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Classics

CLASSICAL STUDIES; GREEK; LATIN

Chair: James H. Tatum

Professors J. B. Rutter, J. H. Tatum, R. B. Ulrich; Associate Professors M. R. Graver, R. L. Stewart, L. J. Whaley, M. Williamson; Assistant Professors P. C. Christesen, H. P. Tell; Lecturers G. Bevagna, A. Syson.

Additional information regarding the Classics Department can be found at the World Wide Web location http://www.dartmouth.edu/~classics/

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR IN CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

1. Any six language courses in Greek and/or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11).

2. Two courses distributed as follows: one course selected from Classical Studies 2-5; one course selected from Classical Studies 14-26.

3. Two additional courses selected from: any Classical Studies numbered 2 or higher; any course in Greek or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11); Art History 21, 22, 25, Comparative Literature 10, Philosophy 11.

4. Completion of Culminating Experience Requirement (description following all major and minor requirement listings).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MODIFIED MAJOR IN
CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

1. Any five courses in Greek and/or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11).

2. Completion of Culminating Experience Requirement (description following all major and minor requirement listings).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR IN CLASSICAL LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES

1. Any four courses in Greek and/or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11).

2. One course selected from: Classical Studies 2-5, 29-31; any course in Greek or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11); Comparative Literature 10, Philosophy 11.

3. One course in ancient history or archaeology selected from Classical Studies 14-26.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR IN ANCIENT HISTORY

Prerequisite: Greek 10 or Latin 10, or equivalent.

Requirements:

1. Classical Studies 14 and 17.

2. Three additional courses in ancient history selected from: Classical Studies 11, 15, 18, 29 (if written on an historical topic), and 31.

3. Classical Studies 19.

4. Two Greek or Latin courses numbered 20 or higher.

5. Two additional courses selected from: courses in Ancient History listed under (2) above; courses in Classical Archaeology (Classical Studies 6, 20-26); courses in Greek or Latin numbered 20 or higher; Classical Studies 3 and Classical Studies 12.

6. Completion of Culminating Experience Requirement (description following all major and minor requirement listings).

One related course from outside the Classics Department may, with departmental approval, serve in partial satisfaction of this requirement (for example, a thematically appropriate offering of History 95).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR IN ANCIENT HISTORY

1. Four courses in ancient history selected from Classical Studies 11, 14, 15, 17-19.

2. Two courses in Classical archaeology selected from Classical Studies 6, 20-26.

3. One additional course selected from: ancient history (listed in 1 above); Classical archaeology (listed in 2 above); courses in Greek and Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11); Classical Studies 2-5 or Classical Studies 12.

Participation in either of the Classics Department's Foreign Study Programs will meet the requirements for two of the above seven courses, one in archaeology and one in ancient history (Classical Studies 30 and 31 respectively).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR IN CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Prerequisite: Classical Studies 6, Greek or Latin 3, or equivalent.

Requirements:

1. One course in ancient history selected from Classical Studies 14, 15, 17 or 18.

2. Three courses in Classical Archaeology selected from Classical Studies 20-26.

3. Two courses from the Greek or Roman Foreign Study Programs (Classical Studies 29, 30, 31).

4. Two courses in ancient Greek or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11).

5. Two additional courses selected from: all remaining Classical Studies offerings; courses in Greek or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11); Art History 20, 21, 22, or 25.

6. Completion of Culminating Experience Requirement (description following all major and minor requirement listings).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MODIFIED MAJOR IN CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Prerequisite: Greek or Latin 10, or equivalent.

Requirements:

1. Four courses selected from Classical Studies 20-26.

2. One course in ancient history selected from Classical Studies 14, 15, 17, or 18.

3. Seminar: Classical Studies 29 or 87.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR IN CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

Prerequisite: Classical Studies 6.

Requirements:

1. Two courses in ancient history selected from Classical Studies 11, 14, 15, 17, 18.

2. Four courses in Classical archaeology: two in Greek archaeology (Classical Studies 20-23) and two in Roman archaeology (Classical Studies 24-26).

Participation in either of the Department's two Foreign Study Programs will meet the requirements for two of the above six courses, one in archaeology and one in history (Classical Studies 30 and 31 respectively).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR IN CLASSICAL STUDIES

Prerequisite: Two courses selected from Classical Studies 1, 4 and 6.

