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Earth Sciences

Chair: Xiahong Feng

Professors J. L. Aronson, R. W. Birnie, G. D. Johnson; Associate Professors X. Feng, C. E. Renshaw, L. J. Sonder; Assistant Professors B. C. Bostick, W. B. Dade, A. M. Heimsath, M. Sharma; Lecturer J. M. Kaste; Visiting Assistant Professor A. J. Elmore; Adjunct Professors S. Bonis, G. R. Brakenridge, G. Eglinton, A. J. Friedland, P. Koons, F. J. Magilligan, E. S. Posmentier, J. B. Shanley, J. B. Thompson, R. A. Virginia; Adjunct Associate Professors E. P. Kvale, H. N. Mango; Adjunct Assistant Professors S. R. Brown, S. Taylor; Adjunct Instructor D. R. Spydell; Visiting Scholar D. R. Wunsch; Research Assistant Professor C. Oze.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARTH SCIENCES MAJOR, THE ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES MAJOR AND THE EARTH SCIENCES MINOR

The Earth Sciences Major

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1 (Earth Sciences 2 or 3 or 5 or 6 may be substituted) and Earth Sciences 34; Chemistry 5 (or 3); Mathematics 3.

Requirements: Earth Sciences 45, 46, 47, and 68 or 69 and at least four Earth Science courses numbered 10 and above, of which at least three must be numbered 20 or higher. Up to two relevant courses above the introductory level from the Division of the Sciences may be substituted for two of the Earth Sciences courses numbered 10 and above as approved in advance by the Chair of the Department. Note: Students will be advised that the following Earth Sciences courses are specifically recommended for this option: Earth Sciences 21, 31, 33, 37, 44, 65, 50, 63, 64, 67, 68, 69. Students should consider the possibility of taking Earth Sciences 44 or 68 during their sophomore year, as these courses afford good preparation for the Off-Campus Program.

All students majoring in Earth Sciences or Environmental Earth Sciences must complete Earth Sciences 87 or 88 or 89 and attend weekly research seminars in Winter and Spring of senior year, in order to fulfill the College’s culminating experience requirement.

The Environmental Earth Sciences Major

The Environmental Earth Sciences major is an opportunity to gain a more focused exposure to the study of environmental resources (such as minerals, soils, and water) and the processes of environmental change, which will involve various aspects of earth history, geochemistry, biogeochemistry and earth surface processes. Our goal in identifying this major is to educate earth scientists who will be capable of understanding and solving environmental problems.

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1 (or Earth Sciences 2, 3, 5 or 6 may be substituted) Earth Sciences 34; Chemistry 5 (or 3); Mathematics 3.

Requirements: Earth Sciences 45, 46, 47, and 62 or 66, and at least four Earth Sciences courses numbered 10 or higher. Up to two relevant courses above the introductory level from qualifying courses in geography, environmental studies, engineering, chemistry and biology (see below), may be substituted for two of the Earth Sciences courses as approved by the Chair of the Earth Sciences Department. Note: Students will be advised that the following Earth Sciences courses are specifically recommended for this option: Earth Sciences 15, 26, 28, 31, 33, 36, 55, 62, 66, 68, 72, 73, 76.

All students majoring in Earth Sciences or Environmental Earth Sciences must complete Earth Sciences 87 or 88 or 89 and attend weekly research seminars in Winter and Spring of senior year, in order to fulfill the College’s culminating experience requirement.

Additionally: The following courses are specifically recommended for inclusion in the Environmental Earth Sciences Major: Geography 33, 55, 58; Chemistry 63; Engineering Sciences 37, 41, 43; Biology 14, 25, 51, 53; Environmental Studies 30, 89.

**Advisory**

First-year students planning a major in either of the two above Earth Sciences majors are advised to elect one of Earth Sciences 1, 2, 3, 5 or 6, Mathematics 3 and Chemistry 5-6 in the first or sophomore year. It is highly recommended that all majors take the Earth Sciences 45, 46 and 47 sequence (the Fall F.S.P.). However, a student may substitute a summer field methods course offered by another institution and approved by the Chair. Since this course will likely receive one Dartmouth course credit, a student will likely need two additional Earth Sciences courses numbered 10 or above to meet Dartmouth’s eight course major requirement.

Students contemplating a professional career in earth sciences are advised that:

1. Training at the Master’s level or above is becoming increasingly necessary.

2. Most graduate schools have minimum entrance requirements equivalent to Mathematics 3 and 8, Chemistry 3-6 or 5-6, and Physics 3-4 or 13-14. Minimal expectations for Earth Sciences preparation include material taught in Earth Sciences 34, 44, 68, and 69.

