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Biological Sciences

Chair: Thomas P. Jack

Professors E. M. Berger, C. L. Folt, M. L. Guerinot, C. R. McClung, M. A. McPeek, D. R. Peart, R. D. Sloboda, L. A. Witters; Associate Professors M. P. Ayres, S. E. Bickel, K. L. Cottingham, M. R. Dietrich, P. J. Dolph, R. H. Gross, T. P. Jack, E. J. Lambie, K. J. Peterson, G. E. Schaller, E. F. Smith, S. J. Velez; Assistant Professors R. Calsbeek, A. J. Erives, A. S. Gladfelter, R. E. Irwin; Lecturer N. M. Grotz; Professor Emeritus J. J. Gilbert; Research Professor Emeritus R. T. Holmes; Adjunct Professors J. C. Dunlap, M. W. Fanger, A. J. Friedland, N. J. Jacobs, L. R. Lynd, R. K. Taylor, R. A. Virginia; Adjunct Associate Professors D. T. Bolger, T. U. Gerngross, G. A. O'Toole, P. R. Sundstrom; Adjunct Assistant Professors K. M. Curtis, K. H. Nislow; Research Professor G. C. Ruben; Research Associate Professors C. Y. Chen, E. B. Dubrovsky, R. S. Stemberger; Research Assistant Professors M. E. Borsuk, V. A. Dubrovskaya; Croasdale Fellow D. N. M. Mbora.

REQUIREMENTS FOR MAJORS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

The biological sciences are a diverse collection of scientific disciplines that interact and intermingle in tremendously complex and interesting ways. To provide the maximum potential for students to explore this vast area of science, the Department of Biological Sciences offers a flexible major that allows students to select coursework to fit their individual interests and career aspirations. Before declaring an area of concentration, students develop their course plan in consultation with one or more faculty mentors.

Prerequisites: Biology 11: The Science of Life, Chemistry 5 and 6, and one course from among Computer Science 5, Mathematics 4 or above, Engineering Sciences 10, or Biology 29. A student who elects to include Biology 29 in their area of concentration (see below) must fulfill this prerequisite with one of the other courses (e.g., Computer Science 5, Mathematics 4, or Engineering Sciences 10). Although not required for the major, some upper-level Biology courses require Chemistry 51-52. In addition, because many graduate and professional schools require Chemistry 51-52 for admission, we highly recommend that students consider taking these courses.

Foundation Courses: After completing Biology 11, students take three courses from among five foundation courses: Biology 12 (Cell Structure and Function); Biology 13 (Gene Expression and Inheritance); Biology 14 (Physiology); Biology 15 (Microevolution); Biology 16 (Ecology). Biology 11 is the only prerequisite for the five foundation courses. The foundation courses, Biology 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 are not sequenced and may be taken in any order. In deciding which three courses to select from this list, students should discuss with their faculty mentors which foundation courses would be most appropriate for their area of concentration. Not all foundation courses need to be completed before the student moves on to courses in their area of concentration.

Area of Concentration: To complete the major, students focus in an area of concentration by taking six additional courses. Below we list a number of possible areas of concentration that students may find useful in guiding their course selection. Under each area, we list a number of appropriate courses from which these six courses could be selected. These are only meant as suggestions to initiate the formulation of an area of concentration. Many other areas are possible, and the major is designed to provide maximum flexibility for students to tailor their programs to their individual interests and career aspirations. Each student will develop their major in consultation with one or more faculty mentors who share interests with the student's area of concentration. Faculty members with interests in the listed areas are given below; students interested in other areas should ask the Department Chair or chair of the departmental Undergraduate Committee to suggest a faculty member that would be appropriate to mentor the student in developing their course plan. Up to two suitable advanced courses from other departments may be included in the area of concentration when appropriate to the student's objectives, or a modified major can be constructed (see below). One term of Independent Research (Biology 95) or Honor's Research (Biology 97) may also be included among the six courses.

Some examples of courses that would contribute to various Areas of Concentration (possible faculty mentors are listed in parentheses):

Behavior and Neurobiology (Calsbeek, Irwin, McPeek, Velez, Witters): Biology 27, 34, 37, 52, 74, 79, Psychology 26, 65

Biochemistry (Bickel, Dolph, Gladfelter, Schaller, Sloboda, Smith, Witters): Biology 37, 40*, 44, 45, 46, 47, 66, 69, 71, 78, Chemistry 52/58, 61, 63, 67

Cell Biology (Bickel, Dolph, Gladfelter, Schaller, Sloboda, Smith, Witters): Biology 34, 37, 38, 40*, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 66, 67, 69, 71, 78, Chemistry 41, 52/58, 63, 67

Development (Berger, Erives, Jack, Lambie, Peterson): Biology 24, 28, 36, 38, 40*, 43, 44, 45, 53, 54, 62, 63, 75, 76

Ecology (Ayres, Calsbeek, Cottingham, Folt, Irwin, McPeek, Peart): Biology 20, 21 or 51, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 50, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, Chemistry 52/58, Environmental Studies 79, 80, 89

Evolutionary Ecology (Calsbeek, Irwin, McPeek): Biology 20, 21 or 51, 27, 28, 31, 38, 45, 47, 50, 52, 58

Genetics (Berger, Bickel, Dolph, Guerinot, Jack, Lambie, McClung): Biology 36, 38, 45, 47, 53, 61, 63, 65, 66, 71, 75, 76, 79

Genomics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (Cottingham, Erives, Gross, McPeek): Biology 28, 29, 36, 39, 45, 47, 53, 62, 75, and appropriate Computer Science, Mathematics and Engineering Sciences courses

Human Biology (Dolph, Gladfelter, Smith, Velez, Witters): Biology 24, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40*, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 66, 67, 69, 71, 78, 79, Chemistry 52/58

Molecular Ecology (Calsbeek, McPeek): Biology 21 or 51, 31, 36, 40*, 45, 47, 50, 53, 58

Molecular Evolution (Dietrich, Erives, McPeek, Peterson): Biology 28, 36, 38, 39, 40*, 45, 47, 53, 62, 75

Molecular Genetics (Berger, Bickel, Dolph, Erives, Gladfelter, Guerinot, Jack, Lambie, McClung): Biology 38, 45, 47, 53, 54, 61, 65, 66, 69, 71, 75, 79, Chemistry 52/58

Paleobiology (Peterson): Biology 20, 24, 28, 53, 60, 62, Earth Sciences 31, 34, 45-47, 68, 72

Physiology and Organismal Biology (Ayres, Calsbeek, McPeek, Velez, Witters): Biology 24, 31, 34, 35, 37, 42, 43, 44, 54, 78, 79, Chemistry 52/58

Plant Biology (Ayres, Guerinot, Irwin, Jack, McClung, Peart, Schaller): Biology 21 or 51, 22, 26, 31, 54, 55, 57, 58, Chemistry 52/58

Plant Molecular Biology (Guerinot, Jack, McClung, Schaller): Biology 36, 38, 39, 45, 54, 63, 75, Chemistry 52/58

Secondary Education (Peterson): To be announced

*Note that Biology 40 requires Chemistry 51-52/57-58 as a prerequisite.

CULMINATING EXPERIENCES

One course among the six in the area of concentration must satisfy the culminating experience requirement. Any Biology course numbered 50 or above that is appropriate for the student's Area of Concentration will satisfy the culminating experience requirement. Each student will determine with their faculty mentor which course is suitable as a culminating experience for their Area of Concentration and interests. These courses include courses in the foreign study program, independent research courses, courses that focus on the primary literature in a discipline, and courses with substantial laboratory components and/or individual projects. The culminating experience course should be taken in a student's senior year, although a course taken in the junior year may in exceptional circumstances satisfy the culminating experience and requires the approval of the Department Chair or chair of the departmental Undergraduate Committee.

REQUIREMENTS FOR A BIOLOGY MODIFIED MAJOR

For a modified major, the area of concentration consists of four Biology courses and four suitable advanced courses from another department or combination of departments. Prerequisite and foundation course requirements remain the same.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BIOLOGY MINOR

A Biology Minor consists of completing Biology 11, two foundation courses, and three courses in the student's area of concentration.

ACADEMIC STANDING

Satisfactory completion of the Biology major or modified major requires obtaining a final grade point average of at least 2.00 in Biology 11 and all foundation and area of concentration courses applied to the major. No more than two transfer credits may be used for foundation and area of concentration courses.

CREDIT AND ADVANCED PLACEMENT

Starting with the class of 2009, the Department will give one unspecified credit for a biology course to students who receive a score of 5 on the CEEB Advanced Placement Test or a score of 6 or 7 on the Higher Level International Baccalaureate (IB) exam. This unspecified credit satisfies no prerequisite or major course requirements and allows no placement into advanced courses. Under exceptional circumstances, students (including those with IB credit) may request permission in writing, supplying suitable evidence of their preparation for placement into advanced courses, before the end of the fall term. Students who seek such credit should consult the faculty of the course in question and the chair of the departmental Undergraduate Committee. Except under exceptional circumstances, the Department gives no credit for courses taken at another college or university prior to matriculation at Dartmouth.

INDEPENDENT RESEARCH AND THE BIOLOGY HONORS PROGRAM

Biology majors are encouraged to undertake independent research in biology either as part of the Honors Program or separately. Participants in the Honors Program should enroll in Biology 97. The subject of the honors research project must be directly relevant to the student's area of concentration. Those who conduct research outside of the Honors Program should enroll in Biology 95.

Work on an Honors thesis normally extends through three terms. Candidates for Honors must meet the minimum College requirements. Application for the Program should be made no later than two weeks after the start of classes the term before it is selected. Plans for research should be made in the term before the project begins. Independent research conducted off campus during a leave/transfer term without the direct supervision of a faculty advisor from the Dartmouth College Department of Biological Sciences cannot be used to earn credit for Biology 95, 96, or 97.

Biology 97 (or 95) may be counted only once among the six courses for the area of concentration, but two terms of Biology 95, 96, or 97 may be taken for course credit towards graduation.

Each Honors candidate shall submit a thesis to a committee composed of three faculty members, including the thesis supervisor, at least two weeks before the end of the last term. At least two members of this committee must be members of the Biology faculty. Each candidate's Honors Program concludes with the candidate making a public presentation of her or his work, followed by an oral examination, conducted by the thesis committee, on the thesis work and related topics. The quality of the written thesis and the student's grasp of his or her research program as determined by their performance on the oral exam determines if the student's degree is awarded with honors.

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED DEGREES

The general requirements for advanced degrees are given in the Regulations for Graduate Study section. Each graduate student must receive credit for a set of courses chosen in consultation with the advisory committee. All graduate students are expected to participate in departmental colloquia and weekly seminars.

To receive the Ph.D. degree in Biology a candidate must satisfactorily:

1. Complete the course requirement, as described above.

2. Complete the teaching requirement as specified by the advisory committee.

3. Demonstrate mastery of conceptual and factual material in the major area of specialization in an oral examination.

4. Present and satisfactorily defend a thesis proposal before the advisory committee.

5. Satisfy the two-year residence requirement of the College.

6. Complete a doctoral dissertation.

7. Defend the dissertation before a faculty committee appointed for this purpose.

Although the graduate program is designed for students pursuing the Ph.D. degree, a master's degree may be awarded under special circumstances. To receive an M.S. degree in Biology, a candidate 1) must satisfactorily complete course and teaching requirements, as specified by the advisory committee, 2) complete a thesis, 3) defend the thesis in an oral examination before a faculty committee, and 4) satisfy the one-year residence requirement of the College.

2. Human Biology

06F, 07F: 11

A course designed to help students (biologists and non-biologists) understand the biological basis of human health and disease. The course will emphasize the fundamental aspects of biochemistry, genetics, cell and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy, reproductive biology, and function of various organs as they relate to humans. Particular emphasis will be placed on specific topics in human health and disease and how these issues affect us all individually in our own health and collectively in our international society.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Witters.

4. Genes and Society

07S, 08S: 10A

This course is designed for the humanities or social sciences major. It focuses on how our current understanding of genetic mechanisms has led to new biological insights and to the development of powerful technologies with far reaching implications for our society. It is the aim of this course to provide a solid understanding of the mechanisms of molecular genetics and to discuss implications of genetic engineering and related technologies to our every day lives. Although this course will focus on the science, we will also consider the ethical, political, human, and economic impacts of these technologies. Several guest lecturers will provide personal perspectives based on their experiences. The ultimate goal of the course is to provide an understanding of the biology and technology so that students can make informed decisions on issues that continually and increasingly arise in our society. Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Berger.

5. Philosophy of Biology

07X: 10A

This course will consider philosophical issues pertinent to the biological sciences. Topics may include genetic determinism, biology and ideology, the nature of experiment in biological practice, adaptationism, the species problem, the nature of biology as a historical science, concepts of fitness and function, the units of selection debate, and phylogenetic inference.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

6. Dinosaurs

08W: 2A

This course is designed for the non-major. It will cover all aspects of dinosaur biology including their origin and evolution, phylogeny, behavior, physiology, and extinction. Because dinosaurs will be placed in their biological and geological contexts, other topics will include the geological record, the processes of fossilization, and vertebrate evolution in general. Particular attention will be paid to current debates including the origin of birds and mass extinction. The goal of this course is to teach the basic principles of evolutionary biology using dinosaurs as exemplars of evolutionary patterns and processes.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Offered in alternate years. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

7. First-Year Seminars in Biology

Consult special listings

8. Clinical Biomedical Research (formerly 81)

06F, 07S, 07F, 08S: 2A

This course teaches the fundamentals of clinical biomedical research (CBR). The CBR curriculum offers a unique combination of direct involvement in ongoing clinical research studies with a comprehensive didactic program and experience conducting and designing clinical studies. Designated as Academic Associates, the students will spend time in the DHMC Emergency Department (E.D.) playing an integral role in patient identification, enrollment, and data collection for the ongoing clinical research studies. Coupled with this "hands-on" data collection in the E.D., the didactic program consists of weekly classes focusing on research design, data collection techniques, statistical analysis, and scientific poster preparation. At the completion of the course, each student will develop a "mock clinical research study".