Requirements:

1. One course in ancient history selected from Classical Studies 14, 15, 17 and 18.

2. Two courses in Classical archaeology selected from Classical Studies 20 - 26.

3. Three courses in classical literature in translation and classical civilization selected from Classical Studies 2 - 5, 10, 11 and 12, exclusive of the course selected as a prerequisite.

4. Two additional courses selected from: all remaining Classical Studies offerings, courses in Greek or Latin numbered 10 or higher (excluding Greek 11).

5. Completion of Culminating Experience Requirement (description following all major and minor requirement listings).

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MINOR IN CLASSICAL STUDIES

Prerequisite: One course selected from Classical Studies 1-5.

Requirements:

1. Two courses in ancient history selected from Classical Studies 11, 14, 15, 17, 18 and 19.

2. Two courses in Classical archaeology: one in Greek archaeology (Classical Studies 20-23) and one in Roman archaeology (Classical Studies 24-26).

3. Two courses in classical literature, mythology, and religion selected from: Classical Studies 1-4, 10 and 12, exclusive of the course selected as a prerequisite.

Participation in either of the Department's two Foreign Study Programs will meet the requirements for two of the above six courses, one in archaeology and one in history (Classical Studies 30 and 31 respectively).

CULMINATING EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENT

In order to complete the Culminating Experience Requirement, students must enroll in an Honors Project (or) Participate in both Foreign Study Programs (Greece and Rome) (or) Enroll during their Senior year in one additional course selected from offerings in Classical Studies 2 or higher, Greek or Latin above the level of 10 (excluding Greek 11), and Comparative Literature 19 (translations are to be from Greek or Latin) and complete a research paper/project in conjunction with that course. The research paper/project may be either part of, or an addition to, the work regularly required for the course and is subject to department approval.

REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL MODIFIED MAJOR PROGRAMS

Students wishing to design a Modified Major in Classical Languages and Literatures, Classical Archaeology, or Classical Studies must submit a written rationale demonstrating the intellectual coherence of their proposed program. The complete proposal must be formally approved by the Department of Classics. The program must include at least five courses offered by other departments and programs in addition to the prerequisites and major courses in Classics. One of these courses in other departments may be identified as prerequisite.

STUDY PROGRAMS ABROAD

The Department of Classics sponsors two foreign study programs, one during the fall (odd numbered years) and one during the spring term (odd numbered years), each directed by a member of the faculty of the Department of Classics. Participation in either of the Department's two Foreign Study Programs will meet major requirements, one in archaeology and one in history (Classical Studies 30 and 31 respectively).

The Greek Program

This program, while loosely based in Athens, consists for the most part of extensive field trips under the direction of a member of the Department of Classics to various parts of the ancient Greek world, including Crete, northern Greece (Macedonia and Epirus), western Turkey, and the Aegean islands. The itinerary varies from offering to offering depending upon the interests of the students and the accompanying Dartmouth faculty member. It is designed for qualified students interested in Greek archaeology, art, history, and literature. Archaeologists resident in Greece are invited to provide special tours and offer lectures about important sites or museum collections that are especially well known to them. Two weeks are set-aside during the program for independent travel and research related to each student's independent study project.

The Roman Program

By means of extensive field trips throughout the Italian peninsula (e.g., Latium, Tuscany, Campania, Umbria) students engage in a systematic investigation of the sites, monuments, and artifacts of the Etruscan, Roman, and palaeo-Christian cultures of Italy under the direction of Dartmouth faculty. The aim of the program is to develop a coherent understanding of the processes of origin and growth, conflict and change in ancient Italy. To this end, the monuments of post-Classical Italy are also examined whenever possible, so that students may begin to understand the profound and continuing influence of ancient Italic cultures upon the development of western Europe.

The curriculum embraces architecture, the visual arts, history, religion, and the basic techniques of archaeological analysis. Students learn to see and understand the Roman world in its own context through informal lectures and discussion in situ, under the open sky. The academic requirements consist of short weekly papers, oral reports, and an optional independent study project.

SENIOR HONORS PROGRAM

Students eligible for the honors program in Classical Languages and Literatures, Ancient History, Classical Archaeology, or Classical Studies may elect one of three projects for their senior year: a thesis, a comprehensive examination, or an honors essay and a written examination on connected subjects. They should apply to the Chair of the Department no later than May 1st of their junior year for admission to the program.