The Earth Sciences Minor

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences 1 (or Earth Sciences 2 or 3 or 5 or 6) and Earth Sciences 34; Chemistry 5 (or 3); Mathematics 3.

Requirements: Earth Sciences 45, 46, and 47 and one additional course in Earth Sciences numbered 10 or above.

The Modified Major

Modified Major with Earth Sciences as the primary department.

Prerequisites: same as Earth Sciences Major

Required Courses: six which must include Earth Sciences 45, 46, 47 and 68 or 69

Modified Major with Earth Sciences as the secondary department.

Prerequisites: same as Earth Sciences Major

Required Courses: four courses from within the Earth Sciences major.

Modified Major with Environmental Earth Sciences as the primary department.

Prerequisites: same as Environmental Earth Sciences Major

Required Courses: six which must include Earth Sciences 45, 46, 47 and 62 or 66.

Modified Major with Environmental Earth Sciences as the secondary department.

Prerequisites: same as Environmental Earth Sciences Major

Required Courses: four courses within the Environmental Earth Sciences Major

EARTH SCIENCES HONORS PROGRAM

A candidate for the Honors Program in Earth Sciences must satisfy the College requirements of at least a 3.0 (B) overall grade point average and at least a 3.0 (B) grade point average in the major at the beginning of senior year. Those students who a) enroll in and satisfactorily complete Earth Sciences 89, b) satisfactorily complete and submit a written senior thesis and c) have a 3.3 (B+) average or higher in the 8 courses constituting their major will earn Honors or, in appropriate cases, High Honors, in Earth Sciences at the end of senior year. High Honors will be granted only by vote of the Department on the basis of overall academic performance including both classroom and independent work. Earth Sciences 89 may be taken twice, both for course credit, but will only count once toward the major. An interim evaluation of Honors Students will be made after one term and continuation will be recommended for those students whose work demonstrates the capacity for satisfactory 3.33 (B+) work. Note: enrollment in Earth Sciences 89 in and of itself does not constitute admission to the Honors Program, nor does completion of a senior thesis guarantee the awarding of Honors.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTERS DEGREE

General requirements of the Master of Science (MS) degree at Dartmouth College include three terms of residence and eight courses of graduate level, not more than four of which may be replaced by research or special study approved and supervised by the department.

To be considered for admission to the MS program a prospective student must:

1. Complete the equivalent of the following Dartmouth courses:

Math 3 and 8

2. Complete the equivalent of any two of the following Dartmouth course sequences:

Chemistry 5 and 6

Physics 3 and 4 (or 13 and 14)

Biology 14 and 15

3. Complete an undergraduate science major with broad background in earth sciences.

To fulfill the specific requirements of the Department of Earth Sciences for an MS degree, a student must additionally complete:

1. Eight graduate courses at the discretion of the thesis committee. These course must include Earth Sciences 62, 201 and 202 and either Earth Sciences 107 or Earth Sciences 115, if the equivalent has not already been completed elsewhere. These courses may not include thesis research (EARS 141-143) or teaching (EARS 157).

2. Complete four terms of thesis research.

3. Complete a thesis of professional quality and pass a final oral examination on the topic of the thesis.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PH.D. DEGREE

General requirements for the Ph.D. degree are given in the Regulations for Graduate Study section. In fulfillment of the specific requirements of the Department of Earth Sciences, the student must:

1. Satisfy all course requirements for the MS degree

2. Pass the following required courses or their equivalents, if not passed prior to entering the Ph.D. Program.

Math 23. Differential Equations.

Earth Sciences 107. Mathematical Modeling in the Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences 115. Analysis of Environmental Data

One upper level science or engineering course outside the department carrying graduate credit. This may include Chemistry 51 or 71, Biology 51, Engineering 24 or 34, or other courses approved by the Department.

3. Pass a minimum of nine courses carrying graduate credit, including those fulfilling the above requirements.

4. Submit a summer research proposal by May 1 of the first year in residence.

5. Pass a general oral exam and defense of results from a summer research project during Fall term of the second year.

6. At the end of the second year, present and defend a thesis proposal before the faculty.

7. An essential element of graduate education at Dartmouth is the experience gained in teaching other students. Therefore, at least one term of undergraduate teaching is required of all graduate students. Students may participate in more than one term of teaching. Each student’s program will be arranged, according to his/ her individual needs and interests, and the teaching needs of the Department.