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and permission of the instructor. Biology 2 and 29 or Mathematics 10 are also recommended. Dist: SCI. Curtis.

11. The Science of Life

06F: 9L, 10A 07W, 07S: 10A 07F: 9L 08W, 08S: 10A

Biology, like all of science, is a problem-solving endeavor. This course introduces students to a major problem in biology and considers it from many different perspectives, viewpoints and biological levels of organization. Along the way, students are exposed to many of the major concepts in biology, from molecules to ecosystems. Each offering will address a different major problem.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI.

In 06F at 9L, DNA to Diversity. We have chosen "DNA to Diversity" as a theme because we want to highlight how modern biology integrates all levels from the molecule to the diversity of life. As an organizing principle, we focus on the development of complex multicellular organisms. We will explore how cellular processes are driven by key developmental control genes, how cells communicate, and how these molecular and cellular mechanisms shape diverse forms of life. We will investigate how ecological forces drive natural selection, and how this and other evolutionary processes have sorted and sifted DNA mutations, producing DNA blueprints that direct development. Over the course of the term, students should gain a perspective on how genetic and environmental changes have produced the astonishing variety of species and life forms that now exist on earth, and how biologists are piecing that puzzle together. Jack, Peart.

In 06F at 10A, What is Life? Over the course of the last 4.5 billion years, life has faced a number of challenges, and in response has evolved a number of remarkable innovations. Incorporating data and perspectives from molecular and cellular biology, macroevolutionary theory, and paleobiology, this course will explore these innovations, including the origin of the cell, the origin(s) of DNA, and the origins of multicellularity, in an attempt to answer the question "What is Life?" We will see how many of these innovations have left "molecular fossils" and learn how to read this fossil record written in our very own DNA. Peterson, Sloboda.

In 07W at 10A, Frankenstein 2.0: Building a better human. Homo sapiens first emerged several hundred thousand years ago, but we have only recently begun to develop technologies by which we can fundamentally change what it means to be human. We will explore such subjects as gene therapy and therapeutic cloning, human cloning, stem cell research, and physical and mental enhancement. The potential for these technologies as well as ethical concerns about their use will be considered. By the end of the term, students will be expected to have created improved versions of themselves. Schaller, Sloboda.

In 07S at 10A, Emerging infectious diseases: how microbes rule the world. Emerging infectious diseases, which have shaped the course of humanity and caused untold suffering and death, will continue to challenge society as long as humans and microbes co-exist. This course will explore why infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge. The viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes that cause these diseases continually evolve in response to their hosts. Dynamic interactions between rapidly evolving infectious agents and changes in the environment and in host behavior provide such agents with favorable new ecological niches. In addition, dramatic increases in the worldwide movement of people and goods drive the globalization of disease. Guerinot, McPeek.

12. Cell Structure and Function

07W, 07S, 07F, 08S: 9L; Laboratory: Arrange

Biology 12 will provide a foundation in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the structure and function of eukaryotic cells. Topics include membrane transport, energy conversion, signal transduction, protein targeting, cell motility and the cytoskeleton, and the cell cycle. Emphasis will be placed on discussion of the experimental basis for understanding cell function. The laboratory section will provide students with hands-on experience in modern laboratory techniques including microscopy, cell fractionation, and protein purification.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Cannot be taken if Biology 15 or 19 was taken prior to 06F. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Smith, Gladfelter.

13. Gene Expression and Inheritance

07W: 9L 07X: 10 08W: 9L; Laboratory: Arrange

This course provides a foundation in genetics and molecular biology. Topics covered include the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. These concepts will be integrated into a discussion of contemporary problems and approaches in molecular genetics. Laboratories utilize basic molecular biology techniques to further investigate topics discussed in lecture.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Cannot be taken if Biology 16 or 23 was taken prior to 06F. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Dolph, Bickel.

14. Physiology

07W, 08W: 10

This course introduces students to the complexity of organisms by studying how their different organ systems strive to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of different environmental demands. The adaptive responses of selected organisms (humans, different animals and plants) to a variety of environmental factors will be studied from the molecular, cell, tissue, organ, and systems level of organization. Some of the topics to be covered include biological control systems (hormones, neurons) and coordinated body functions (circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, digestion). All systems studied will be integrated by analyzing how different organisms adapt to living in extreme environments (deserts, high altitude) or facing environmental demands (navigation, exercise).

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Cannot be taken if Biology 35 was taken prior to 06F. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SCI. Velez.

15. Microevolution (formerly 24)

07S: 2A 08W: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

A consideration of the genetics of natural populations and the process of organic evolution. Topics include the source and distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variation in nature; the forces which act on genetic variation (mutation, migration, selection, drift); the genetic basis of adaptation, speciation, and phyletic evolution.

Prerequisites: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Dietrich.

16. Ecology (formerly 14)

06F, 07W, 08S: 10; Laboratory: Arrange

This course examines fundamental concepts in the rapidly developing areas of ecology. These topics include the factors that limit the distributions and abundances of organisms, the effects that organisms have on ecosystems, the integration of ecosystems around the globe, and the conservation of species diversity. The class will also explore how the behavior and physiology of individual organisms shape both local and global patterns of distribution and abundance. Laboratories focus on experimental and quantitative analyses of local ecosystems, with an emphasis on field studies.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Irwin, McPeek.

20. Life's Innovations

07W: 12

Evolution has been an amazing problem solver, having created a huge variety of solutions to a few basic problems during the history of life. This course will introduce students to a number of these major problems and the solutions that bacteria, fungi, plants and animals have evolved. What is life? How can an organism solve many problems at one time? How should an organism make copies of itself? How do organisms acquire fuel to operate and then deal with the resulting waste by-products? How can an organism get from one place to another? How can an organism keep from becoming dinner for something else? These are some of the major problems that organisms face, and this class will explore how organisms have evolved to solve them. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. McPeek.

21. Population Ecology (formerly 54)

06F: 10A; Discussion: Arrange

This course explores the description of populations, population growth, and the determination of abundance. Examples will be drawn from a diversity of plant and animal taxa to illustrate the broad scope of population ecology, including its role as a foundation for evolutionary ecology and community ecology, and its contributions to applied problems in conservation biology, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. Throughout, this course will emphasize the development of verbal, graphical, and mathematical models to describe populations, generate predictions, test hypotheses, and formalize theory. No student may receive course credit for both Biology 21 and Biology 51, Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 16. Dist: SCI. Ayres.

22. Methods in Ecology

07X: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

This course is an introduction to sampling and survey methodologies for populations and communities in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The course will be divided into week-long modules, each focusing on a particular group of organisms in the environment. A great deal of emphasis will be placed on h hypothesis generation, experimental design and statistical analysis. Participation in the laboratory/field component is both required and critical as one of the primary benefits of this course will be "on the ground" training in field methods.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. Cottingham.

23. Aquatic Ecology (formerly 53)

07F: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

A study of the interaction between biological communities and their aquatic environment. Lectures and readings provide the scientific background necessary for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of freshwater habitats. Emphasis is placed on application of fundamental concepts to problems in conservation and management of aquatic systems and species. The laboratory and field work are designed to acquaint the student with modern methodological approaches to the study of aquatic ecosystems. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. The staff.

24. Vertebrate Zoology (formerly 50)

07W, 08W: 12

This course will examine origins, diversity, structure and function within and among the vertebrate classes (including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We will consider the evolution of the vertebrate body plan and innovations associated with common organ systems (e.g., skeletal, muscular, digestive, sensory, etc.) shared by different taxa. In addition, we will consider specialization of form and function to the diverse ecology of vertebrates as well as the manner in which very different taxa cope with similar habitats and environmental demands. In so doing, we will draw on evolutionary principles such as adaptation, convergent and parallel evolution and evolutionary constraints. The course will primarily consist of lecture and readings with examination of specimens and opportunities for off-campus field trips.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist. SCI. Mbora.

25. Introductory Marine Biology and Ecology (description change pending approval)

06F, 07F: 11

A course designed both for biology majors and other students interested in the interrelationships between marine organisms and their physical and biological environments. The course emphasizes the marine environment as an ecosystem with special focus on communities in coastal margin, open ocean, and deep sea habitats ranging from polar to tropical latitudes. Applied issues relevant to human impact and conservation in marine ecosystems will also be covered.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Chen.

26. Ecosystem Ecology (formerly 51)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will examine the role of organisms in ecosystem functioning, particularly the movement of materials and energy through terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, homework exercises, and in-class midterm and final exams. Topics to be covered include food webs, ecosystem productivity, energy budgets, nutrient budgets and nutrient cycling, ecosystem stability, and the role of individual species in ecosystem functioning. Emphasis will be placed on evaluating the contributions of ecosystem ecology to current environmental problems. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist. SCI.

27. Animal Behavior (formerly 33)

08S: 10; Laboratory-Discussion: Arrange

The causation, development, integration, evolution, and adaptive value of behavioral patterns of animals as individuals and in groups. Emphasis will be on vertebrates, but examples will also be drawn from all animal phyla. Topics include ethology, communication, orientation, and social organization. Laboratory work will emphasize field studies. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SLA. Calsbeek.

28. Macroevolution

07S: 2A

This course focuses on evolution above the level of individual species, and is designed to complement Biology 15. We will first examine the evolution of whales to learn the basic principles and methodology of macroevolutionary analysis. Then, using these tools, we will examine in detail the origin of animals, the Cambrian explosion, and their subsequent evolution from the Cambrian to the Recent. Topics covered will include body plan evolution and development, rates of morphological and molecular evolution, punctuated evolution, group selection theory, and mass extinction. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

29. Biostatistics

07W, 08W: 9L; Laboratory M or Tu 1:45-5:45

The course will cover basic descriptive statistics, simple probability theory, the fundamentals of statistical inference, regression and correlation, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, basic analyses of frequency data and non-parametric statistics, and the general philosophy of experimental design. We will explore these topics from the perspective of biological applications. Examples will be drawn from all subdisciplines of biology (e.g. biochemical kinetics, development, physiology, ecology, evolution).

Prerequisites: Biology 11. Dist: QDS. Cottingham.

31. Physiological Ecology (formerly 59)

07S: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

What factors determine the distribution and abundance of organisms? What are the consequences of climate change for biological communities? This course is an exploration of environmental effects on fundamental physiological processes in plants and animals. Abiotic factors, such as temperature and water availability, interact with biotic forces, such as predation, herbivory, and competition, to constrain the ability of organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce. Physiological solutions that allow success in one environment may preclude it in another. This course seeks to build up from physiological principles to understand characteristics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Laboratories will challenge students to generate and test their own hypotheses using contemporary theoretical frameworks and modern research apparatus. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. Ayres.

34. Neurobiology

06F, 07F: 11; Laboratory: Arrange

This course emphasizes a cellular approach to the study of nervous systems. The study of the cellular basis of neuronal activity will form the foundation for studies on sensory physiology, the control of muscle movement, and neuronal integration. Selected topics of current research activities with vertebrate and invertebrate species will be discussed in order to provide a perspective on how the field of neuroscience is developing. Laboratory exercises will provide the opportunity to learn extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording techniques.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 14. Dist: SLA. Velez.

35. Human Physiology

07S: 11

This course is an introduction to the biochemical aspects of human physiology. The adaptive responses of different human organ systems will be studied from the molecular, cellular, organ and systems level of organization. Topics to be covered include biological control systems (nerves, hormones, sensory and muscle cells) and coordinated body functions (circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, digestion). All the different organ systems working together during exercise will provide a framework for the final course synthesis.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 or 14. Cannot be taken if Biology 35 was taken prior to 06F. Dist: SCI. Velez.

36. History of Genetics (formerly 70)

07F: 2A

This course is a survey of the history of genetics for students with some knowledge of genetics such as Biology 13 or 15. Proceeding from Galton to the present, this course will emphasize the main intellectual trends in genetics as well as the interconnection between genetics and society. Topics for discussion will include whether Gregor Mendel was a Mendelian, the importance of Thomas Hunt Morgan's Drosophila network, the relationship between eugenics and genetics, the effect of Atomic Energy Commission report on human genetics, and the impact of molecular biology. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

37. Endocrinology

07S, 08S: 10A

The regulatory functions, physiology and molecular mechanisms of the endocrine system and related metabolic pathways will be explored with an emphasis on human and mammalian biology. Course requires a student paper on selected topics, stemming from an examination of the biology and pathobiology of these systems in health and disease. These topics will be drawn, in part, from timely publications in the biomedical literature.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 and 13; Biology 14 recommended. Dist: SCI. Witters.

38. Experimental Genetic Analysis

07S, 08S: 11; Laboratory: Arrange

This course provides in-depth coverage of the analysis of gene transmission and function. Biology 38 will build on material covered in Biology 13, emphasizing the use of model organisms to obtain information relevant to important problems in human genetics. Investigative laboratory exercises will reinforce and complement material covered in lecture.

Prerequisite: Biology 13. Dist: SLA. Lambie.

39. Computational Molecular Biology (formerly 68)

08W: 10A

Computers and computer programs have become essential tools in modern molecular biology. As the amount of DNA and protein sequence data continues to grow, the use and understanding of these computational tools is becoming increasingly important. Deriving biological understanding from sequence data requires sophisticated computer analyses while demanding from molecular biologists the ability to interpret intelligently the results from these analyses. Not only can these programs provide the biologist with information about his or her sequence of interest, but a solid understanding of these tools can also be used to make predictions of biological phenomena that can be tested in the lab. This course will explore computational molecular biology through both lectures and hands-on computer experimentation through homework assignments.