Only those students who satisfactorily complete an honors program with a B+ average or better will earn Honors in their major or, in appropriate cases, High Honors. High Honors will be granted only by vote of the Department on the basis of outstanding independent work.

Students in the honors program are responsible for selecting their principal advisers from among the departmental faculty; the Department will assign a second reader to each honors student. The principal adviser will approve a reading list for the student and check his or her progress at regular intervals during the year in order to assure adequate progress towards completion of the honors program on schedule.

TRANSFER CREDIT FOR MAJORS

Transfer credit in Classical Studies, Greek and Latin is granted by prior arrangement to majors in the Department of Classics. Exceptions to this policy can be made only by petition to the Department.

CLASSICAL  STUDIES

1. Antiquity Today: An Introduction to Classical Studies

07W, 08W: 11

Which ancient faces and personalities come alive for us when we look back at Greek and Roman antiquity? How were the Greeks and Romans like us, and how different? How and why does their world-and what we have inherited from their world-intrigue, repel, awe, amuse, or disturb us, and how much is that to do with our own preoccupations? Taking as its starting point the interface between Classical antiquity and the twenty-first century, this course explores a selection of topics that will introduce you to the different areas and disciplines that make up Classics in the new millennium.

Open to all classes. Dist: LIT or INT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI. Christesen.

2. The Tragedy and Comedy of Greece and Rome

07S, 08S: 12

The course studies in translation selected works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Seneca (tragedy), Aristophanes and Plautus (comedy), and some of their central themes and questions: law, community, revenge, passion, justice, for example. We will approach them both as texts and as scripts/librettos, considering their relationship to other types of performance (ritual, rhetoric, music, dance) and genres (history, philosophy) as well as to theatrical space. There will be practical workshop opportunities for those interested.

Open to all classes. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Tell.

3. Reason and the Good Life: Socrates to Epictetus

07W: 11

An introduction to philosophical thought in antiquity, especially that of Socrates, Epicurus, and the Stoics. We will concentrate especially on ethical questions; e.g. what kind of life is best for humans to pursue, how thoughtful persons should weigh the potentially competing claims of reason, pleasure, and emotion-and on how intellectual activity was perceived at Athens and at Rome. Readings to include Aristophanes' Clouds, Plato's Apology and Meno, and selected writings of Epicurus, Lucretius, Cicero, Seneca, and Epictetus.

Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Graver

4. Classical Mythology

07X: 12

An introduction to Greek myths and the way in which their use in literature developed, from the use of myths as religious story to the utilization of myth in drama and its exploitation in poetry.

Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV. WCult: CI. The staff.

5. The Heroic Vision: Epics of Greece and Rome

06F, 07F: 2

Epic held a unique position in the ancient world: poets working in other genres would regularly explain why they were not talking about "kings and battles" ("Cupid messed up my meter"). By constantly re-reading and re-interpreting epic poetry, schoolchildren learned to behave as their cultures expected, as well as to speak and write persuasively. In this course we shall read (in English translation) extensive selections from six powerful works: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Apollonius' Argonautica, Vergil's Aeneid, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and Lucan's Civil War. We shall examine how these poems succeed in making actions, emotions, and ideas from the (imagined) past meaningful in the present. Epics promise immortality: as recompense for their struggles and inevitable death, mortal heroes win lasting glory from the stories that commemorate their achievements. But the poems also ask profoundly troubling questions about how to measure glory, and how to evaluate human achievements. What happens to those who lose the struggle? How do women or non-"heroic" men shape their lives and their reputations? What role do the gods play in all this?

Open to all classes. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Syson.

6. Introduction to Classical Archaeology

06F, 07F: 11

The aim of the course is to familiarize students with the basic methods and principles of Classical archaeology through a survey of the principal types of sites and artifacts characteristic of Greco-Roman antiquity. Students will gain a good overview of the approaches useful in the interpretation of a wide variety of material evidence as well as of problems inherent in such evidence. At the same time, through the study of a number of major sites in roughly chronological sequence, students will acquire an appreciation of the development of material culture in the Mediterranean world from prehistory to the collapse of the Roman Empire. The course thus serves both as an introduction to Greek and Roman civilization and to the particular goals of the discipline of archaeology.