A candidate who has satisfied the above requirements will receive a Ph.D. degree after he or she has:

1. Passed any additional graduate-level courses beyond those specified above, as prescribed by the Department.

2. Completed a thesis of professional quality. The thesis may be a series of publishable papers connected by appropriate text. The candidate must pass a final oral examination on the thesis

INTRODUCTORY COURSES IN EARTH SCIENCES

1. Introduction to Earth Sciences

05F, 06S, 06F, 07S: 10; Laboratory (three hours weekly) M 1-4; Tu 9-12; W 2-5; or Th 9-12

This course introduces the principles of physical geology by describing the earth’s components and analyzing the processes that control its evolution. Mountain ranges and deep sea trenches, volcanism and earthquakes, surficial and deep-seated geologic processes provide the evidence we will use to interpret the earth’s makeup and history. Earth resources, geologic hazards, and environmental protection will be discussed in connection with a variety of general geologic topics. Dist: SLA. Kaste, Aronson.

2. Earth History

06W, 07W: 10A; one weekly hour discussion period

The origin and development of the earth, its atmosphere, and its oceans. The modifications of animals during geologic time are studied, particularly as they relate to ancient environments. The historical perspective provided by the course is used to evaluate and estimate human effects on recent natural environments. Dist: SCI. Heimsath.

3. Elementary Oceanography

06S, 07S: 11

Physical, chemical, biological, and geological processes in the oceans and their interactions. Topics include dynamics of ocean circulation, marine ecology and living resources of the sea, geology of the sea floor and ocean minerals, and the structure and origin of the ocean basins. Dist: SCI. Posmentier.

4. Elementary Meteorology

06X, 07X: 10A

Introduction to the weather-producing processes of the atmosphere, with discussion of their effects on humanity and its conscious and unconscious alteration of weather and climate. Subject matter includes the composition and structure of the atmosphere, global heat balance and circulation, ocean-atmosphere interactions, the formation of precipitation, the hydrologic cycle, weather forecasting, and the climatic history of the earth. Our response to weather and climate, and aspects of air pollution, thermal alteration of the atmosphere, and weather modification are also discussed. Dist: SLA.

5. Natural Disasters and Catastrophes

06W, 07W: 10

This course will examine several different kinds of natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, and meteorite impacts. We will attempt to understand the reasons for the occurrence of these events, the reasons for the wide variations in our ability to accurately predict them, and the role of the scientist in broader societal issues relating to disaster preparation, forecasting events, and damage and cost mitigation. Dist: SCI. Sonder.

6. Environmental Change

06X: 11

This course will investigate the science of natural and human induced environmental change on a global scale. The Earth has never existed in a pristine balanced state, and an understanding of pre-industrial changes in the Earth’s environment provides important information that we can use to interpret current environmental change. Topics that will be discussed include: the evolution of the atmosphere, global temperature variation, sea level change, atmospheric trace gases and global warming, stratospheric ozone, acid rain and tropospheric ozone, human migration and landscape development, and global catastrophes. Dist: SCI. Aronson.

7. First-Year Seminars in Earth Sciences

Consult special listings

8. Life on Mars? (Identical to College Course 4)

Not offered in the period from 05F through 07S

This course will examine three major questions: Why explore Mars? Has there ever been life on Mars? Could humans survive the trip to Mars? We will study how Mars has appeared in literature and culture throughout history. We will review U.S. policy toward space flight, how our space policy was developed, and what lessons about space exploration can be learned from the Apollo missions to the Moon. We will explore the existing evidence for life on Mars and how to interpret these results. Finally, we will examine the human challenges of a long-duration mission to Mars.

Enrollment limited to sophomores and first-year students only unless with permission of faculty. Satisfies the Interdisciplinary requirement (Class of 2004 and earlier). Buckey (Medicine), Sharma (Earth Sciences), Davies (Comparative Literature).

TOPICAL COURSES

15. Earth Resources

06W: Arrange

Our industrial development is propelled by an ever-increasing consumption of the earth’s fuel, metal, and mineral resources. This course describes the geologic setting, exploration, and exploitation of earth resources with emphasis on a geological perspective. The geologic background, complemented by technologic and economic considerations, is used to assess the reserves of some of our most essential resources, and to recognize the geologic and technologic constraints that may limit the future supply of some of them. Dist: TAS. Oze.

21. Geology of New England and Surrounding Regions

06X: 10A;Laboratory: Arrange

The continuous geological development of our continent over the past several billion years has played a significant role in influencing the character of agriculture, commerce, and transportation, the availability of mineral, energy, and water resources, and even the ecologic communities that occupy this varied landscape. In this course we will develop an understanding of the geological history of a portion of the North American continent and its continental shelves, as a basis for understanding some of the natural controls that constrain our interaction with this landscape and that continue to modify it through a variety of geological processes. Field trips. Dist: SLA. Johnson.

26. Hydrology and Water Resources

06S: W, F 2:00-4:00;Laboratory: W 4:00-6:00Offered alternate spring terms

Analysis of the hydrologic cycle. Laboratories and local lakes and streams are used to study and illustrate phenomena and principles.

Prerequisite: Introductory course in Earth Sciences or a related field recommended. Dist: TLA. Renshaw.