This course will discuss approaches to analyzing protein and DNA sequences and will foster an understanding of how to extract biologically relevant information from the numerous databases containing all this information. Topics will include basic computer architecture and operating systems, database design and searching, sequence comparisons, pattern discovery, genome comparisons, gene discovery, determining evolutionary relationships, RNA and protein structure predictions, data mining, and DNA array analysis. No computer programming experience is needed, but familiarity with using the Internet is recommended.

Prerequisites: Biology 13. Dist: SCI. Gross.

40. Biochemistry (formerly 77)

06F, 07F: 10; Discussion W or Th 2:00-3:00

This course studies molecular structure and function from a biochemical point of view, emphasizing the biochemistry of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Topics include protein structure and function, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, lipids and membranes, and carbohydrates and cell walls. The participation of these biomolecules in metabolism is also discussed, and focuses on the metabolic pathways of glycolysis, glucogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The course concludes with a look at the integration of metabolism in mammals.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and Chemistry 52 or 58 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Schaller.

42. Biology of the Immune Response (formerly 66)

07W, 08W: 9L

This course will consider immunoglobulin structure, antigen-antibody reactions, complement, hypersensitivity, immunogenetics, immunodeficiency, tumor immunology and therapy, and autoimmunity.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 13, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Fanger.

43. Developmental Biology (formerly 27)

06F, 07F: 9L

An analysis of early cell and tissue development leading to organ differentiation. Fertilization, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation will be considered in terms of recent advances in developmental biology.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 13. Dist: SCI. Erives.

44. Integrative Cell Physiology

07S, 08S: 12

In this course students will extend their knowledge of cell biology by exploring several functional relationships between various fundamental cellular processes. For example, how do extracellular signals mediate cytoskeletal rearrangements that allow cells to move? What is the relationship between mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and controlled cell death? What controls organelle biogenesis? Discussions will emphasize modern experimental approaches for investigating cell function.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13. Dist: SCI. Smith.

45. Molecular Biology

07S, 08S: 10

This course will build upon the material presented in Biology 13 with in depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying fundamental processes including DNA replication, transcription and translation in bacteria and eukaryotes. Key regulatory events that influence gene expression will be discussed including the function of promoters and enhancers, chromatin structure and epigenetics, RNA mediated silencing and mRNA processing. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how molecular techniques are used to elucidate critical aspects of these processes. Selected papers from the primary literature will be presented to illustrate current advances.

Prerequisite: Biology 13. Cannot be taken if Biology 23 was taken prior to 06F. Dist SCI. Grotz.

46. Microbiology (formerly 64)

06F, 07F: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

A lecture, discussion, and laboratory course considering the biology of microorganisms, with emphasis on bacteria. Topics such as structure, function, genetics, and metabolism of bacterial cells will be covered. The ecological role of various species of microorganisms will also be discussed.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, or 16. Dist: SLA. Guerinot, O'Toole.

47. Human Genomics

07W: 2

This course is an introduction to genomics, the study of biological organisms from a whole-genome perspective, and focuses on the genome of Homo sapiens and its relations to other genomes. Some of the topics discussed include: the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the human genome; the human gene complement; evolution of vertebrate and human genomes; comparative primate genomics; human nucleotide diversity and the human haplotype map; drug discovery in the post-genomic era; and a variety of experimental whole genome approaches for identifying global changes in gene regulation (e.g. subtractive hybridization, micro-array analysis, serial analysis of gene expression and whole-genome bioinformatics).

Prerequisites: Biology 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. Erives.

50. Biological Modeling (formerly 44) (title change pending approval)

08S: 2

Models are a basic tool for scientific experimentation, synthesis, and prediction. Especially in the ecological sciences, models are essential for evaluating how multiple factors interact simultaneously to generate observed system behavior. This course will examine how models can be used to clearly state hypotheses, frame research questions, analyze data, generate predictions, and make decisions. Focus will be on the assumptions, construction, and use of models, rather than on pre-programmed computer implementations. By the end of the course, students should understand the complex linkages between the natural world, data, and conceptual and mathematical models.

Prerequisite: One course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: QDS. Borsuk.

51. Advanced Population Ecology

06F: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

This course explores theory and data regarding properties of biological populations. Topics of lectures and analytical exercises include: descriptions of abundance, dispersion, and demographic schedules; applying life tables and matrix models to understand population growth and age structure; life history theory; influence of endogenous feedbacks and exogenous forces on population dynamics; spatial patterns and processes; and contributions of population ecology to applied issues in conservation, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. No student may receive course credit for both Biology 21 and Biology 51.

Prerequisites: Biology 16 and one course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: SCI. Ayres.

52. Behavioral Ecology

07S: 2A; Laboratory/field: Arrange

This course will consider the evolutionary and ecological factors influencing or determining the behavior of animals in natural communities. Topics include foraging behavior, habitat selection, mating and breeding systems, territoriality, aggression and competitive behavior interactions. Seminar format, with lectures and discussions based on readings of primary literature. Laboratories will be devoted to studies of the ecology and behavior of terrestrial vertebrates in local environments. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 27. Enrollment limited. Dist: SLA. Mbora.

53. Molecular Evolution (formerly 73)

07F: 9L

Modern molecular techniques have opened a new door on our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. The ability to sequence DNA and proteins has also provided a huge volume of data that is difficult to manage and make sense of. In this course, we will explore how DNA and protein sequences evolve, how DNA replication influences gene evolution, how the ecology and demography of organisms shape patterns of genetic diversity, how interactions between the genomes of different organisms shape patterns of genetic diversity, how interactions between the genomes of different organisms shape the evolution of diseases, and how interactions among genes shape the entire genome. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 28, 36, 38, 39, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. McPeek.

54. Plant Development (formerly 42)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will cover a range of topics including the development of the embryo, root, trichome, leaf, flower, ovule, and seed. This literature-based course focuses on molecular genetic approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Prerequisite: Biology 38, 43 or 45. Dist: SCI.

55. Ecology of Tropical Ecosystems

07W, 08W: D.F.S.P.

(Description pending faculty approval) The Biology Foreign Studies Program exposes students, through intensive, full-immersion study, to Earth's most diverse biological communities on land (tropical forests) and in the ocean (coral reefs; see Biology 57). Students are challenged to know, understand and appreciate the diversity of form and function in organisms, and the interactions that generate the often-spectacular patterns they see in the field. Habitats include lowland rain forest, cloud forest, dry forest, montane forest, alpine paramo, streams and wetlands. Emphasis is on learning field and analytical methods (including hypothesis testing, statistical and software skills) for observational and experimental studies. The schedule includes fieldwork, laboratories, lectures, discussions, and research projects. Research papers are published in an annual book. The course is closely integrated with Biology 57. Accommodations are at field stations in Costa Rica.

Prerequisites: Biology 16, one course from among Biology 20-28, 31; acceptance into program, Biology 15 and 29 recommended. Dist: SLA. Peart.

56. Coral Reef Ecology

07W, 08W: D.F.S.P.

(Description pending faculty approval) Field and laboratory investigations of marine organisms and coral reef communities. Lecture and research topics include studies of algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, and fish, with emphasis on populations, interspecific interactions, community structure and energetics. The course is based at the Little Cayman Research Center, Little Cayman Island. Scuba diving is optional. See Biology 55 for an overview of the Biology Foreign Studies Program.

Prerequisites: Biology 55 (taken in same term). Dist: SLA. Peart.

57. Field Research in Tropical Ecology

07W, 08W: D.F.S.P.

(Description pending faculty approval) Students conduct a series of research projects to test ecological hypotheses in tropical communities. Topics include plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions, determinants of plant and animal distribution, and behavior. Emphasis is on the classic scientific approach: making observations, asking testable questions, developing experimental protocols, data collection and statistical inference, writing of scientific papers, and seminar presentation. This course is closely integrated with Biology 55; see Biology 55 for an overview of the Biology Foreign Studies Program. Accommodations are at field stations in Costa Rica.

Prerequisites: Biology 55 (taken in same term). Dist: SLA. Irwin.

58. Advanced Community Ecology

08W: 9L

This course will examine the various mechanisms structuring ecological communities of plants and animals. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, and individual projects. Topics to be covered include simple two-species interactions (e.g. predation, competition, parasitism, mutualisms), simultaneous multispecies interactions, food web structure, regulation of species diversity on ecological and evolutionary time scales, community succession, and biogeography. Emphasis will be placed on the development of mathematical models and their relationship to empirical studies. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15, 16 and one course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: SCI. Irwin.

 

60. Evolutionary Ecology (Pending faculty approval)

07W: Arrange

Prerequisites: Biology 21, 27, 28 or 31. Calsbeek.

61. Molecular Genetics of Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes

07W, 08W: 2

Structure, function, organization, and control of genes in bacteriophage, bacteria, and fungi. Strategies for control of gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Mechanisms for rearrangement and exchange of genetic material and the implications of such processes for the release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment.

Prerequisites: Biology 45; Biology 46 recommended. Dist: SCI. Grotz.

62. Evolutionary Developmental Biology

08S: 2A

The focus of this course is the interface between developmental biology, evolutionary biology, paleontology, and systematics. Lectures will focus on the mechanistic aspects of animal development including cis-regulatory DNA and cell- signaling systems, cladistics, the fossil record, and animal physiology. The evolution of animal development will be discussed in great detail paying particular attention to the origin and evolution of animal body plans. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 28 or 43. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

63. Developmental Genetics

06F: 10A

Selected topics in developmental genetics, with emphasis on recent work involving model systems, e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus. The following areas may be considered in depth: oogenesis, spermatogenesis, fertilization, germ cell determination, embryonic and postembryonic induction, sex determination, axis specification, cell adhesion, and cell migration.

Prerequisite: Biology 38 or 43 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Lambie.

65. Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotes

06F, 07F: 2

Lectures dealing with the structure, function, organization, dynamics, and regulation of genes in higher eukaryotes and their viruses. Topics ranging from transposition of genes, to regulation of transcription, to targeted gene disruption in transgenic organisms will be covered. New topics in the literature will be included as well.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Grotz.

66. Molecular Basis of Cancer

07W, 08W: 10A

In this course we will explore how cancer develops on a cellular level. Using primary literature as a guide, we will examine the basic cellular processes malignant tumors exploit to promote their rapid, invasive growth and ultimately disease. Topics that will be considered include the genetic factors that initiate cancer cell formation, cell cycle regulation, programmed cell death, cell signaling, angiogenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as how current cancer therapies work on a cellular level.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 38, 44, 45 or permission of instructor. Dist: SCI. Gladfelter.

67. Molecular Pathogenesis of Fungi and Parasites

07W, 08W: 2A

Lectures and discussion about the biology, ecology, genetic, biochemistry and pathology of eukaryotic pathogens which are important causes of infectious diseases. Biochemical similarities between mammalian host cells and eukaryotic pathogens limit options for therapeutic strategies, challenge drug discovery efforts and heighten the impact of drug resistant organisms. The course emphasizes fungi which are major pathogens in AIDS and other immunosuppressed patients and will touch on parasites such as malaria which devastate human populations world-wide.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 and 46. Biology 40 and 42 are also recommended. Dist: SCI. Sundstrom.

69. Cell Signaling

07S, 08S: 10A

This course will focus on how signals are transmitted from the cell surface into changes in cellular function. Detailed analysis of specific membrane receptors, second-messenger systems, and protein kinases will be presented as well as how these components are integrated into larger "systems" such as apoptosis, metabolic signaling, synaptic transmission, and sensory transduction. Particular emphasis will be on the biochemical analysis of the pathways and their individual components as well as how these pathways are impaired in certain disease states. The course will consist of lectures and weekly discussions of recent primary literature.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13, and at least one course from the following list: Biology 40, 44, 45, Chemistry 41. Dist: SCI. Dolph.

71. Advanced Topics in Cell Biology

07S, 08S: 2A

This course will cover in depth one or more specific topics in cell biology such as cell division, chromosome structure and function, signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, membrane assembly, and intracellular protein targeting. Material will be presented in a manner designed to encourage student comments and to demonstrate how modern molecular, biochemical, immunological, and genetic techniques are employed to study problems in cell biology. Reading assignments will be taken from the current research literature.

Prerequisites: Biology 12, 13 and one from among Biology 38, 44 or 45. Dist: SCI. Bickel.

74. Advanced Neurobiology

08S: 10A

A seminar course that considers recent advances in specific areas of neurobiology. Topics to be discussed will be selected among ion channels, neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission, intracellular signaling pathways, synaptic connections, neuronal plasticity, brain biochemistry, behavioral neurobiology or developmental neurobiology. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 34. Dist: SCI. Velez.

75. Genomic Circuitry

08S: 10

Many genomes, including the human genome, have been sequenced. Now, increasing attention has turned to a cryptic, yet fundamental component of these genomes: gene circuitry, i.e. the "wiring" that links together activated genes in a genomic program. Specialized DNA sequences determine where and when a given gene is expressed during an organism's life cycle. These genomic "regulatory" sequences play a major role in basic evolutionary processes. How do regulatory sequences encode differential gene expression?do they evolve? How do we identify and decode them? This course will investigate these questions as well as landmark papers necessary to understand present and future work in this field.

Prerequisites: Biology 39, 43, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. Erives.

76. Advanced Genetics

06F, 08S: 3A

Methods and strategies for the analysis of gene structure, function and genetic interactions. The course will examine how the genetic manipulation of model organisms, including yeast, Drosophila, C. elegans, and mouse, is used to explore the mechanisms of fundamental biological processes such as cell division, development, and intercellular communication. Emphasis will be placed on the application of classical genetic methods, including mutant screens, recombination and complementation analysis, genetic mosaics, and the use of conditional mutations. Modern molecular-based approaches, including gene knockout, gene dosage and misexpression studies will also be included. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 38, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. Berger.