Open to all classes. Dist: INT or ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

7. First-Year Seminars in Classical Studies

Consult special listings

10. Topics in Greek and Latin Literature

08W: 10A

In 08W, Fictions of Sappho (Identical to Comparative Literature 67 and Women's and Gender Studies 21.2). Goddess of poetry, sexual predator, exotic holiday destination, lovelorn suicide, schoolmistress, parchment scrap: these are among the associations clustering around Sappho. From antiquity to the twenty-first century her poems and the legends about her life and loves have fascinated writers, artists and musicians as different as Queen Victoria, Willa Cather, Boccaccio, Jeanette Winterson, Ezra Pound, Gounod, and Ovid. We sample some of the twists and turns in this seemingly endless stream of fantasy and creative reaproppriation.

Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: CI. Williamson.

11. Topics in Greek and Roman Social and Economic History

07S: 12 07F: 2 08W: 10 08S: 12

Open to all classes.

In 07S, Law and Society in the Ancient World. This course compares the legal systems of Classical Athens and ancient Rome. Topics include the purpose and the social significance of published law, the relation between substantive law and judicial procedure, the relation between law and courtroom argument, and the categories and principles of Roman legal thinking. Readings include Greek and Roman legal codes (i.e. Drakon's law on homicide, the Twelve Tables), courtroom speeches (Demosthenes, Lysias, Antiphon, Cicero), contemporary critiques of the Judicial system (Aristophanes' Wasps) and legal opinions of the Roman jurists. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Stewart.

In 07F, Sex, Celibacy and the Problem of Purity: Asceticism and the Human Body in Late Antiquity (Identical to Religion 31 and Women's and Gender Studies 43.2 in 06F). This course examines a crucial period in the history of Christianity-Late Antiquity. Between the years 300 and 500, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, established standards of doctrine and ecclesiastical organization, and developed the attitudes towards the body, sexuality and gender, which informed Christian teaching for centuries to come. In this class we will ask: why did virginity become such an important aspect of Christian religiosity? What effect did Roman concepts of gender and sexuality have on Christian understanding of the relationship between men and women? What did martyrs, gladiators and monks have in common.

Open to all students. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W. MacEvitt.

In 08S, Slaves, Wives and Concubines: Did Roman Women Have a History? (Identical to Women and Gender Studies 21.1). In this course we explore the lives of Roman women first in terms of the larger institutional frameworks that structured and gave meaning to women's lives, either by inclusion (family, marriage) or exclusion (law, politics). From this basis we investigate the characterization and self-representation of women in literary texts: women as mothers and wives, women as political actors, women as priests and ritual participants. Selected readings of Roman literary and legal sources will be supplemented by evidence from Roman inscriptions, domestic architecture, sculpture and coinage.

Open to all students. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Stewart.

14. Greek History: Archaic and Classical Greece (Identical to History 94.3)

06F, 07F: 12

This course surveys the major events in the history of ancient Greece from 1600 to 338 BCE. During this period, the Greeks formed individual communities and developed political structures that satisfied particular communal definitions of liberty, spread their culture throughout the Mediterranean, invented democracy and enshrined in their art, literature, and political systems the beginnings of humanism. During the same period, democratic Athens became an imperialist power and a slave society and, unlike other Greeks, kept wives and daughters closeted. This course considers the peculiarities and genius of these Greeks.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Christesen.

17. Roman History: The Republic (Identical to History 94.5)

07W: 12

This course surveys the history of the Roman people from 753 (traditional date of the founding of Rome) to 44 B.C. (the assassination of Julius Caesar). Topics include the development of Roman law, the conquest of all lands bordering on the Mediterranean, and the civil wars that destroyed Republican government. Particular emphasis is placed on the Roman political community: the political, religious and social factors that influenced the definition of the Roman aristocracy in the fourth century, the institutions that maintained the ascendancy of the elite, the military and political values inherent in the citizenship, the social and political mechanisms that militated against civil dissent, and the role of political values in the eventual destruction of Republican government from within.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Stewart.

18. History of the Roman Empire: Roman Principate to Christian Empire (Identical to History 94.6)

08W: 12

This course surveys the history of Rome (city and empire) from the victory of Octavian-Augustus at Actium in 31 B.C. to the success of Constantine at the Milvian Bridge in 312. Topics include the Roman conception of empire and the successive strategies of defending it, political leadership and the cult of personality, the theory and reality of the Roman citizenship (e.g., service in the Roman army), imperial policies on urban development and the social and political function of the cities, the development of alternative sources of political power and social prestige, and the conflicting political identities of Romans and Christians and the political consequences of a religious conversion.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Dist: INT or SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Stewart.