28. Environmental Geology

05F, 06F: 10A;Laboratory W 1:00-5:00

Environmental geology considers the interaction between natural processes and human activities. Topics will include stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric pollution, global climate change, biogeochemical cycles, water, energy, and mineral resources, land use, and waste management. Lectures will be supplemented with laboratory exercises and field trips.

Prerequisite: Introductory course in Earth Sciences or a related field recommended. Dist: TLA. Feng.

31. Paleobiology

06X: 2A;Laboratory Arrange

The study of fossil flora, invertebrate and vertebrate fauna, and their utility in understanding ancient rock sequences of paleontologic or archaeologic significance. Emphasis is placed on the nature of the fossil record, the environmental context, and the evolutionary history of certain major groups of organisms, paleoecology, paleogeography, and the use of fossils for geologic dating and correlation. Stratigraphic principles are developed.

Prerequisite: One introductory level science course or its equivalent or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Johnson.

33. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (Identical to Geography 33)

07S: 12;Laboratory M 3:00-5:00

This class is concerned with surficial landforms on the earth’s surface, the processes responsible for their formation, and their spatial and temporal distribution. The course is designed to present a wide overview of geomorphic principles and processes. Dist: SLA. Heimsath, Magilligan.

34. Materials of the Earth

06X: 10;Laboratory M 2:00-5:00, or arranged

Identification, crystallography, crystal chemistry, and natural occurrence of minerals, rocks, and water. Origin and classification of the igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 1 (Earth Sciences 2 or 3 or 5 or 6 may be substituted) and Chemistry 3 (or 5), or permission of the instructor. See note below following entry for Earth Sciences 47. Dist: SLA. Bostick.

36. Analysis of Environmental Data

06W: 2A; Offered alternate winter terms

Topics such as acid deposition, watershed pollution, water quality, acid mine drainage and climatic change are used to introduce the fundamentals of environmental data analysis, including uncertainty and hypothesis testing, error propagation, regression, and experimental design.

Prerequisites: One course in Earth Sciences and Math 3 or permission of instructors. Dist: TAS. Posmentier.

37. Marine Geology

Not offered in the period from 05F through 07S

Geology of the ocean floors revealed by direct observation, sea-bottom photography, various geophysical sensing techniques, and sediment/crust coring. Major topics include morphology of the sea floor; origin and structure of the oceanic crust; the nature, origins and distribution of marine sediments; marine stratigraphy, paleoceanography and paleoclimatology; the processes of coastal erosion and deposition, especially during glacial/interglacial cycles. A short fieldtrip is offered to learn the various geophysical techniques.

Prerequisite: One introductory course in Earth Sciences (1, 2, 3, 5 or 6) or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI.

44. Structural Geology

06S, 07S: 11;Laboratory: Arrange

Physical characteristics of earth materials: folding, faulting, fracturing, and flow. Application to fault motion, slope stability, and soil mechanics. Plate tectonics and continental drift, formation and evolution of mountain belts. Laboratories will introduce techniques for visualizing three-dimensional geometric relationships and will develop skills in interpreting geologic and topographic maps. Field trips to selected areas in New England.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 1, or Earth Sciences D.F.S.P. (45, 46, 47), or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Dade.

45. Field Methods: Techniques of Structural and Stratigraphic Analysis

05F, 06F: D.F.S.P.

The study of geologic phenomena and field problems associated with the solid earth. The analysis of outcrop evidence of the structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic history of selected regions. The integrated use of geologic instruments, topographic maps, aerial photography, and satellite imagery to enable geomorphic and structural analysis. Because of the nature of this course, class meetings, assignments, readings, and reports are scheduled irregularly.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 34. Must be taken concurrently with Earth Sciences 46 and 47. Dist: SLA. The staff.

46. Field Methods: Environmental Monitoring

05F, 06F: D.F.S.P.

The study of surface processes and products through the integration of geomorphic, hydrologic, and environmental chemistry techniques. The analysis of field evidence of the interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere at the earth’s surface. The integrated use of geologic instruments, topographic maps, aerial photography, and satellite imagery to enable geomorphic and environmental assessment. Because of the nature of this course, class meetings, assignments, readings, and reports are scheduled irregularly.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 34. Must be taken concurrently with Earth Sciences 45 and 47. Dist: TLA. The staff.

47. Field Methods: Resource and Earth Hazards Assessment

05F, 06F: D.F.S.P.

Field studies of rock associations, geologic structures, active and fossil volcanism, and mineral resources in the western United States and Mexico. The interrelationship between upper crustal processes and earth materials in the development of landforms and landscapes, and rock and mineral provinces. The integrated use of geologic instruments, topographic maps, aerial photography, and satellite imagery to enable resource assessment. Because of the nature of this course, class meetings, assignments, readings, and reports are scheduled irregularly.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 34. Must be taken concurrently with Earth Sciences 45 and 46. Dist: SLA. The staff.