78. Molecular Mysteries of Human Biology

07W, 08W: 9L

Knowledge of molecular mechanisms allows new approaches to understanding human biology and disease. This course will explore the normal and abnormal biology of several human conditions relying on biochemistry, molecular genetics, and physiology as tools of inquiry. Examples will be drawn from the histories of John Hunter, Mona Lisa, Michel-Eug√®ne Chevruel, Hendrickje St√δffels. Sarah Jacob, Paul C√©zanne, Lance Armstrong, and Pearl Buck among others.

Open only to junior and senior Biology majors or with permission of the instructor.

Prerequisites: Biology 13, and Biology 40 or Chemistry 41. A prior course on some aspect of mammalian physiology is strongly recommended (e.g. Biology 2, 14, 35 or 37). Dist: SCI. Witters.

79. Genetics and Physiology of Behavior

07W, 08W: 2A

Examination of the genetic, physiological, cellular, and molecular basis of behavior and responses to environmental factors in eukaryotic organisms. Topics to be covered from the current and classic literature will include circadian rhythmicity, learning and memory, and other areas of current research, and will vary somewhat from year to year.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 and permission of the instructor Dist: SCI. Dunlap.

95. Independent Research in Biology I (formerly 85)

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a biological problem with associated study of primary literature sources under the supervision of a member of the staff for one academic term. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors. Projects may include laboratory or field research or modeling that will further understanding of a relevant basic or applied research problem. May be taken as one course in the major by students not enrolled in the honors program. Students electing both Biology 95 and Biology 97 may count only one among the six courses in the area of concentration. In no case may a student elect more than two courses among Biology 95, 96, and 97.

Prerequisites: at least two Biology courses above the foundation level, a 2.67 average in previous biology courses, and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor. The application and research proposal must be submittedleast one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

96. Independent Research in Biology II (formerly 86)

All terms: Arrange

A second term of original and independent investigation of a biological problem under the supervision of a member of the staff. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors who have satisfied the requirements for Biology 95 and who wish to continue their independent research for a second term. Does not count for credit in the major.

Prerequisites: Satisfactory completion of Biology 95 (including research paper) and permission of both the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor(s). The application and research proposal must be submitted at least two weeks prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

97. Honors Research in Biology (formerly 87)

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a biological problem with associated study of primary literature sources under the supervision of a member of the staff. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors. Projects may include laboratory or field research or modeling that will further understanding of a relevant basic or applied research problem. Required of honors students as part of the major. Students taking both Biology 95 and Biology 97 may count only one term of the latter among the elective courses for their major, but can receive College credit for Biology 99. In no case may a student elect more than two courses among Biology 95 and 97.

Prerequisites: at least two Biology courses above the foundation level, a 3.0 average in previous Biology courses, and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor, obtained no later than two weeks after the start of classes the term before it is selected. The staff.

99. Senior Seminar in Biology

07S, 08S: Arrange

This course will focus on presentation techniques and critical evaluation of other students' research and presentations. Students who have conducted Independent Research will present background information related to their research projects, develop seminars based on their own findings, and receive feedback. All students taking Biology 97 are encouraged to enroll in this seminar as a seventh course in their area of concentration.

Prerequisites: Senior standing and previous or current enrollment in Biology 97. The staff.

GRADUATE COURSES

110. Scientific Integrity and Research Ethics

07F: Arrange

This course is designed to introduce scientific researchers to issues in research ethics. We will emphasize foundational principles underlying scientific integrity and their application to a range of issues including data management, animal and human subjects, collaboration, mentoring, peer review and the ethical implications of different forms of scientific research. Analysis and presentation of case studies will constitute important focal points for discussion in class meetings. Dietrich.

120. Advanced Population Ecology

06F: 10A

This course explores the description of populations, population growth, and the determination of abundance. Examples are drawn from a diversity of plant and animal taxa to illustrate the broad scope of population ecology, including its role as a foundation for evolutionary ecology and community ecology, and its contributions to applied problems in conservation biology, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. Throughout, this course will emphasize the development of verbal, graphical, and mathematical models to describe populations, generate predictions, test hypotheses, and formalize theory.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor is required. Ayres.

123. Advanced Community Ecology

08W: 9L

This course examines the mechanisms structuring ecological communities of plants and animals. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, and individual projects. Topics to be covered include simple two-species interactions (e.g. predation, competition, parasitism, mutualisms), simultaneous multispecies interactions, food web structure, regulation of species diversity on ecological and evolutionary time scales, community succession, and biogeography. Emphasis will be placed on the development of mathematical models and their relationship to empirical studies. Permission of the instructor is required. Irwin.

125. The Nature and Practice of Science

07S: Arrange

This course compares and contrasts the nature and practice of science across the range of contemporary biological disciplines. Topics include: What is science? What is the structure of scientific knowledge? What are the philosophical, logical, and practical aspects of hypothesis testing? What are intellectual strategies for successful research in biology? What is the role of ethics in science? Format includes readings, exercises, and discussion. Alternate years. Ayres, Dietrich.

128, 129. Statistics and Experimental Design I and II

07W, 07F: Arrange

This is a two-term, graduate-level sequence in statistics and experimental design as applied to biological systems. There will be lectures and laboratories, regular homework assignments, and a major project of statistical analysis. Topics during the first term include sampling distributions and general hypothesis testing, contingency table analysis, correlation, and regression (linear, polynomial and logistic regression, and model selection techniques). Topics in the second term include analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, experimental design (e.g., factorial, blocked, latin squares, nested, and split plot designs), and a number of nonparametric techniques. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical computer software (SAS) in performing analyses. Alternate years.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and at least one elementary course in statistics. Cottingham, Borsuk.

139. Computational Molecular Biology (formerly 168)

08W: 10A

Computers and computer programs have become essential tools in modern molecular biology. As the amount of DNA and protein sequence data continues to grow, the use and understanding of these computational tools is becoming increasingly important. Deriving biological understanding from sequence data requires sophisticated computer analyses while demanding from molecular biologists the ability to interpret intelligently the resultsthese analyses. Not only can these programs provide the biologist with information about his or her sequence of interest, but a solid understanding of these tools can also be used to make predictions of biological phenomena that can be tested in the lab. This course will explore computational molecular biology through both lectures and hands-on computer experimentation through homework assignments.

This course will discuss approaches to analyzing protein and DNA sequences and will foster an understanding of how to extract biologically relevant information from the numerous databases containing all this information. Topics will include basic computer architecture and operating systems, database design and searching, sequence comparisons, pattern discovery, genome comparisons, gene discovery, determining evolutionary relationships, RNA and protein structure predictions, data mining, and DNA array analysis. No computer programming experience is needed, but familiarity with using the Internet is recommended. Offered in alternate years. Gross.

150. Biological Modeling (formerly 44) (title change pending approval)

08S: 2

Models are a basic tool for scientific experimentation, synthesis, and prediction. Especially in the ecological sciences, models are essential for evaluating how multiple factors interact simultaneously to generate observed system behavior. This course will examine how models can be used to clearly state hypotheses, frame research questions, analyze data, generate predictions, and make decisions. Focus will be on the assumptions, construction, and use of models, rather than on pre-programmed computer implementations. By the end of the course, students should understand the complex linkages between the natural world, data, and conceptual and mathematical models. Borsuk.

154. Plant Development

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will cover a range of topics including the development of the embryo, root, trichome, leaf, flower, ovule, and seed. This literature-based course focuses on molecular genetic approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana. Jack.

161. Molecular Genetics of Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes

07W, 08W: 2

Structure, function, organization, and control of genes in bacteriophage, bacteria, and fungi. Strategies for control of gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Mechanisms for rearrangement and exchange of genetic material and the implications of such processes for the release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. Grotz.

162. Evolutionary Developmental Biology

08S: 2A

The focus of this course is the interface between developmental biology, evolutionary biology, paleontology, and systematics. Lectures will focus on the mechanistic aspects of animal development including cis regulatory DNA and cell signaling systems, cladistics, the fossil record, and animal physiology. The evolution of animal development will be discussed in great detail paying particular attention to the origin and evolution of bilaterian body plans. Offered in alternate years. Peterson.

163. Developmental Genetics

06F: 10A

Selected topics in developmental genetics, with emphasis on recent work involving model systems, e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus. The following areas may be considered in depth: oogenesis, sper

matogenesis, fertilization, germ cell determination, embryonic and postembryonic induction, sex determination, axis specification, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Lambie.

165. Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotes

06F, 07F: 2

Lectures dealing with the structure, function, organization, dynamics, and regulation of genes in higher eukaryotes and their viruses. Topics ranging from transposition of genes, to regulation of transcription, to targeted gene disruption and gene replacement in transgenic organisms will be covered. New topics in the literature will be included as well. Grotz.

166. Molecular Basis of Cancer

07W, 08W: 10A

In this course we will explore how cancer develops on a cellular level. Using primary literature as a guide, we will examine the basic cellular processes malignant tumors exploit to promote their rapid, invasive growth and ultimately disease. Topics that will be considered include the genetic factors that initiate cancer cell formation, cell cycle regulation, programmed cell death, cell signaling, angiogenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as how current cancer therapies work on a cellular level. Gladfelter.

169. Supervised Teaching in Biology

All terms: Arrange

This course is required for all graduate students, based on the assertion that an essential element of graduate education is the experience gained in teaching other students. Such teaching experience is of particular relevance to students interested in academic careers. Students will conduct laboratory or discussion sessions in undergraduate courses under the supervision of the course faculty. The faculty and student teaching assistant work very closely to develop lab and discussion assignments. In some cases, the students are encouraged to present lectures for which they receive detailed feedback on their teaching style. In all cases students will receive instruction on effective teaching techniques through weekly preparation sessions. Topics for discussion include how to teach the material, how to run a discussion, how to evaluate student responses, and grading. Performance will be monitored throughout the term and appropriate evaluation, coupled with detailed suggestions for improvement, will be provided. This course is not open to undergraduates. The staff.

171. Advanced Cell Biology

07S, 08S: 2A

This course will cover in depth one or more specific topics in cell biology such as cell division, chromosome structure and function, signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, membrane assembly, and intracellular protein targeting. Material will be presented in a manner designed to encourage student comments and to demonstrate how modern molecular, biochemical, immunological, and genetic techniques are employed to study problems in cell biology. Reading assignments will be taken from the current research literature. Bickel.

173. Cell Signaling

07S, 08S: 10A

This course will focus on how signals are transmitted from the cell surface into changes in cellular function. Detailed analysis of specific membrane receptors, second-messenger systems, and protein kinases will be presented as well as how these components are integrated into larger "systems" such as apoptosis, metabolic signaling, synaptic transmission, and sensory transduction. Particular emphasis will be on the biochemical analysis of the pathways and their individual components as well as how these pathways are impaired in certain disease states. The course will consist of lectures and weekly discussions of recent primary literature. Dolph.

175. Genomic Circuitry

08S: 10

Many genomes, including the human genome, have been sequenced. Now, increasing attention has turned to a cryptic, yet fundamental component of these genomes: gene circuitry, i.e. the "wiring" that links together activated genes in a genomic program. Specialized DNA sequences determine where and when a given gene is expressed during an organism's life cycle. These genomic "regulatory" sequences play a major role in basic evolutionary processes. How do regulatory sequences encode differential gene expression? How do they evolve? How do we identify and decode them? This course will investigate these questions as well as landmark papers necessary to understand present and future work in this field. Erives.

176. Advanced Genetics

06F, 08S: 3A

Methods and strategies for the analysis of gene structure, function and genetic interactions. The course will examine how the genetic manipulation of model organisms, including yeast, Drosophila, C. elegans, and mouse, is used to explore the mechanisms of fundamental biological processes such as cell division, development, and intercellular communication. Emphasis will be placed on the application of classical genetic methods, including mutant screens, recombination and complementation analysis, genetic mosaics, and the use of conditional mutations. Modern molecular-based approaches, including gene knockout, gene dosage and misexpression studies will also be included. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Berger.

197. Graduate Research I: Level I

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries one course credit and should be elected by students conducting research and also electing two or more other graduate or undergraduate courses. The staff.

198. Graduate Research I: Level II

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries two course credits and should be elected by students electing only departmental colloquia in addition to research. The staff.

199. Graduate Research I: Level III

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries three course credits and should be elected by students conducting research exclusively in any one term. The staff.

263-270. Graduate Research Colloquium in Biological Sciences

F, W, S: Arrange

This course is required of all students during each term of residence, except summer. An essential element of scientific training is in the critical analysis and communication of experimental research in an oral format. Evaluation will be based on quality of the workquality of critical analysis, and on presentation style, including effective use of audiovisual materials. All students will be required to participate in at least one Journal Club/Research in Progress series. Although minor variations in format exist among the several series, all students will make oral presentations that describe work from the current literature or their own research. Normally these series meet weekly. This course is not open to undergraduates. The staff.

Biology 263, Cell Biology

Biology 265, Microbial Ecology and Environmental Biology

Biology 266, Ecology and Evolution

Biology 268, Genes and Gene Products

Biology 269, Plant Molecular Biology

Biology 270, Computational Biology

271. Research in Progress Colloquium

07S, 08S: Arrange

This course is designed to monitor participation of first year MCB graduate students in the Research in Progress Seminars. The Research in Progress Seminars are presentations by MCB students, second year and older. These Research in Progress Seminars meet five times per month for 1-1.5 hours from September through May. The course will be taken by all first year MCB students in the Spring term, and the course will monitor Research in Progress Seminar participation throughout the first year.

297. Graduate Research II: Level I

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, subsequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries one course credit and should be elected by students conducting research and also electing two or more other graduate or undergraduate courses. The staff.

298. Graduate Research II: Level II

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, subsequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries two course credits and should be elected by students electing only departmental colloquia in addition to research. The staff.

299. Graduate Research II: Level III

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, subsequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries three course credits and should be elected by students conducting research exclusively in any one term. The staff.