19. Methods and Theory in Ancient History (Identical to History 94.7)

08W: 10A

This course is designed to introduce the student to the various types of documentary evidence available to the ancient historian and to the various perspectives for framing and answering historical questions. We consider the interpretive methodologies for each type of document (coin, inscription, papyrus) as well as the particular historical context in which these documents were produced. Topics include the function of coinage and economic thinking in the ancient world and the political significance of the publication of law. The final weeks of the term allow for in-depth consideration of a specific problem in ancient history.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Stewart.

20. Greek Prehistoric Archaeology: The Emergence of Civilization in the Aegean

08W: 11

This course traces the cultural evolution of humanity in the Aegean basin from the era of hunting and gathering (Palaeolithic-Mesolithic) through the early village farming stage (Neolithic) and the formative period of Aegean civilization (Early Bronze Age) into the age of the great palatial cultures of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece. The emphasis in the early part of the course will be on the different economic bases of early life in the Aegean and on regional variation within it. In the latter half of the course, study of the palaces, fortified citadels, and royal tombs at such sites as Knossos, Mycenae, Tiryns, and Troy will lead to discussions of the Greek myths about Atlantis, King Minos' sea empire, and the Trojan War, and their basis in historical fact.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

21. From Disaster to Triumph: Greek Archaeology from the Destruction of Mycenae to the Persian Wars

08S: 11

This course examines in detail through archaeology the cultural process whereby Greece evolved from a scattered group of isolated and backward villages in the Dark Ages (ca. 1100-750 B.C.) to a series of independent, often cosmopolitan city-states united against the threat of Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. Where did the Greeks acquire the concept of monumental temple architecture and why did they choose to build temples in only two or three different architectural styles? Where did the Greeks learn to write in an alphabetic script and what did they first write down? Who taught the Greeks the art of sculpture and why did they begin by carving what they did? When and why did the Greeks begin to portray their myths in art?

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

22. Greek Classical Archaeology: City-States and Panhellenic Sanctuaries

07W: 10

From the allied Greeks' expulsion of Persian invaders through their great victories at Plataea and Mykale in 479 B.C. to their catastrophic defeat by Philip, Alexander, and the Macedonians at Chaeronea in 338 B.C., the history of Greek culture is that of dozens of individual city-states in constant competition for hegemony in a wide variety of different arenas, from battlefield to stadium to pan-Hellenic sanctuary. In this course, particular attention is paid to the material cultural achievements of the richest and artistically most influential of these poleis, the city of Athens, when that city developed the western world's first democracy, built the Parthenon, and played host to the schools established by Plato and Aristotle.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

24. Etruscan and Early Roman Archaeology: The Rise of Rome

06F: 10

This course begins with the archaeology of Late Neolithic and Iron Age Italy, then focuses upon the Etruscans, early Latium and the development of Republican Rome and her colonies, concluding with the death of Caesar in 44 B.C. In addition to a chronological development of the material culture of Italy, we will explore at least two important cultural topics: 1) Etruscan religion and its influence on the Roman sacro-political system; 2) the machinery of Roman government as expressed in the spaces in Rome (and other sites) that played host to political ritual: the Arx, the Forum, the Comitium, the Curia, the Tribunal and the Basilica.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Bevagna.

25. Early Roman Imperial Archaeology: The First Emperors

07S: 11

Through archaeological sites and related finds, this course examines the Roman empire as it was transformed under the rule of the emperors. We will begin with a close look at the first emperor, Augustus, then continue with an examination of the reigns of the Julio-Claudians, Flavians, and Trajan. We focus on how ancient Italic traditions were transformed to suit the needs of the Imperial government (for example, the adaptation of the Republican, Hellenized Domus to the Imperial Palatium). The most dramatic change in religious practice is the development of the Imperial cult. Site analysis will stress the need for an imperial idiom, the accommodation of urban masses and the promotion of a sense of a shared cultural experience. The course will also examine the technological developments that led to the 'architectural revolution.'

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Bevagna.