Earth Sciences 45, 46, and 47, the Earth Sciences Off-Campus Study Program (D.F.S.P.), require considerable logistical planning for proper execution. It is therefore imperative that Earth Sciences majors planning to be enrolled in this program register in the Off-Campus Programs Office (44 North College Street, Hinman 6102) no later than May 1 of the sophomore year. All prerequisites to Earth Sciences 34 must be met by this time; failure to complete prerequisites may cause a student to be denied permission to participate in the Off Campus Program. If you will be off campus during the spring term of sophomore year, these requirements must be completed by the end of the winter term of that year. Enrollment may be limited. Preference given to majors.

ADVANCED COURSES

55. Remote Sensing (Identical to Geography 55)

06W: 10A;Laboratory: W 1:00-4:00 or Th 1:00-4:00

Remote sensing involves the acquisition of information about the earth from airborne and satellite sensors. Both vector (GIS and GPS) and raster (image) data will be treated with an emphasis on their interpretation for various geographic and earth science applications. A significant part of the course will be devoted to practical exercises; there will be a final project involving the computer processing and interpretation of these data.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 1, 2, 5, or 6, or Geography 3. Dist: TLA. Birnie.

60. Geology of Fossil Fuels

Not offered in the period from 05F through 07S

This course introduces the geologic controls on the formation, geochemical maturation, and natural preservation of fossil fuels. The depositional history, diagenetic regimes, and deformational patterns of sedimentary basins will be discussed. A description will be given of modern methods of petroleum exploration and primary and secondary production technology. The course will finish with a discussion of the locations and amounts of fossil fuel reserves, and the future of fossil fuels as an energy source. An independent research project will be required.

Prerequisite: A term-length geology field course or permission of the instructor. Dist: TAS. Dade.

62. Geochemistry

05F, 06F: 2A

An overview of low-temperature geochemistry with particular emphasis on the quantitative chemical principles controlling the composition of the atmosphere, streams, lakes, groundwater, and the ocean.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 6 or equivalent or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Oze, Sharma.

63. Geology of Ore Deposits

Not offered in the period from 05F through 07S

Mineral resources, with special emphasis on metallic ore deposits. Problems of geologic setting, associated rock types and genesis. Exploration methods and approaches. Field trip to mining district to study occurrence, evaluation, and exploration of ore deposits.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 34, 46 and 47. Dist: SLA.

64. Geophysics

06S: 10;Laboratory: ArrangeOffered alternate spring terms

Geological methods (mapping and analysis of samples collected at the earth’s surface) tell us much about processes occurring near the earth’s surface, but very little about deeper parts of the earth. Almost all surface rocks come from depths of no more than a few tens of kilometers, yet 99% of the Earth is deeper than that! How can we learn about parts of the Earth to which there is no hope of ever travelling and from which we have no samples? Geophysics gives us the tools. In this course we will use the principles of gravity, magnetism, seismology, and heat transfer to “journey to the center of the Earth.�? Laboratory sessions will be focussed more locally; we will collect geophysical data from the Hanover area and interpret them to learn about the rocks hidden below the Earth’s surface.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 3, or permission of the instructor. Mathematics 8 is advisable, but not required. Dist: SLA. Sonder.

65. Geotectonics

Not offered in the period from 05F through 07S

The paradigm of plate tectonics developed from research on paleomagnetism and seafloor topography. The course will examine this background and explore: 1) how plate tectonics works, 2) the geometry of plate motion on a sphere, 3) modern examples of plate boundary interactions, and 4) the study of a major orogen and associated basin(s).

Prerequisites: Earth Sciences l and 44 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Aronson.

66. Hydrogeology

07W: T, Th 8-10 Offered alternate winter terms

Introduction to the principles and applications of hydrogeology: occurrence and movement of groundwater; groundwater and the hydrologic cycle; groundwater resource evaluation (well hydraulics and numerical modeling); transport and fate of contaminants; role of groundwater in geologic processes. Lecture exercises will focus on theoretical and practical aspects.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 3 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Brown.

67. Environmental Geomechanics

07W: 10

The study of our Earth environment requires an understanding of the physical processes within and at the surface of the Earth. This course explores the physics of key Earth surface processes, including volcanic eruptions, landslides and debris flows, and turbulent flows in rivers and the sea. Quantitative concepts are developed through applications in geomorphology, sedimentology, oceanography, and volcanology.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 3 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Dade.