 

Biological Sciences

Chair: Thomas P. Jack

Professors E. M. Berger, C. L. Folt, M. L. Guerinot, C. R. McClung, M. A. McPeek, D. R. Peart, R. D. Sloboda, L. A. Witters; Associate Professors M. P. Ayres, S. E. Bickel, K. L. Cottingham, M. R. Dietrich, P. J. Dolph, R. H. Gross, T. P. Jack, E. J. Lambie, K. J. Peterson, G. E. Schaller, E. F. Smith, S. J. Velez; Assistant Professors R. Calsbeek, A. J. Erives, A. S. Gladfelter, R. E. Irwin; Lecturer N. M. Grotz; Professor Emeritus J. J. Gilbert; Research Professor Emeritus R. T. Holmes; Adjunct Professors J. C. Dunlap, M. W. Fanger, A. J. Friedland, N. J. Jacobs, L. R. Lynd, R. K. Taylor, R. A. Virginia; Adjunct Associate Professors D. T. Bolger, T. U. Gerngross, G. A. O'Toole, P. R. Sundstrom; Adjunct Assistant Professors K. M. Curtis, K. H. Nislow; Research Professor G. C. Ruben; Research Associate Professors C. Y. Chen, E. B. Dubrovsky, R. S. Stemberger; Research Assistant Professors M. E. Borsuk, V. A. Dubrovskaya; Croasdale Fellow D. N. M. Mbora.

REQUIREMENTS FOR MAJORS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

The biological sciences are a diverse collection of scientific disciplines that interact and intermingle in tremendously complex and interesting ways. To provide the maximum potential for students to explore this vast area of science, the Department of Biological Sciences offers a flexible major that allows students to select coursework to fit their individual interests and career aspirations. Before declaring an area of concentration, students develop their course plan in consultation with one or more faculty mentors.

Prerequisites: Biology 11: The Science of Life, Chemistry 5 and 6, and one course from among Computer Science 5, Mathematics 4 or above, Engineering Sciences 10, or Biology 29. A student who elects to include Biology 29 in their area of concentration (see below) must fulfill this prerequisite with one of the other courses (e.g., Computer Science 5, Mathematics 4, or Engineering Sciences 10). Although not required for the major, some upper-level Biology courses require Chemistry 51-52. In addition, because many graduate and professional schools require Chemistry 51-52 for admission, we highly recommend that students consider taking these courses.

Foundation Courses: After completing Biology 11, students take three courses from among five foundation courses: Biology 12 (Cell Structure and Function); Biology 13 (Gene Expression and Inheritance); Biology 14 (Physiology); Biology 15 (Microevolution); Biology 16 (Ecology). Biology 11 is the only prerequisite for the five foundation courses. The foundation courses, Biology 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 are not sequenced and may be taken in any order. In deciding which three courses to select from this list, students should discuss with their faculty mentors which foundation courses would be most appropriate for their area of concentration. Not all foundation courses need to be completed before the student moves on to courses in their area of concentration.

Area of Concentration: To complete the major, students focus in an area of concentration by taking six additional courses. Below we list a number of possible areas of concentration that students may find useful in guiding their course selection. Under each area, we list a number of appropriate courses from which these six courses could be selected. These are only meant as suggestions to initiate the formulation of an area of concentration. Many other areas are possible, and the major is designed to provide maximum flexibility for students to tailor their programs to their individual interests and career aspirations. Each student will develop their major in consultation with one or more faculty mentors who share interests with the student's area of concentration. Faculty members with interests in the listed areas are given below; students interested in other areas should ask the Department Chair or chair of the departmental Undergraduate Committee to suggest a faculty member that would be appropriate to mentor the student in developing their course plan. Up to two suitable advanced courses from other departments may be included in the area of concentration when appropriate to the student's objectives, or a modified major can be constructed (see below). One term of Independent Research (Biology 95) or Honor's Research (Biology 97) may also be included among the six courses.

Some examples of courses that would contribute to various Areas of Concentration (possible faculty mentors are listed in parentheses):

Behavior and Neurobiology (Calsbeek, Irwin, McPeek, Velez, Witters): Biology 27, 34, 37, 52, 74, 79, Psychology 26, 65

Biochemistry (Bickel, Dolph, Gladfelter, Schaller, Sloboda, Smith, Witters): Biology 37, 40*, 44, 45, 46, 47, 66, 69, 71, 78, Chemistry 52/58, 61, 63, 67

Cell Biology (Bickel, Dolph, Gladfelter, Schaller, Sloboda, Smith, Witters): Biology 34, 37, 38, 40*, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 66, 67, 69, 71, 78, Chemistry 41, 52/58, 63, 67

Development (Berger, Erives, Jack, Lambie, Peterson): Biology 24, 28, 36, 38, 40*, 43, 44, 45, 53, 54, 62, 63, 75, 76

Ecology (Ayres, Calsbeek, Cottingham, Folt, Irwin, McPeek, Peart): Biology 20, 21 or 51, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 50, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, Chemistry 52/58, Environmental Studies 79, 80, 89

Evolutionary Ecology (Calsbeek, Irwin, McPeek): Biology 20, 21 or 51, 27, 28, 31, 38, 45, 47, 50, 52, 58

Genetics (Berger, Bickel, Dolph, Guerinot, Jack, Lambie, McClung): Biology 36, 38, 45, 47, 53, 61, 63, 65, 66, 71, 75, 76, 79

Genomics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (Cottingham, Erives, Gross, McPeek): Biology 28, 29, 36, 39, 45, 47, 53, 62, 75, and appropriate Computer Science, Mathematics and Engineering Sciences courses

Human Biology (Dolph, Gladfelter, Smith, Velez, Witters): Biology 24, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40*, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 66, 67, 69, 71, 78, 79, Chemistry 52/58

Molecular Ecology (Calsbeek, McPeek): Biology 21 or 51, 31, 36, 40*, 45, 47, 50, 53, 58

Molecular Evolution (Dietrich, Erives, McPeek, Peterson): Biology 28, 36, 38, 39, 40*, 45, 47, 53, 62, 75

Molecular Genetics (Berger, Bickel, Dolph, Erives, Gladfelter, Guerinot, Jack, Lambie, McClung): Biology 38, 45, 47, 53, 54, 61, 65, 66, 69, 71, 75, 79, Chemistry 52/58

Paleobiology (Peterson): Biology 20, 24, 28, 53, 60, 62, Earth Sciences 31, 34, 45-47, 68, 72

Physiology and Organismal Biology (Ayres, Calsbeek, McPeek, Velez, Witters): Biology 24, 31, 34, 35, 37, 42, 43, 44, 54, 78, 79, Chemistry 52/58

Plant Biology (Ayres, Guerinot, Irwin, Jack, McClung, Peart, Schaller): Biology 21 or 51, 22, 26, 31, 54, 55, 57, 58, Chemistry 52/58

Plant Molecular Biology (Guerinot, Jack, McClung, Schaller): Biology 36, 38, 39, 45, 54, 63, 75, Chemistry 52/58

Secondary Education (Peterson): To be announced

*Note that Biology 40 requires Chemistry 51-52/57-58 as a prerequisite.

CULMINATING EXPERIENCES

One course among the six in the area of concentration must satisfy the culminating experience requirement. Any Biology course numbered 50 or above that is appropriate for the student's Area of Concentration will satisfy the culminating experience requirement. Each student will determine with their faculty mentor which course is suitable as a culminating experience for their Area of Concentration and interests. These courses include courses in the foreign study program, independent research courses, courses that focus on the primary literature in a discipline, and courses with substantial laboratory components and/or individual projects. The culminating experience course should be taken in a student's senior year, although a course taken in the junior year may in exceptional circumstances satisfy the culminating experience and requires the approval of the Department Chair or chair of the departmental Undergraduate Committee.

REQUIREMENTS FOR A BIOLOGY MODIFIED MAJOR

For a modified major, the area of concentration consists of four Biology courses and four suitable advanced courses from another department or combination of departments. Prerequisite and foundation course requirements remain the same.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BIOLOGY MINOR

A Biology Minor consists of completing Biology 11, two foundation courses, and three courses in the student's area of concentration.

ACADEMIC STANDING

Satisfactory completion of the Biology major or modified major requires obtaining a final grade point average of at least 2.00 in Biology 11 and all foundation and area of concentration courses applied to the major. No more than two transfer credits may be used for foundation and area of concentration courses.

CREDIT AND ADVANCED PLACEMENT

Starting with the class of 2009, the Department will give one unspecified credit for a biology course to students who receive a score of 5 on the CEEB Advanced Placement Test or a score of 6 or 7 on the Higher Level International Baccalaureate (IB) exam. This unspecified credit satisfies no prerequisite or major course requirements and allows no placement into advanced courses. Under exceptional circumstances, students (including those with IB credit) may request permission in writing, supplying suitable evidence of their preparation for placement into advanced courses, before the end of the fall term. Students who seek such credit should consult the faculty of the course in question and the chair of the departmental Undergraduate Committee. Except under exceptional circumstances, the Department gives no credit for courses taken at another college or university prior to matriculation at Dartmouth.

INDEPENDENT RESEARCH AND THE BIOLOGY HONORS PROGRAM

Biology majors are encouraged to undertake independent research in biology either as part of the Honors Program or separately. Participants in the Honors Program should enroll in Biology 97. The subject of the honors research project must be directly relevant to the student's area of concentration. Those who conduct research outside of the Honors Program should enroll in Biology 95.

Work on an Honors thesis normally extends through three terms. Candidates for Honors must meet the minimum College requirements. Application for the Program should be made no later than two weeks after the start of classes the term before it is selected. Plans for research should be made in the term before the project begins. Independent research conducted off campus during a leave/transfer term without the direct supervision of a faculty advisor from the Dartmouth College Department of Biological Sciences cannot be used to earn credit for Biology 95, 96, or 97.

Biology 97 (or 95) may be counted only once among the six courses for the area of concentration, but two terms of Biology 95, 96, or 97 may be taken for course credit towards graduation.

Each Honors candidate shall submit a thesis to a committee composed of three faculty members, including the thesis supervisor, at least two weeks before the end of the last term. At least two members of this committee must be members of the Biology faculty. Each candidate's Honors Program concludes with the candidate making a public presentation of her or his work, followed by an oral examination, conducted by the thesis committee, on the thesis work and related topics. The quality of the written thesis and the student's grasp of his or her research program as determined by their performance on the oral exam determines if the student's degree is awarded with honors.

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED DEGREES

The general requirements for advanced degrees are given in the Regulations for Graduate Study section. Each graduate student must receive credit for a set of courses chosen in consultation with the advisory committee. All graduate students are expected to participate in departmental colloquia and weekly seminars.

To receive the Ph.D. degree in Biology a candidate must satisfactorily:

1. Complete the course requirement, as described above.

2. Complete the teaching requirement as specified by the advisory committee.

3. Demonstrate mastery of conceptual and factual material in the major area of specialization in an oral examination.

4. Present and satisfactorily defend a thesis proposal before the advisory committee.

5. Satisfy the two-year residence requirement of the College.

6. Complete a doctoral dissertation.

7. Defend the dissertation before a faculty committee appointed for this purpose.

Although the graduate program is designed for students pursuing the Ph.D. degree, a master's degree may be awarded under special circumstances. To receive an M.S. degree in Biology, a candidate 1) must satisfactorily complete course and teaching requirements, as specified by the advisory committee, 2) complete a thesis, 3) defend the thesis in an oral examination before a faculty committee, and 4) satisfy the one-year residence requirement of the College.

2. Human Biology

06F, 07F: 11

A course designed to help students (biologists and non-biologists) understand the biological basis of human health and disease. The course will emphasize the fundamental aspects of biochemistry, genetics, cell and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy, reproductive biology, and function of various organs as they relate to humans. Particular emphasis will be placed on specific topics in human health and disease and how these issues affect us all individually in our own health and collectively in our international society.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Witters.

4. Genes and Society

07S, 08S: 10A

This course is designed for the humanities or social sciences major. It focuses on how our current understanding of genetic mechanisms has led to new biological insights and to the development of powerful technologies with far reaching implications for our society. It is the aim of this course to provide a solid understanding of the mechanisms of molecular genetics and to discuss implications of genetic engineering and related technologies to our every day lives. Although this course will focus on the science, we will also consider the ethical, political, human, and economic impacts of these technologies. Several guest lecturers will provide personal perspectives based on their experiences. The ultimate goal of the course is to provide an understanding of the biology and technology so that students can make informed decisions on issues that continually and increasingly arise in our society. Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Berger.

5. Philosophy of Biology

07X: 10A

This course will consider philosophical issues pertinent to the biological sciences. Topics may include genetic determinism, biology and ideology, the nature of experiment in biological practice, adaptationism, the species problem, the nature of biology as a historical science, concepts of fitness and function, the units of selection debate, and phylogenetic inference.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

6. Dinosaurs

08W: 2A

This course is designed for the non-major. It will cover all aspects of dinosaur biology including their origin and evolution, phylogeny, behavior, physiology, and extinction. Because dinosaurs will be placed in their biological and geological contexts, other topics will include the geological record, the processes of fossilization, and vertebrate evolution in general. Particular attention will be paid to current debates including the origin of birds and mass extinction. The goal of this course is to teach the basic principles of evolutionary biology using dinosaurs as exemplars of evolutionary patterns and processes.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Offered in alternate years. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

7. First-Year Seminars in Biology

Consult special listings

8. Clinical Biomedical Research (formerly 81)

06F, 07S, 07F, 08S: 2A

This course teaches the fundamentals of clinical biomedical research (CBR). The CBR curriculum offers a unique combination of direct involvement in ongoing clinical research studies with a comprehensive didactic program and experience conducting and designing clinical studies. Designated as Academic Associates, the students will spend time in the DHMC Emergency Department (E.D.) playing an integral role in patient identification, enrollment, and data collection for the ongoing clinical research studies. Coupled with this "hands-on" data collection in the E.D., the didactic program consists of weekly classes focusing on research design, data collection techniques, statistical analysis, and scientific poster preparation. At the completion of the course, each student will develop a "mock clinical research study".