26. Later Roman Imperial Archaeology: The Golden Age and Beyond

08S: 12

This course surveys Roman archaeology from Hadrian to Constantine. Emphasis is placed upon the Antonine and Severan emperors, then shifts rapidly over most of the mid-third century to focus on Diocletian and the tetrarchy, Constantine and the move of the capital to Constantinople. The course ends with a look at the great church of Hagia Sophia, and consideration of the debt of early Christianity to pagan religious traditions. A major component of the course is the study of the Romanization of the provinces, and, more specifically, the complex process of cultural hybridization (imported Roman traditions melding with local practices). Such sites as Baalbek, Petra, Dura-Europos, Palmyra, Roman Egypt, Tripolitania, Tunisia and Algeria, Constantinian Jerusalem, Trier, Spalato, etc., may be included.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Ulrich.

29. Independent Study Project

07S: D.F.S.P. (Greece) 07F: D.F.S.P. (Italy)

The independent study project to be completed by a student while a member of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Greece or Italy.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

30. Classical Art and Archaeology: Study Abroad

07S: D.F.S.P. (Greece) 07F: D.F.S.P. (Italy)

Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the work of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Greece or Italy. May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Dist: ART. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

31. Ancient Literature and History: Study Abroad

07S: D.F.S.P. (Greece) 07F: D.F.S.P. (Italy)

Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the work of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Greece or Italy.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Rutter.

85. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

87. Thesis

All terms: Arrange

Independent research and writing under supervision of a member of the Classics faculty. Open to honors students in their senior year and to other qualified students by consent of the Department.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

GREEK

1-3. Intensive Greek

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

1. Introductory Greek

06F, 07W, 07F, 08W: 9

Study of Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary accompanied by reading of simple Greek prose selections. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement. The staff.

3. Intermediate Greek

07W, 07S, 08W, 08S: 9

Continued study of Greek grammar and syntax. Readings in Greek prose authors. Completion of Greek 3 satisfies the College language requirement and serves as a prerequisite to the major in Classical Archaeology. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement.

Prerequisite: Greek 1, or equivalent. The staff.

10. Readings in Greek Prose and Poetry

06F, 07F, 08S: 10 07S: 2

Readings in Greek prose and poetry at the intermediate level, typically including selections from Plato and/ or Euripides. Prerequisite: Greek 3, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W.

In 06F, New Testament. A brief introduction to the language, vocabulary, and idiom of New Testament Greek, followed by readings in the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul. Whaley.

In 07F, Philosophy. An introduction to Plato's Greek through close study of his dialogue Meno, and to his ethics and theory of knowledge through discussion and supplementary readings in English. Graver.

11. Modern Greek I

07W: 2

(See Modern Greek section below)

20. Homer

08W: 2

Reading in Greek and discussion of selections from the Iliad or Odyssey. Reading of the whole poem in translation and discussion of its character, style, and composition.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Tell.

22. The Lyric Age of Greece

07W: 2

A study of selected poetry from the archaic period of Greek literature. In addition to excerpts from the hexameter poems of Hesiod and the Homeric hymns, readings will include shorter lyric poems such as those of Archilochus, Alcaeus, Sappho, Theognis, Xenophanes and Anacreon. Discussion will include both literary aspects of the poems and their social and cultural context, including the ways in which gender is figured in their performance.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Tell.

24. Theatre

07S: 10

A study of the tragedy and comedy of Classical Greece through detailed reading of at least one play of Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, and Aristophanes.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Williamson.

26. Intellectual Enquiry in Classical Athens

08S: 2

This course centers on the period of intellectual ferment and enquiry in fifth and fourth century Athens, when traditional beliefs came under scrutiny and many different figures laid claim to truth telling, from orators and sophists to poets and the practitioners of philosophy and history. Texts studied will be taken from the following: philosophy (the sophists, the early dialogues of Plato); history (Herodotus and/or Thucydides); the medical writers; Euripides: orators.

Prerequisite: Greek 10 or equivalent. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W. The staff

28. Philosophy

07F: 10

Our goals are to learn to read Plato's Greek with accuracy and comprehension, and to become engaged with his thought through close study of sample arguments. The two dialogues we will read, the Lysis and the Meno, are both short works, which will give us an opportunity to study Plato's arguments in their entirety. These particular works, with their interest in friendship and recollection respectively, are also particularly helpful as introductions to Platonic ethics and epistemology. .

Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: LIT; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Graver.

29. New Testament

06F: 10

A brief introduction to the language, vocabulary, and idiom of New Testament Greek, followed by readings in the Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Class of 2007 and earlier: Dist: PHR; WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Whaley.

30. Special Topics in Greek Literature (Identical to Latin 30)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Tatum.

85. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

87. Thesis

All terms: Arrange

Independent research and writing under the supervision of a Department member. Open to honors students in their senior year and other qualified students by the consent of the Department.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

MODERN GREEK

11. Modern Greek I

07W: 2

An introduction to Modern Greek as a spoken and written language, with emphasis on practical conversation. Intensive study of basic grammar, syntax and vocabulary through drills, conversation, written exercises, and oral presentations, supplemented by laboratory exercises and by drill-sessions with a teaching assistant.

No previous knowledge of Greek is assumed. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement. Kacandes.

LATIN

1. Introductory Latin

06F: 9, 2 07W: 9 07F: 9, 2 08W: 9

Introduction to Latin grammar, vocabulary, and syntax through prose readings of gradually increasing difficulty. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement. The staff.

3. Intermediate Latin

07W: 9, 2 07S: 9 08W: 9, 2 08S: 9

Continued study of Latin grammar, vocabulary, and syntax with reading of selected literary texts. Completion of Latin 3 satisfies the College language requirement. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement.

Prerequisite: Latin 1, or equivalent. The staff.

10. Readings in Latin Prose and Poetry

06F: 9S 07S, 07F, 08S: 9

Readings in Latin prose and poetry at the intermediate level, typically including selections from Catullus, Cicero, Livy, or Ovid.

Prerequisite: Latin 3, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Graver, Syson.

20. Vergil

07W: 10A

Close reading of Vergil's Eclogues and Horace's Epodes, two collections of poems circulated during the very last phase of the Republic (after the death of Caesar). Both are elegantly crafted works employing a great variety of artistic strategies for reinventing Greek verse-forms; both also reflect the anxieties of the triumviral period in that they incorporate a number of dark and troubling themes. We will consider especially questions of gender, selfhood, otherhood, and poeticized political thought,

Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Graver.

22. Literature of the Republic

06F, 07F: 10A

In 06F, Lucretius We will read extensively in Lucretius' verse and will also read various supporting texts in translation, exploring both the wonders of Epicurean physics (atomic theory in antiquity) and the challenges of Epicurean ethics (the mortality of the soul, the discomforts of erotic love).

Prerequisite: Latin 10 or equivalent. Dist: LIT; Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Graver.

24. The Augustan Age

08W: 10A

Readings in Ovid's epic poem of mythological world history, the Metamorphoses. Prerequisite: Latin 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. The staff.

26. Literature of the Early Empire

08S: 2A

This course will study the dynamics of the epic tradition through a reading of the Neronian poet Lucan's "Civil War," an unfinished epic poem based on the war of Caesar and Pompey for mastery of the Roman world. Among themes to be explored: the role of violence in both Roman society and the epic tradition, and the particular challenge of writing epic poetry after Augustan poet Vergil and Ovid.

Prerequisite: Latin 10 or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. The staff

28. Literature of the Later Empire and the Middle Ages

07S: 10A

Readings from the late Empire to the high Middle Ages that will include selections from the Vulgate, St. Augustine's Confessions, the Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicity, Hrotsvitha's Dulcitius, and the Carmina Burana.

Prerequisite: Latin 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. Otter.

30. Special Topics in Latin Literature (Identical to Greek 30)

07X: 10A

Tragicomedy. What is at stake when a playwright creates a drama that is a self-conscious blend (even a deliberate confusion) of comedy and tragedy? This seminar combines students in Greek and Latin for one of the two-hour sessions. In this session everyone will read and discuss dramas in translation, as well as theoretical and critical literature about them. The second two-hour session of the week will be devoted to reading a complete play in each language: for those in Latin, Plautus' Amphitryon, and for those in Greek, Euripides' Orestes.

Dist: LIT. Class of 2007 and earlier: WCult: EU. Class of 2008 and later: WCult: W. The staff.

85. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

87. Thesis

All terms: Arrange

Independent research and writing under the supervision of a member of the Classics faculty. Open to honors students in their senior year and to other qualified students by consent of the Department.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.