68. Sedimentary Systems/Sedimentary Petrology

06W: 2A;Laboratory W 2:00-5:00, W ArrangedOffered alternate winter terms

This course considers the evidence, preservation, and temporal record of environmental change as preserved in sedimentary rocks. Various biological and physical processes, occurring at or near the earth’s surface, involving the complex interaction between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, will be evaluated so as to understand their occurrence within the ancient sedimentary rock record - a record that may be extended to several billion years before the present. The principles of various paleontological and chronological techniques will also be illustrated through a consideration of certain modern and ancient sedimentary assemblages of geologic, archeological, paleontologic, or paleoenvironmental significance. Laboratory study will involve the use of lithologic and paleontological materials, subsurface and surface outcrop data, optical and electron microscopy. Field trips and field project.

Prerequisite: One introductory level science course or its equivalent or permission of instructor. Dist: SLA. Johnson.

69. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

07S: 10A;Laboratory Tu 2:00-5:00Offered alternate spring terms

An overview of high-temperature geochemistry with particular emphasis on the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks. The course will examine the principles of phase equilibria, the relationship between tectonic and rock forming processes, and the origin of the Earth’s crust, mantle, and core. Laboratories will be strongly field-based. Students will examine and collect rocks in the surrounding New England Appalachians and will analyze these rocks in the laboratory.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 34. Dist: SLA. Sharma.

72. Molecular Paleontology/Archaeology

Not offered in the period from 05F through 07S

This course will investigate the origin and preservation of organic molecules in sediments/fossils and their relation to environmental assessment in the present, archaeology in the past and paleontology in the geological past. Topics include environmental conditions affecting the preservations of molecular fossils (lipids, pigments, proteins, carbohydrates and DNA), molecular dating tools, molecular fingerprints of plant and animal evolution, ancient DNA detection and “Jurassic Park�?, DNA markers of prehistoric migrations, molecular and isotope reconstruction of the history of human diets and living environments.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 5 or permission of the instructor (Earth Sciences 31 or Biology 14 recommended) Dist: SCI.

73. Environmental Isotope Geochemistry

07W: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

This course examines the use of radiogenic and stable isotopes as tracers of biogeochemical processes. Topics in the course include the theoretical basis for radiogenic and stable isotope chemistry, and the application of isotope studies in ecological, hydrological, and geochemical studies. The course will include a class project in which students will work on a research problem in environmental science. Past projects have included isotope studies of beer, maple syrup and coffee production.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 5 (or 3) or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Feng.

74. Soils and Aqueous Geochemistry

06S: 10A

An overview of the basic principles that govern soil chemistry, with particular emphasis on the composition and mineralogy of soils, the chemical processes that function within soils, the reactions that describe the fate of elements (both nutrients and contaminants) within soils and soil solutions. The majority of the course will cover equilibrium soil processes. Occasional field trips will concentrate on the collection of soils and their characterization.

Prerequisites: Chemistry 5 and Earth Sciences 62 or equivalents, or permission of instructor. Dist: SCI. Bostick.

76. Contaminant

Hydrogeology (Identical to Engineering Science 42)

07S: W, F 2:00-4:00;Laboratory: W 4:00-6:00Offered alternate spring terms

Groundwater contamination is a widespread threat to the environment and to human health. This course will include a survey of physical, chemical, and biological processes by which both dissolved and multiphase contaminants are transported and transformed in the subsurface. Laboratory is used to illustrate phenomena and principles.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 66 or permission of instructor. Dist: TAS. Renshaw.

79. The Soil Resource (Identical to Environmental Studies 79)

07S: 2A;Laboratory W 4:00-6:00 Offered alternate spring terms

This course will explore the nature and properties of soils and examine their behavior in natural and human-manipulated systems. We will begin by developing an understanding of the geologic, biologic, and chemical processes that lead to soil formation and the development of specific soil properties. The second portion of the course will examine the relationship between soils and underlying bedrock and overlying vegetation and the role of soils in ecosystems. The final section of the course will examine the situations in which soils are used to reduce the impact of human activities and the way in which humans can reduce their impact on soils: the importance of soils in septic tanks and leach fields; the use of soils as solid waste landfill caps and liners; the use of soils in the storage of hazardous wastes; and the conservation and management of soils in agroforestry and agroecosystems.

Prerequisite: Environmental Studies 2 or Earth Sciences 1 (Earth Sciences 2 or 3 or 5 or 6 may be substituted); or Chemistry 5 (or 3) and an advanced course from the environmental sciences or earth sciences; or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Bostick.

87. Special Projects

All terms: Arrange

Available every term as advanced study in a particular field of the earth sciences, not related to Senior Thesis research, and under the supervision of a faculty advisor. Conclusions from the project must be submitted in a suitable oral or written report. If taken in satisfaction of the culminating experience requirement, attendance at weekly earth sciences research talks during Winter and Spring terms of the senior year is required.