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and permission of the instructor. Biology 2 and 29 or Mathematics 10 are also recommended. Dist: SCI. Curtis.

11. The Science of Life

06F: 9L, 10A 07W, 07S: 10A 07F: 9L 08W, 08S: 10A

Biology, like all of science, is a problem-solving endeavor. This course introduces students to a major problem in biology and considers it from many different perspectives, viewpoints and biological levels of organization. Along the way, students are exposed to many of the major concepts in biology, from molecules to ecosystems. Each offering will address a different major problem.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI.

In 06F at 9L, DNA to Diversity. We have chosen "DNA to Diversity" as a theme because we want to highlight how modern biology integrates all levels from the molecule to the diversity of life. As an organizing principle, we focus on the development of complex multicellular organisms. We will explore how cellular processes are driven by key developmental control genes, how cells communicate, and how these molecular and cellular mechanisms shape diverse forms of life. We will investigate how ecological forces drive natural selection, and how this and other evolutionary processes have sorted and sifted DNA mutations, producing DNA blueprints that direct development. Over the course of the term, students should gain a perspective on how genetic and environmental changes have produced the astonishing variety of species and life forms that now exist on earth, and how biologists are piecing that puzzle together. Jack, Peart.

In 06F at 10A, What is Life? Over the course of the last 4.5 billion years, life has faced a number of challenges, and in response has evolved a number of remarkable innovations. Incorporating data and perspectives from molecular and cellular biology, macroevolutionary theory, and paleobiology, this course will explore these innovations, including the origin of the cell, the origin(s) of DNA, and the origins of multicellularity, in an attempt to answer the question "What is Life?" We will see how many of these innovations have left "molecular fossils" and learn how to read this fossil record written in our very own DNA. Peterson, Sloboda.

In 07W at 10A, Frankenstein 2.0: Building a better human. Homo sapiens first emerged several hundred thousand years ago, but we have only recently begun to develop technologies by which we can fundamentally change what it means to be human. We will explore such subjects as gene therapy and therapeutic cloning, human cloning, stem cell research, and physical and mental enhancement. The potential for these technologies as well as ethical concerns about their use will be considered. By the end of the term, students will be expected to have created improved versions of themselves. Schaller, Sloboda.

In 07S at 10A, Emerging infectious diseases: how microbes rule the world. Emerging infectious diseases, which have shaped the course of humanity and caused untold suffering and death, will continue to challenge society as long as humans and microbes co-exist. This course will explore why infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge. The viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes that cause these diseases continually evolve in response to their hosts. Dynamic interactions between rapidly evolving infectious agents and changes in the environment and in host behavior provide such agents with favorable new ecological niches. In addition, dramatic increases in the worldwide movement of people and goods drive the globalization of disease. Guerinot, McPeek.

12. Cell Structure and Function

07W, 07S, 07F, 08S: 9L; Laboratory: Arrange

Biology 12 will provide a foundation in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the structure and function of eukaryotic cells. Topics include membrane transport, energy conversion, signal transduction, protein targeting, cell motility and the cytoskeleton, and the cell cycle. Emphasis will be placed on discussion of the experimental basis for understanding cell function. The laboratory section will provide students with hands-on experience in modern laboratory techniques including microscopy, cell fractionation, and protein purification.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Cannot be taken if Biology 15 or 19 was taken prior to 06F. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Smith, Gladfelter.

13. Gene Expression and Inheritance

07W: 9L 07X: 10 08W: 9L; Laboratory: Arrange

This course provides a foundation in genetics and molecular biology. Topics covered include the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. These concepts will be integrated into a discussion of contemporary problems and approaches in molecular genetics. Laboratories utilize basic molecular biology techniques to further investigate topics discussed in lecture.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Cannot be taken if Biology 16 or 23 was taken prior to 06F. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Dolph, Bickel.

14. Physiology

07W, 08W: 10

This course introduces students to the complexity of organisms by studying how their different organ systems strive to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of different environmental demands. The adaptive responses of selected organisms (humans, different animals and plants) to a variety of environmental factors will be studied from the molecular, cell, tissue, organ, and systems level of organization. Some of the topics to be covered include biological control systems (hormones, neurons) and coordinated body functions (circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, digestion). All systems studied will be integrated by analyzing how different organisms adapt to living in extreme environments (deserts, high altitude) or facing environmental demands (navigation, exercise).

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Cannot be taken if Biology 35 was taken prior to 06F. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SCI. Velez.

15. Microevolution (formerly 24)

07S: 2A 08W: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

A consideration of the genetics of natural populations and the process of organic evolution. Topics include the source and distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variation in nature; the forces which act on genetic variation (mutation, migration, selection, drift); the genetic basis of adaptation, speciation, and phyletic evolution.

Prerequisites: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Dietrich.

16. Ecology (formerly 14)

06F, 07W, 08S: 10; Laboratory: Arrange

This course examines fundamental concepts in the rapidly developing areas of ecology. These topics include the factors that limit the distributions and abundances of organisms, the effects that organisms have on ecosystems, the integration of ecosystems around the globe, and the conservation of species diversity. The class will also explore how the behavior and physiology of individual organisms shape both local and global patterns of distribution and abundance. Laboratories focus on experimental and quantitative analyses of local ecosystems, with an emphasis on field studies.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Irwin, McPeek.

20. Life's Innovations

07W: 12

Evolution has been an amazing problem solver, having created a huge variety of solutions to a few basic problems during the history of life. This course will introduce students to a number of these major problems and the solutions that bacteria, fungi, plants and animals have evolved. What is life? How can an organism solve many problems at one time? How should an organism make copies of itself? How do organisms acquire fuel to operate and then deal with the resulting waste by-products? How can an organism get from one place to another? How can an organism keep from becoming dinner for something else? These are some of the major problems that organisms face, and this class will explore how organisms have evolved to solve them. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. McPeek.

21. Population Ecology (formerly 54)

06F: 10A; Discussion: Arrange

This course explores the description of populations, population growth, and the determination of abundance. Examples will be drawn from a diversity of plant and animal taxa to illustrate the broad scope of population ecology, including its role as a foundation for evolutionary ecology and community ecology, and its contributions to applied problems in conservation biology, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. Throughout, this course will emphasize the development of verbal, graphical, and mathematical models to describe populations, generate predictions, test hypotheses, and formalize theory. No student may receive course credit for both Biology 21 and Biology 51, Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 16. Dist: SCI. Ayres.

22. Methods in Ecology

07X: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

This course is an introduction to sampling and survey methodologies for populations and communities in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The course will be divided into week-long modules, each focusing on a particular group of organisms in the environment. A great deal of emphasis will be placed on h hypothesis generation, experimental design and statistical analysis. Participation in the laboratory/field component is both required and critical as one of the primary benefits of this course will be "on the ground" training in field methods.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. Cottingham.

23. Aquatic Ecology (formerly 53)

07F: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

A study of the interaction between biological communities and their aquatic environment. Lectures and readings provide the scientific background necessary for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of freshwater habitats. Emphasis is placed on application of fundamental concepts to problems in conservation and management of aquatic systems and species. The laboratory and field work are designed to acquaint the student with modern methodological approaches to the study of aquatic ecosystems. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. The staff.

24. Vertebrate Zoology (formerly 50)

07W, 08W: 12

This course will examine origins, diversity, structure and function within and among the vertebrate classes (including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We will consider the evolution of the vertebrate body plan and innovations associated with common organ systems (e.g., skeletal, muscular, digestive, sensory, etc.) shared by different taxa. In addition, we will consider specialization of form and function to the diverse ecology of vertebrates as well as the manner in which very different taxa cope with similar habitats and environmental demands. In so doing, we will draw on evolutionary principles such as adaptation, convergent and parallel evolution and evolutionary constraints. The course will primarily consist of lecture and readings with examination of specimens and opportunities for off-campus field trips.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist. SCI. Mbora.

25. Introductory Marine Biology and Ecology (description change pending approval)

06F, 07F: 11

A course designed both for biology majors and other students interested in the interrelationships between marine organisms and their physical and biological environments. The course emphasizes the marine environment as an ecosystem with special focus on communities in coastal margin, open ocean, and deep sea habitats ranging from polar to tropical latitudes. Applied issues relevant to human impact and conservation in marine ecosystems will also be covered.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Chen.

26. Ecosystem Ecology (formerly 51)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will examine the role of organisms in ecosystem functioning, particularly the movement of materials and energy through terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, homework exercises, and in-class midterm and final exams. Topics to be covered include food webs, ecosystem productivity, energy budgets, nutrient budgets and nutrient cycling, ecosystem stability, and the role of individual species in ecosystem functioning. Emphasis will be placed on evaluating the contributions of ecosystem ecology to current environmental problems. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist. SCI.

27. Animal Behavior (formerly 33)

08S: 10; Laboratory-Discussion: Arrange

The causation, development, integration, evolution, and adaptive value of behavioral patterns of animals as individuals and in groups. Emphasis will be on vertebrates, but examples will also be drawn from all animal phyla. Topics include ethology, communication, orientation, and social organization. Laboratory work will emphasize field studies. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SLA. Calsbeek.

28. Macroevolution

07S: 2A

This course focuses on evolution above the level of individual species, and is designed to complement Biology 15. We will first examine the evolution of whales to learn the basic principles and methodology of macroevolutionary analysis. Then, using these tools, we will examine in detail the origin of animals, the Cambrian explosion, and their subsequent evolution from the Cambrian to the Recent. Topics covered will include body plan evolution and development, rates of morphological and molecular evolution, punctuated evolution, group selection theory, and mass extinction. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

29. Biostatistics

07W, 08W: 9L; Laboratory M or Tu 1:45-5:45

The course will cover basic descriptive statistics, simple probability theory, the fundamentals of statistical inference, regression and correlation, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, basic analyses of frequency data and non-parametric statistics, and the general philosophy of experimental design. We will explore these topics from the perspective of biological applications. Examples will be drawn from all subdisciplines of biology (e.g. biochemical kinetics, development, physiology, ecology, evolution).

Prerequisites: Biology 11. Dist: QDS. Cottingham.

31. Physiological Ecology (formerly 59)

07S: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

What factors determine the distribution and abundance of organisms? What are the consequences of climate change for biological communities? This course is an exploration of environmental effects on fundamental physiological processes in plants and animals. Abiotic factors, such as temperature and water availability, interact with biotic forces, such as predation, herbivory, and competition, to constrain the ability of organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce. Physiological solutions that allow success in one environment may preclude it in another. This course seeks to build up from physiological principles to understand characteristics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Laboratories will challenge students to generate and test their own hypotheses using contemporary theoretical frameworks and modern research apparatus. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. Ayres.

34. Neurobiology

06F, 07F: 11; Laboratory: Arrange

This course emphasizes a cellular approach to the study of nervous systems. The study of the cellular basis of neuronal activity will form the foundation for studies on sensory physiology, the control of muscle movement, and neuronal integration. Selected topics of current research activities with vertebrate and invertebrate species will be discussed in order to provide a perspective on how the field of neuroscience is developing. Laboratory exercises will provide the opportunity to learn extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording techniques.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 14. Dist: SLA. Velez.

35. Human Physiology

07S: 11

This course is an introduction to the biochemical aspects of human physiology. The adaptive responses of different human organ systems will be studied from the molecular, cellular, organ and systems level of organization. Topics to be covered include biological control systems (nerves, hormones, sensory and muscle cells) and coordinated body functions (circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, digestion). All the different organ systems working together during exercise will provide a framework for the final course synthesis.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 or 14. Cannot be taken if Biology 35 was taken prior to 06F. Dist: SCI. Velez.

36. History of Genetics (formerly 70)

07F: 2A

This course is a survey of the history of genetics for students with some knowledge of genetics such as Biology 13 or 15. Proceeding from Galton to the present, this course will emphasize the main intellectual trends in genetics as well as the interconnection between genetics and society. Topics for discussion will include whether Gregor Mendel was a Mendelian, the importance of Thomas Hunt Morgan's Drosophila network, the relationship between eugenics and genetics, the effect of Atomic Energy Commission report on human genetics, and the impact of molecular biology. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

37. Endocrinology

07S, 08S: 10A

The regulatory functions, physiology and molecular mechanisms of the endocrine system and related metabolic pathways will be explored with an emphasis on human and mammalian biology. Course requires a student paper on selected topics, stemming from an examination of the biology and pathobiology of these systems in health and disease. These topics will be drawn, in part, from timely publications in the biomedical literature.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 and 13; Biology 14 recommended. Dist: SCI. Witters.

38. Experimental Genetic Analysis

07S, 08S: 11; Laboratory: Arrange

This course provides in-depth coverage of the analysis of gene transmission and function. Biology 38 will build on material covered in Biology 13, emphasizing the use of model organisms to obtain information relevant to important problems in human genetics. Investigative laboratory exercises will reinforce and complement material covered in lecture.

Prerequisite: Biology 13. Dist: SLA. Lambie.

39. Computational Molecular Biology (formerly 68)

08W: 10A

Computers and computer programs have become essential tools in modern molecular biology. As the amount of DNA and protein sequence data continues to grow, the use and understanding of these computational tools is becoming increasingly important. Deriving biological understanding from sequence data requires sophisticated computer analyses while demanding from molecular biologists the ability to interpret intelligently the results from these analyses. Not only can these programs provide the biologist with information about his or her sequence of interest, but a solid understanding of these tools can also be used to make predictions of biological phenomena that can be tested in the lab. This course will explore computational molecular biology through both lectures and hands-on computer experimentation through homework assignments.

