kings (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 15)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

94.5. Roman History: The Republic (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 17)

07W: 12

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Stewart.

94.6. History of the Roman Empire: Roman Principate to Christian Empire (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 18)

08W: 12

Dist: INT or SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

94.7. Methods and Theory in Ancient History (Identical to, and described under, Classical Studies 19)

08W: 10A

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W.

94.8. History and Culture of the Jews: The Classical Period (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 10)

06F: 10 07X: 11

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Karp.

94.9. History and Culture of the Jews: The Modern Period (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 11)

08W: 11

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heschel.

SECTION VI: COLLOQUIA IN HISTORY

95. The Mongols

06F: 2A

Primarily centered on the empire of the Great Khans, the Ilkhans in Persia and the Yuan dynasty in China, this course analyzes the phenomenon of the Mongolian conquests and state building from the perspective both of the cultural and political history of the Eurasian steppe, and from the perspective of world economic, cultural, and political development in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Crossley.

95. Anthropology and History (Identical to, and described under, Anthropology 49)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Dist: SOC.

95. Ethiopia and Ethiopianism (Identical to African and African American Studies 63)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Ethiopia, which traces its history to the ancient kingdom of Axum that emerged in the first century A.D., was one of only two African states to retain its autonomy following Europe's division of African states and societies into colonial estates. Ethiopia became a symbol of African achievement, while its independence was a beacon of hope for colonized Africans as well as Africans in the diaspora. Ethiopianism, a complex array of cultural, religious, and political movements, used Ethiopia as part of a larger lexicon of symbols to critique and challenge their subjugation. This course examines Ethiopia's history and culture as well as its intersection and divergence from Ethiopianism that developed in South Africa, the United States and Jamaica.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW.

95. Marriage and Divorce in the African Context (Identical to Women and Gender Studies 25.1)

07S: 10A

Marriage was the widely expected norm for men and women within African societies. The institution was an important marker of adulthood and it linked individuals and lineages in a network of mutual cooperation and support. This course explores marriage and divorce from the pre-colonial to the post-colonial eras. Using examples from East, West and Southern Africa, it highlights women's agency, masculinity, and changing gender relations of power as the political economies of African societies transformed.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Byfield.

95. Black Atlantic/Green Atlantic: Irish and African Diaspora Nationalism(s), 1845-1925

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

In this colloquium, we will interrogate the complex and ever-changing meanings of terms such as "nation," "race," and "diaspora," in a multinational, and "Atlantic World," setting. The focal points of our study will include Ireland, Great Britain, the United States, the islands of the Anglophone Caribbean, and Africa. But our main focus will be Irish and African Diaspora nationalism(s), from the nineteenth to the early twentieth century.

Open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU or NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: INT; WCult: W.

95. Advanced Topics on Holocaust Historiography (Identical to, and described under, Jewish Studies 80)

07W: 3A

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Heschel.

SECTION VII: SEMINARS

96. Seminars in History

Open with written permission of the instructor to juniors and seniors. The following seminars will be offered in 2006-2007. For details concerning individual seminars consult the Department. Section numbers follow the decimals.

96.1 Race, Ethnicity and Immigration in U.S. History

06F: 2. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: CI. Orleck.

96.2 The Great Depression

06F: 10A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR or INT; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W. Edsforth.

96.2 Topics in British History

06F: 11. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Estabrook.

96.3 The Arab-Israeli Conflict

06F: 2A. Dist: INT; WCult: NW. Garthwaite.

96.1 American Odysseys: Lewis and Clark, Indian Country, and the New Nation (Identical to Native American Studies 81)

07W: 2A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Calloway.

96.2 Personal Narratives in the Age of the American Revolution

07W: 2A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Cullon.

96.3 Topics in Medieval History

07W: 10A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Simons.

96.4 Empires, Imperialism and the United States

07W: 3A. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Miller.

96.5 Europe since World War II

07W: 2A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Koop.

96.1 Topics in Modern French Politics and Culture

07S: 10A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Darrow.

96.2 World War II

07S: 3A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Whelan.

96.3 Topics in Modern Japanese History

07S: Arrange. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NW. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: NW. Ericson.

96.4 Bondage and Freedom in Narratives of Slaves

07S: 3A. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: NA. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Naylor.

SECTION VIII: INDEPENDENT STUDY AND HONORS

97. Independent Study

06F, 07F: D.F.S.P. Independent Field Project

In consultation with members of the Dartmouth faculty, each student will design and carry out an independent project which makes use of London's unique research opportunities. The project may relate to any aspect of British, European, and World History.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Ermarth.

All terms: Arrange. Independent Study and Research

This course offers an opportunity for a student to pursue some subject of special interest under the direction of a member of the Department through a specially designed program of readings and reports.

Open to qualified students with written permission of the instructor and the Chair.

98. Honors Seminar

06F, 07F: Arrange

The focus of the seminar is historiographic and great emphasis will be placed on the skills needed to write a research thesis in History. This course does not fulfill the seminar requirement of the Major and it may be taken only once. Simons.

99. Thesis

07W, 07S, 08W, 08S: Arrange

This course involves an extensive investigation of some topic and submission of an bound undergraduate thesis by the designated deadline. Only students enrolled in the Honors Program may take History 99; permission of the instructor and the Chair.