Prerequisite: Sufficient training in the area of the project, and faculty approval.

88. Research Seminar

06W, 07W: 3A

Participation in advanced reading and discussion related to weekly departmental research talks. Students will read one or more journal articles each week, give oral presentations summarizing the articles, and participate in discussion of the papers. Evaluation will be on the basis of oral presentations, participation in discussion, and attendance. Also requires attendance at weekly earth sciences research talks during Winter and Spring terms of the senior year. Serves in satisfaction of the culminating experience requirement for the earth sciences major.

89. Thesis Research

All terms: Arrange

Research related to preparation of a senior thesis. The initiative to begin some project should come from the student, who should consult the appropriate faculty member. May be taken two terms, both for course credit, but can only count once toward the major. Conclusions from the research must be submitted in a suitable report. Attendance at weekly earth sciences research seminars is required during Winter and Spring terms. Serves in satisfaction of the culminating experience requirement.

Prerequisite: permission of a faculty research advisor.

GRADUATE COURSES IN EARTH SCIENCES

Various of these courses are open to qualified undergraduates by permission of the instructor.

100. Spatial Data Analysis

06S: Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

Remote Sensing involves the processing of data collected by satellite and airborne sensors to yield environmental and geologic information about the earth’s surface such as the distribution of forest types, rock units, and land use. A Geographic Information System (GIS) links these thematic data with other spatial data such as topography, transportation networks, and political boundaries to allow display and analysis at the same scale and with the same geographic reference. This course will cover the principles of GIS including data capture, geographic rectification using a Global Positioning System (GPS), spatial buffers, and logical overlays as well as the concepts of Remote Sensing including linear and nonlinear image enhancements, convolution filtering, principal components analysis, and classification. Weekly labs will apply the concepts learned in class. Elmore.

101. Topics in Petrology

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

The specific aspect of petrology that is covered in this course will vary from year to year. Topics will be selected from either igneous petrology, metamorphic petrology, or the petrology of soils and chemical weathering.

102. Organic Geochemistry

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

This course will consider the sources, distribution and stability of organic compounds in various environments. Emphasis will be place on the abundance and stable isotope content of biomarkers and their application to the geological and environmental systems. Major topic areas include: Origins of organic molecules in the universe and solar systems; major cellular components; dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean; organic compounds in sediments and soils and their diagenetic pathways; sources and fates of anthropogenic compounds; biomarker reconstruction of paleoenvironments.

103. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

Problems in the petrogenesis of sedimentary rocks. The petrography, classification, and field relations of various sedimentary facies will be considered in light of examples from both modern and ancient depositional systems. Carbonate facies will be illustrated emphasizing data from modern shelf environments. Clastic rocks will be studied by illustrating the petrology and sedimentology of various depositional systems, facies models, and the diagenetic record. Some emphasis is placed on non-marine and transitional marine environments. Laboratory work involves petrographic and scanning electron microscopy. Field trips. Johnson.

104. Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Basin Analysis

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

The analysis of the spacial and temporal evolution of ancient sedimentary basins. The application of outcrop, well records, cores, and geophysical data to illustrate the principles of stratigraphic analysis and correlation. Course emphasis will include sedimentary lithofacies and biofacies analysis, characterization of depositional systems, basin mapping techniques, and the analysis of basin thermal histories. Intrinsic basin response to such extrinsic controls as plate tectonics and sea level changes will be considered. Field trips. Johnson.

105. Phase Equilibria

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

Theoretical treatment of multicomponent phase equilibria that examines diagenetic, metamorphic, igneous, and ore forming processes.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 69.

106. GIS in Hydrology

06S; Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

107. Mathematical Modeling of Earth Processes

07S; Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged. Offered alternate spring terms

Physics and mathematics of processes in the earth, including chemical and thermal diffusion, mechanics of lithospheric deformation, and chemical fractionation.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 13 or permission of instructor. Sonder.

108. Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry

06S; Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

Lectures, seminars, and laboratory studies on radiogenic isotope geochemistry. Topics will include planetary evolution, igneous and metamorphic petrology, weathering and diagenesis, and geochronology. Emphasis will be placed on current research developments and techniques of isotopic measurement.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 62 or 73.

109. Clay Mineralogy and Shale Petrology

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

The theoretical and practical aspects of x-ray diffraction are stressed. Homework and laboratory work involve the computer and the x-ray diffractometer. Reynolds.

110. Process Geomorphology

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

Lectures will be combined with discussion sections and field trips to examine geomorphic principles from a process-based perspective. Reading will draw from texts, seminal papers, as well as the most current geomorphic literature to quantitatively examine the Earth’s surface. Field trips will involve data collection and processing that will be written up as student reports. Topics examined include: mechanical and chemical weathering of bedrock, erosion by water, mass wasting, glacial, and periglacial processes, and landscape evolution modeling. Heimsath.