This course will discuss approaches to analyzing protein and DNA sequences and will foster an understanding of how to extract biologically relevant information from the numerous databases containing all this information. Topics will include basic computer architecture and operating systems, database design and searching, sequence comparisons, pattern discovery, genome comparisons, gene discovery, determining evolutionary relationships, RNA and protein structure predictions, data mining, and DNA array analysis. No computer programming experience is needed, but familiarity with using the Internet is recommended.

Prerequisites: Biology 13. Dist: SCI. Gross.

40. Biochemistry (formerly 77)

06F, 07F: 10; Discussion W or Th 2:00-3:00

This course studies molecular structure and function from a biochemical point of view, emphasizing the biochemistry of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Topics include protein structure and function, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, lipids and membranes, and carbohydrates and cell walls. The participation of these biomolecules in metabolism is also discussed, and focuses on the metabolic pathways of glycolysis, glucogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The course concludes with a look at the integration of metabolism in mammals.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and Chemistry 52 or 58 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Schaller.

42. Biology of the Immune Response (formerly 66)

07W, 08W: 9L

This course will consider immunoglobulin structure, antigen-antibody reactions, complement, hypersensitivity, immunogenetics, immunodeficiency, tumor immunology and therapy, and autoimmunity.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 13, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Fanger.

43. Developmental Biology (formerly 27)

06F, 07F: 9L

An analysis of early cell and tissue development leading to organ differentiation. Fertilization, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation will be considered in terms of recent advances in developmental biology.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 13. Dist: SCI. Erives.

44. Integrative Cell Physiology

07S, 08S: 12

In this course students will extend their knowledge of cell biology by exploring several functional relationships between various fundamental cellular processes. For example, how do extracellular signals mediate cytoskeletal rearrangements that allow cells to move? What is the relationship between mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and controlled cell death? What controls organelle biogenesis? Discussions will emphasize modern experimental approaches for investigating cell function.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13. Dist: SCI. Smith.

45. Molecular Biology

07S, 08S: 10

This course will build upon the material presented in Biology 13 with in depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying fundamental processes including DNA replication, transcription and translation in bacteria and eukaryotes. Key regulatory events that influence gene expression will be discussed including the function of promoters and enhancers, chromatin structure and epigenetics, RNA mediated silencing and mRNA processing. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how molecular techniques are used to elucidate critical aspects of these processes. Selected papers from the primary literature will be presented to illustrate current advances.

Prerequisite: Biology 13. Cannot be taken if Biology 23 was taken prior to 06F. Dist SCI. Grotz.

46. Microbiology (formerly 64)

06F, 07F: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

A lecture, discussion, and laboratory course considering the biology of microorganisms, with emphasis on bacteria. Topics such as structure, function, genetics, and metabolism of bacterial cells will be covered. The ecological role of various species of microorganisms will also be discussed.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, or 16. Dist: SLA. Guerinot, O'Toole.

47. Human Genomics

07W: 2

This course is an introduction to genomics, the study of biological organisms from a whole-genome perspective, and focuses on the genome of Homo sapiens and its relations to other genomes. Some of the topics discussed include: the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the human genome; the human gene complement; evolution of vertebrate and human genomes; comparative primate genomics; human nucleotide diversity and the human haplotype map; drug discovery in the post-genomic era; and a variety of experimental whole genome approaches for identifying global changes in gene regulation (e.g. subtractive hybridization, micro-array analysis, serial analysis of gene expression and whole-genome bioinformatics).

Prerequisites: Biology 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. Erives.

50. Biological Modeling (formerly 44) (title change pending approval)

08S: 2

Models are a basic tool for scientific experimentation, synthesis, and prediction. Especially in the ecological sciences, models are essential for evaluating how multiple factors interact simultaneously to generate observed system behavior. This course will examine how models can be used to clearly state hypotheses, frame research questions, analyze data, generate predictions, and make decisions. Focus will be on the assumptions, construction, and use of models, rather than on pre-programmed computer implementations. By the end of the course, students should understand the complex linkages between the natural world, data, and conceptual and mathematical models.

Prerequisite: One course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: QDS. Borsuk.

51. Advanced Population Ecology

06F: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

This course explores theory and data regarding properties of biological populations. Topics of lectures and analytical exercises include: descriptions of abundance, dispersion, and demographic schedules; applying life tables and matrix models to understand population growth and age structure; life history theory; influence of endogenous feedbacks and exogenous forces on population dynamics; spatial patterns and processes; and contributions of population ecology to applied issues in conservation, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. No student may receive course credit for both Biology 21 and Biology 51.

Prerequisites: Biology 16 and one course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: SCI. Ayres.

52. Behavioral Ecology

07S: 2A; Laboratory/field: Arrange

This course will consider the evolutionary and ecological factors influencing or determining the behavior of animals in natural communities. Topics include foraging behavior, habitat selection, mating and breeding systems, territoriality, aggression and competitive behavior interactions. Seminar format, with lectures and discussions based on readings of primary literature. Laboratories will be devoted to studies of the ecology and behavior of terrestrial vertebrates in local environments. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 27. Enrollment limited. Dist: SLA. Mbora.

53. Molecular Evolution (formerly 73)

07F: 9L

Modern molecular techniques have opened a new door on our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. The ability to sequence DNA and proteins has also provided a huge volume of data that is difficult to manage and make sense of. In this course, we will explore how DNA and protein sequences evolve, how DNA replication influences gene evolution, how the ecology and demography of organisms shape patterns of genetic diversity, how interactions between the genomes of different organisms shape patterns of genetic diversity, how interactions between the genomes of different organisms shape the evolution of diseases, and how interactions among genes shape the entire genome. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 28, 36, 38, 39, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. McPeek.

54. Plant Development (formerly 42)

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will cover a range of topics including the development of the embryo, root, trichome, leaf, flower, ovule, and seed. This literature-based course focuses on molecular genetic approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Prerequisite: Biology 38, 43 or 45. Dist: SCI.

55. Ecology of Tropical Ecosystems

07W, 08W: D.F.S.P.

(Description pending faculty approval) The Biology Foreign Studies Program exposes students, through intensive, full-immersion study, to Earth's most diverse biological communities on land (tropical forests) and in the ocean (coral reefs; see Biology 57). Students are challenged to know, understand and appreciate the diversity of form and function in organisms, and the interactions that generate the often-spectacular patterns they see in the field. Habitats include lowland rain forest, cloud forest, dry forest, montane forest, alpine paramo, streams and wetlands. Emphasis is on learning field and analytical methods (including hypothesis testing, statistical and software skills) for observational and experimental studies. The schedule includes fieldwork, laboratories, lectures, discussions, and research projects. Research papers are published in an annual book. The course is closely integrated with Biology 57. Accommodations are at field stations in Costa Rica.

Prerequisites: Biology 16, one course from among Biology 20-28, 31; acceptance into program, Biology 15 and 29 recommended. Dist: SLA. Peart.

56. Coral Reef Ecology

07W, 08W: D.F.S.P.

(Description pending faculty approval) Field and laboratory investigations of marine organisms and coral reef communities. Lecture and research topics include studies of algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, and fish, with emphasis on populations, interspecific interactions, community structure and energetics. The course is based at the Little Cayman Research Center, Little Cayman Island. Scuba diving is optional. See Biology 55 for an overview of the Biology Foreign Studies Program.

Prerequisites: Biology 55 (taken in same term). Dist: SLA. Peart.

57. Field Research in Tropical Ecology

07W, 08W: D.F.S.P.

(Description pending faculty approval) Students conduct a series of research projects to test ecological hypotheses in tropical communities. Topics include plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions, determinants of plant and animal distribution, and behavior. Emphasis is on the classic scientific approach: making observations, asking testable questions, developing experimental protocols, data collection and statistical inference, writing of scientific papers, and seminar presentation. This course is closely integrated with Biology 55; see Biology 55 for an overview of the Biology Foreign Studies Program. Accommodations are at field stations in Costa Rica.

Prerequisites: Biology 55 (taken in same term). Dist: SLA. Irwin.

58. Advanced Community Ecology

08W: 9L

This course will examine the various mechanisms structuring ecological communities of plants and animals. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, and individual projects. Topics to be covered include simple two-species interactions (e.g. predation, competition, parasitism, mutualisms), simultaneous multispecies interactions, food web structure, regulation of species diversity on ecological and evolutionary time scales, community succession, and biogeography. Emphasis will be placed on the development of mathematical models and their relationship to empirical studies. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15, 16 and one course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: SCI. Irwin.

60. Evolutionary Ecology (Pending faculty approval)

07W: Arrange

Prerequisites: Biology 21, 27, 28 or 31. Calsbeek.

61. Molecular Genetics of Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes

07W, 08W: 2

Structure, function, organization, and control of genes in bacteriophage, bacteria, and fungi. Strategies for control of gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Mechanisms for rearrangement and exchange of genetic material and the implications of such processes for the release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment.

Prerequisites: Biology 45; Biology 46 recommended. Dist: SCI. Grotz.

62. Evolutionary Developmental Biology

08S: 2A

The focus of this course is the interface between developmental biology, evolutionary biology, paleontology, and systematics. Lectures will focus on the mechanistic aspects of animal development including cis-regulatory DNA and cell- signaling systems, cladistics, the fossil record, and animal physiology. The evolution of animal development will be discussed in great detail paying particular attention to the origin and evolution of animal body plans. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 28 or 43. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

63. Developmental Genetics

06F: 10A

Selected topics in developmental genetics, with emphasis on recent work involving model systems, e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus. The following areas may be considered in depth: oogenesis, spermatogenesis, fertilization, germ cell determination, embryonic and postembryonic induction, sex determination, axis specification, cell adhesion, and cell migration.

Prerequisite: Biology 38 or 43 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Lambie.

65. Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotes

06F, 07F: 2

Lectures dealing with the structure, function, organization, dynamics, and regulation of genes in higher eukaryotes and their viruses. Topics ranging from transposition of genes, to regulation of transcription, to targeted gene disruption in transgenic organisms will be covered. New topics in the literature will be included as well.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Grotz.

66. Molecular Basis of Cancer

07W, 08W: 10A

In this course we will explore how cancer develops on a cellular level. Using primary literature as a guide, we will examine the basic cellular processes malignant tumors exploit to promote their rapid, invasive growth and ultimately disease. Topics that will be considered include the genetic factors that initiate cancer cell formation, cell cycle regulation, programmed cell death, cell signaling, angiogenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as how current cancer therapies work on a cellular level.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 38, 44, 45 or permission of instructor. Dist: SCI. Gladfelter.

67. Molecular Pathogenesis of Fungi and Parasites

07W, 08W: 2A

Lectures and discussion about the biology, ecology, genetic, biochemistry and pathology of eukaryotic pathogens which are important causes of infectious diseases. Biochemical similarities between mammalian host cells and eukaryotic pathogens limit options for therapeutic strategies, challenge drug discovery efforts and heighten the impact of drug resistant organisms. The course emphasizes fungi which are major pathogens in AIDS and other immunosuppressed patients and will touch on parasites such as malaria which devastate human populations world-wide.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 and 46. Biology 40 and 42 are also recommended. Dist: SCI. Sundstrom.

69. Cell Signaling

07S, 08S: 10A

This course will focus on how signals are transmitted from the cell surface into changes in cellular function. Detailed analysis of specific membrane receptors, second-messenger systems, and protein kinases will be presented as well as how these components are integrated into larger "systems" such as apoptosis, metabolic signaling, synaptic transmission, and sensory transduction. Particular emphasis will be on the biochemical analysis of the pathways and their individual components as well as how these pathways are impaired in certain disease states. The course will consist of lectures and weekly discussions of recent primary literature.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13, and at least one course from the following list: Biology 40, 44, 45, Chemistry 41. Dist: SCI. Dolph.

71. Advanced Topics in Cell Biology

07S, 08S: 2A

This course will cover in depth one or more specific topics in cell biology such as cell division, chromosome structure and function, signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, membrane assembly, and intracellular protein targeting. Material will be presented in a manner designed to encourage student comments and to demonstrate how modern molecular, biochemical, immunological, and genetic techniques are employed to study problems in cell biology. Reading assignments will be taken from the current research literature.

Prerequisites: Biology 12, 13 and one from among Biology 38, 44 or 45. Dist: SCI. Bickel.

74. Advanced Neurobiology

08S: 10A

A seminar course that considers recent advances in specific areas of neurobiology. Topics to be discussed will be selected among ion channels, neurotransmitters, synaptic transmission, intracellular signaling pathways, synaptic connections, neuronal plasticity, brain biochemistry, behavioral neurobiology or developmental neurobiology. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 34. Dist: SCI. Velez.

75. Genomic Circuitry

08S: 10

Many genomes, including the human genome, have been sequenced. Now, increasing attention has turned to a cryptic, yet fundamental component of these genomes: gene circuitry, i.e. the "wiring" that links together activated genes in a genomic program. Specialized DNA sequences determine where and when a given gene is expressed during an organism's life cycle. These genomic "regulatory" sequences play a major role in basic evolutionary processes. How do regulatory sequences encode differential gene expression? How do they evolve? How do we identify and decode them? This course will investigate these questions as well as landmark papers necessary to understand present and future work in this field.

Prerequisites: Biology 39, 43, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. Erives.

76. Advanced Genetics

06F, 08S: 3A

Methods and strategies for the analysis of gene structure, function and genetic interactions. The course will examine how the genetic manipulation of model organisms, including yeast, Drosophila, C. elegans, and mouse, is used to explore the mechanisms of fundamental biological processes such as cell division, development, and intercellular communication. Emphasis will be placed on the application of classical genetic methods, including mutant screens, recombination and complementation analysis, genetic mosaics, and the use of conditional mutations. Modern molecular-based approaches, including gene knockout, gene dosage and misexpression studies will also be included. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 38, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. Berger.