111. Volcanology

06S; Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged. Oze

112. Geochemical Thermodynamics

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

This course covers chemical thermodynamics for both low and high temperature geochemical processes. Subjects include aqueous geochemistry, stability relationships of minerals at both low and high temperatures, calculation of activity vs. activity diagrams, and calculation of geochemical reactions. As such, the information in this course is essential for students interested in geochemistry. The course will require weekly problem sets, a biweekly laboratory, and 2 hourly exams. Students should be familiar with general chemistry.

113. Watershed Hydrochemistry

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

115. Analysis of Environmental Data

06W; Lectures to be arranged. Offered alternate winter terms

Topics such as acid deposition, watershed pollution, water quality, acid mine drainage and climatic change are used to introduce the fundamentals of environmental data analysis, including uncertainty and hypothesis testing, error propagation, regression, and experimental design. Students are required to analyze their own research data as part of their final project. Posmentier.

116. Fractures and Flow

Lectures to be arranged

Discussion of current understanding of the formation of rock fractures and their impact on subsurface fluid flow and geologic processes.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 66. Renshaw.

117. Topics in Stable Isotope Geochemistry

Lecture and Laboratory to be arranged

An advanced seminar course on the application of stable isotope geochemistry to research in biogeochemistry. A specific topic in biogeochemistry will be selected each year this course is offered. Students will read and present research papers and will conduct a group research project in the stable isotope laboratory.

118. Groundwater Modeling

Lectures to be arranged

Application of numerical models to groundwater resource evaluation and contaminant transport. Although this course will cover numerical methods for solving elementary initial-value problems, its emphasis will be on conceptualization and abstraction of field-based problems and the use of existing software for simulating complex groundwater flow systems. Lectures and computer-based exercises. Renshaw.

119. Stable Isotope Geochemistry

06W; Lecture and Laboratory to be arranged. Offered alternate winter terms

Lectures, seminars, and laboratory studies on the theory and applications of stable isotope geochemistry. Emphasis will be placed on major contributions of the stable isotope technique to the fundamental understanding of geological processes and on current research developments. Topics will include planetary evolution, high and low temperature rock-fluid interactions, global climate change, and biogeochemical cycles.

Prerequisite: Earth Sciences 62 or 73. Feng.

120. Quaternary Paleoclimatology

Lecture and Laboratory to be arranged

121. Graduate Seminar

Arrange

122. Topics in Geomorphology

Lecture and Laboratory to be arranged

123. Special Topics

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

124. Analytical Chemistry and Inorganic Instrumental Analysis (Identical to Chemistry 124)

Lectures and Laboratory to be arranged

This course is directed towards graduate students planning to use inorganic chemical analysis in their thesis work. The lectures and seminars focus on the theory and application of modern instrumental analysis and analytical chemistry. The theoretical background for a number of inorganic instrumental analytical methods are given and examples of their application to problems of interest for analytical chemists working in the fields of earth science, chemistry, biology and environmental science are presented. The lectures covers ion chromatography, electrochemistry, atomic absorption, inductively coupled plasma optical emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The theory and concepts of analytical chemistry are provided along with statistical tools, uncertainty calculations and data treatment methods useful in analytical chemistry.

Prerequisites: Chemistry 5 and Chemistry 6 or permission of instructor.

125. Kinetics and Thermodynamics

of Soils and Sediments

Lectures to be arranged

This course provides an in-depth treatment of chemical processes within soils, surface waters and sediments. The course will include both lectures and discussions of readings from current literature. Emphasis is given to oxidation-reduction reactions and processes at the solid-water interface. Included are quantitative descriptions of electron transfer processes, microbial (dissimilatory) metal reduction, ion exchange, electrified interfaces, specific adsorption, and dissolution/precipitation.

Prerequisites: Earth sciences 62 and earth sciences 74 or equivalent, or by permission of instructor. Bostick.

131. Project Research

Arrange

Research under the guidance of a staff member on a topic unrelated to the thesis.

141. Level I - Part-time Thesis Research (one-course equivalent)

Arrange

142. Level II - Part-time Thesis Research (two-course equivalent)

Arrange

143. Level III - Full-time Thesis Research (three-course equivalent)

Arrange

157. Supervised Teaching in Earth Sciences

All Terms: Arrange

Not open to undergraduates.

201. Concepts and Methods I

05F: Lectures to be arranged

202. Concepts and Methods II

06W: Lectures to be arranged.

An annual sequence of short modules covering important issues in Earth Sciences. Enrollment in Earth Sciences 201 and 202 is required for all incoming graduate students in Earth Sciences.

Not open to undergraduates.