78. Molecular Mysteries of Human Biology

07W, 08W: 9L

Knowledge of molecular mechanisms allows new approaches to understanding human biology and disease. This course will explore the normal and abnormal biology of several human conditions relying on biochemistry, molecular genetics, and physiology as tools of inquiry. Examples will be drawn from the histories of John Hunter, Mona Lisa, Michel-Eug√®ne Chevruel, Hendrickje St√δffels. Sarah Jacob, Paul C√©zanne, Lance Armstrong, and Pearl Buck among others.

Open only to junior and senior Biology majors or with permission of the instructor.

Prerequisites: Biology 13, and Biology 40 or Chemistry 41. A prior course on some aspect of mammalian physiology is strongly recommended (e.g. Biology 2, 14, 35 or 37). Dist: SCI. Witters.

79. Genetics and Physiology of Behavior

07W, 08W: 2A

Examination of the genetic, physiological, cellular, and molecular basis of behavior and responses to environmental factors in eukaryotic organisms. Topics to be covered from the current and classic literature will include circadian rhythmicity, learning and memory, and other areas of current research, and will vary somewhat from year to year.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 and permission of the instructor Dist: SCI. Dunlap.

95. Independent Research in Biology I (formerly 85)

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a biological problem with associated study of primary literature sources under the supervision of a member of the staff for one academic term. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors. Projects may include laboratory or field research or modeling that will further understanding of a relevant basic or applied research problem. May be taken as one course in the major by students not enrolled in the honors program. Students electing both Biology 95 and Biology 97 may count only one among the six courses in the area of concentration. In no case may a student elect more than two courses among Biology 95, 96, and 97.

Prerequisites: at least two Biology courses above the foundation level, a 2.67 average in previous biology courses, and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor. The application and research proposal must be submitted at least one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

96. Independent Research in Biology II (formerly 86)

All terms: Arrange

A second term of original and independent investigation of a biological problem under the supervision of a member of the staff. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors who have satisfied the requirements for Biology 95 and who wish to continue their independent research for a second term. Does not count for credit in the major.

Prerequisites: Satisfactory completion of Biology 95 (including research paper) and permission of both the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor(s). The application and research proposal must be submitted at least two weeks prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

97. Honors Research in Biology (formerly 87)

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a biological problem with associated study of primary literature sources under the supervision of a member of the staff. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors. Projects may include laboratory or field research or modeling that will further understanding of a relevant basic or applied research problem. Required of honors students as part of the major. Students taking both Biology 95 and Biology 97 may count only one term of the latter among the elective courses for their major, but can receive College credit for Biology 99. In no case may a student elect more than two courses among Biology 95 and 97.

Prerequisites: at least two Biology courses above the foundation level, a 3.0 average in previous Biology courses, and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor, obtained no later than two weeks after the start of classes the term before it is selected. The staff.

99. Senior Seminar in Biology

07S, 08S: Arrange

This course will focus on presentation techniques and critical evaluation of other students' research and presentations. Students who have conducted Independent Research will present background information related to their research projects, develop seminars based on their own findings, and receive feedback. All students taking Biology 97 are encouraged to enroll in this seminar as a seventh course in their area of concentration.

Prerequisites: Senior standing and previous or current enrollment in Biology 97. The staff.

GRADUATE COURSES

110. Scientific Integrity and Research Ethics

07F: Arrange

This course is designed to introduce scientific researchers to issues in research ethics. We will emphasize foundational principles underlying scientific integrity and their application to a range of issues including data management, animal and human subjects, collaboration, mentoring, peer review and the ethical implications of different forms of scientific research. Analysis and presentation of case studies will constitute important focal points for discussion in class meetings. Dietrich.

120. Advanced Population Ecology

06F: 10A

This course explores the description of populations, population growth, and the determination of abundance. Examples are drawn from a diversity of plant and animal taxa to illustrate the broad scope of population ecology, including its role as a foundation for evolutionary ecology and community ecology, and its contributions to applied problems in conservation biology, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. Throughout, this course will emphasize the development of verbal, graphical, and mathematical models to describe populations, generate predictions, test hypotheses, and formalize theory.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor is required. Ayres.

123. Advanced Community Ecology

08W: 9L

This course examines the mechanisms structuring ecological communities of plants and animals. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, and individual projects. Topics to be covered include simple two-species interactions (e.g. predation, competition, parasitism, mutualisms), simultaneous multispecies interactions, food web structure, regulation of species diversity on ecological and evolutionary time scales, community succession, and biogeography. Emphasis will be placed on the development of mathematical models and their relationship to empirical studies. Permission of the instructor is required. Irwin.

125. The Nature and Practice of Science

07S: Arrange

This course compares and contrasts the nature and practice of science across the range of contemporary biological disciplines. Topics include: What is science? What is the structure of scientific knowledge? What are the philosophical, logical, and practical aspects of hypothesis testing? What are intellectual strategies for successful research in biology? What is the role of ethics in science? Format includes readings, exercises, and discussion. Alternate years. Ayres, Dietrich.

128, 129. Statistics and Experimental Design I and II

07W, 07F: Arrange

This is a two-term, graduate-level sequence in statistics and experimental design as applied to biological systems. There will be lectures and laboratories, regular homework assignments, and a major project of statistical analysis. Topics during the first term include sampling distributions and general hypothesis testing, contingency table analysis, correlation, and regression (linear, polynomial and logistic regression, and model selection techniques). Topics in the second term include analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, experimental design (e.g., factorial, blocked, latin squares, nested, and split plot designs), and a number of nonparametric techniques. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical computer software (SAS) in performing analyses. Alternate years.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and at least one elementary course in statistics. Cottingham, Borsuk.

139. Computational Molecular Biology (formerly 168)

08W: 10A

Computers and computer programs have become essential tools in modern molecular biology. As the amount of DNA and protein sequence data continues to grow, the use and understanding of these computational tools is becoming increasingly important. Deriving biological understanding from sequence data requires sophisticated computer analyses while demanding from molecular biologists the ability to interpret intelligently the results from these analyses. Not only can these programs provide the biologist with information about his or her sequence of interest, but a solid understanding of these tools can also be used to make predictions of biological phenomena that can be tested in the lab. This course will explore computational molecular biology through both lectures and hands-on computer experimentation through homework assignments.

This course will discuss approaches to analyzing protein and DNA sequences and will foster an understanding of how to extract biologically relevant information from the numerous databases containing all this information. Topics will include basic computer architecture and operating systems, database design and searching, sequence comparisons, pattern discovery, genome comparisons, gene discovery, determining evolutionary relationships, RNA and protein structure predictions, data mining, and DNA array analysis. No computer programming experience is needed, but familiarity with using the Internet is recommended. Offered in alternate years. Gross.

150. Biological Modeling (formerly 44) (title change pending approval)

08S: 2

Models are a basic tool for scientific experimentation, synthesis, and prediction. Especially in the ecological sciences, models are essential for evaluating how multiple factors interact simultaneously to generate observed system behavior. This course will examine how models can be used to clearly state hypotheses, frame research questions, analyze data, generate predictions, and make decisions. Focus will be on the assumptions, construction, and use of models, rather than on pre-programmed computer implementations. By the end of the course, students should understand the complex linkages between the natural world, data, and conceptual and mathematical models. Borsuk.

154. Plant Development

Not offered in the period from 06F through 08S

This course will cover a range of topics including the development of the embryo, root, trichome, leaf, flower, ovule, and seed. This literature-based course focuses on molecular genetic approaches, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana. Jack.

161. Molecular Genetics of Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes

07W, 08W: 2

Structure, function, organization, and control of genes in bacteriophage, bacteria, and fungi. Strategies for control of gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Mechanisms for rearrangement and exchange of genetic material and the implications of such processes for the release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment. Grotz.

162. Evolutionary Developmental Biology

08S: 2A

The focus of this course is the interface between developmental biology, evolutionary biology, paleontology, and systematics. Lectures will focus on the mechanistic aspects of animal development including cis regulatory DNA and cell signaling systems, cladistics, the fossil record, and animal physiology. The evolution of animal development will be discussed in great detail paying particular attention to the origin and evolution of bilaterian body plans. Offered in alternate years. Peterson.

163. Developmental Genetics

06F: 10A

Selected topics in developmental genetics, with emphasis on recent work involving model systems, e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans and Mus musculus. The following areas may be considered in depth: oogenesis, spermatogenesis, fertilization, germ cell determination, embryonic and postembryonic induction, sex determination, axis specification, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Lambie.

165. Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotes

06F, 07F: 2

Lectures dealing with the structure, function, organization, dynamics, and regulation of genes in higher eukaryotes and their viruses. Topics ranging from transposition of genes, to regulation of transcription, to targeted gene disruption and gene replacement in transgenic organisms will be covered. New topics in the literature will be included as well. Grotz.

166. Molecular Basis of Cancer

07W, 08W: 10A

In this course we will explore how cancer develops on a cellular level. Using primary literature as a guide, we will examine the basic cellular processes malignant tumors exploit to promote their rapid, invasive growth and ultimately disease. Topics that will be considered include the genetic factors that initiate cancer cell formation, cell cycle regulation, programmed cell death, cell signaling, angiogenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as how current cancer therapies work on a cellular level. Gladfelter.

169. Supervised Teaching in Biology

All terms: Arrange

This course is required for all graduate students, based on the assertion that an essential element of graduate education is the experience gained in teaching other students. Such teaching experience is of particular relevance to students interested in academic careers. Students will conduct laboratory or discussion sessions in undergraduate courses under the supervision of the course faculty. The faculty and student teaching assistant work very closely to develop lab and discussion assignments. In some cases, the students are encouraged to present lectures for which they receive detailed feedback on their teaching style. In all cases students will receive instruction on effective teaching techniques through weekly preparation sessions. Topics for discussion include how to teach the material, how to run a discussion, how to evaluate student responses, and grading. Performance will be monitored throughout the term and appropriate evaluation, coupled with detailed suggestions for improvement, will be provided. This course is not open to undergraduates. The staff.

171. Advanced Cell Biology

07S, 08S: 2A

This course will cover in depth one or more specific topics in cell biology such as cell division, chromosome structure and function, signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, membrane assembly, and intracellular protein targeting. Material will be presented in a manner designed to encourage student comments and to demonstrate how modern molecular, biochemical, immunological, and genetic techniques are employed to study problems in cell biology. Reading assignments will be taken from the current research literature. Bickel.

173. Cell Signaling

07S, 08S: 10A

This course will focus on how signals are transmitted from the cell surface into changes in cellular function. Detailed analysis of specific membrane receptors, second-messenger systems, and protein kinases will be presented as well as how these components are integrated into larger "systems" such as apoptosis, metabolic signaling, synaptic transmission, and sensory transduction. Particular emphasis will be on the biochemical analysis of the pathways and their individual components as well as how these pathways are impaired in certain disease states. The course will consist of lectures and weekly discussions of recent primary literature. Dolph.

175. Genomic Circuitry

08S: 10

Many genomes, including the human genome, have been sequenced. Now, increasing attention has turned to a cryptic, yet fundamental component of these genomes: gene circuitry, i.e. the "wiring" that links together activated genes in a genomic program. Specialized DNA sequences determine where and when a given gene is expressed during an organism's life cycle. These genomic "regulatory" sequences play a major role in basic evolutionary processes. How do regulatory sequences encode differential gene expression? How do they evolve? How do we identify and decode them? This course will investigate these questions as well as landmark papers necessary to understand present and future work in this field. Erives.

176. Advanced Genetics

06F, 08S: 3A

Methods and strategies for the analysis of gene structure, function and genetic interactions. The course will examine how the genetic manipulation of model organisms, including yeast, Drosophila, C. elegans, and mouse, is used to explore the mechanisms of fundamental biological processes such as cell division, development, and intercellular communication. Emphasis will be placed on the application of classical genetic methods, including mutant screens, recombination and complementation analysis, genetic mosaics, and the use of conditional mutations. Modern molecular-based approaches, including gene knockout, gene dosage and misexpression studies will also be included. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Berger.

197. Graduate Research I: Level I

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries one course credit and should be elected by students conducting research and also electing two or more other graduate or undergraduate courses. The staff.

198. Graduate Research I: Level II

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries two course credits and should be elected by students electing only departmental colloquia in addition to research. The staff.

199. Graduate Research I: Level III

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries three course credits and should be elected by students conducting research exclusively in any one term. The staff.

263-270. Graduate Research Colloquium in Biological Sciences

F, W, S: Arrange

This course is required of all students during each term of residence, except summer. An essential element of scientific training is in the critical analysis and communication of experimental research in an oral format. Evaluation will be based on quality of the work described, quality of critical analysis, and on presentation style, including effective use of audiovisual materials. All students will be required to participate in at least one Journal Club/Research in Progress series. Although minor variations in format exist among the several series, all students will make oral presentations that describe work from the current literature or their own research. Normally these series meet weekly. This course is not open to undergraduates. The staff.

Biology 263, Cell Biology

Biology 265, Microbial Ecology and Environmental Biology

Biology 266, Ecology and Evolution

Biology 268, Genes and Gene Products

Biology 269, Plant Molecular Biology

Biology 270, Computational Biology

271. Research in Progress Colloquium

07S, 08S: Arrange

This course is designed to monitor participation of first year MCB graduate students in the Research in Progress Seminars. The Research in Progress Seminars are presentations by MCB students, second year and older. These Research in Progress Seminars meet five times per month for 1-1.5 hours from September through May. The course will be taken by all first year MCB students in the Spring term, and the course will monitor Research in Progress Seminar participation throughout the first year.

297. Graduate Research II: Level I

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, subsequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries one course credit and should be elected by students conducting research and also electing two or more other graduate or undergraduate courses. The staff.

298. Graduate Research II: Level II

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, subsequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries two course credits and should be elected by students electing only departmental colloquia in addition to research. The staff.

299. Graduate Research II: Level III

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergraduate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, subsequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries three course credits and should be elected by students conducting research exclusively in any one term. The staff.