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Software Development in the UNIX Environment
Sample C Code that Uses Libraries

This program contains two source files monte_pi_sprng.c and plot.c

/* Source file monte_pi_sprng.c */

/* This program computes the value of PI using a Monte Carlo method 
using the SPRNG random number generator library. It computes PI for an
increasing amount of iterations and then makes a plot of the PI values computes
version the number of iterations. It uses the pgplot library to make the plot. */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <string.h>
#define SIMPLE_SPRNG            /* simple interface                        */
#include "sprng.h"              /* SPRNG header file                       */
#define SEED 23678951

   int niter=0;
   double x,y;
   int i,j,count=0; /*# of points that lie in the 1st quadrant of the unit circle */
   double z;
   float pi[1000];
   float num_iter[1000];
   void plot();
   int ntrials = 200;

   /* initialize random numbers */
   for (j= 0; j<ntrials; j++) {
      niter +=200;
      for ( i=0; i<niter; i++) {
         x = sprng();
         y = sprng();
         z = pow(x,2.)+pow(y,2.);
         if (z<=1) count++; 
    printf("Final estimate of pi is %g \n",pi[ntrials-1]);
    plot(0.,(double)niter,3.0,3.4,"# of Iterations","Computed PI Value", \
 "Computation of PI Using a Monte Carlo Method",ntrials,num_iter,pi);

/* Source file plot.c */
/* call pgplot library to plot data */

#include <cpgplot.h>
#include <stdio.h>

void plot(double xmin,double xmax,double ymin,double ymax,\
char* xlabel,char *ylabel,char* title,int npts,float *xpts,float *ypts) {
 int status;
 status = cpgopen("/XWINDOW");
 if (status <0) {
   fprintf(stderr,"Error opening X windows device from pgplot\n");
   cpglab(xlabel, ylabel, title);

To compile this code:

cc -O3 -I /usr/local/lib/sprng/include -I /usr/local/lib/pgplot -g -c monte_pi_sprng.c

cc -O3 -I /usr/local/lib/sprng/include -I /usr/local/lib/pgplot -g -c plot.c

Explanation of compiling options

-O3: optimize to level 3 (aggressive)
-I : look for include files in the directories /usr/local/lib/sprng/include and /usr/local/lib/pgplot
-g: produces debugging information for symbolic debugging
-c: create an object file from the named source file but don't link it

To link this code:

cc -o monte_pi_sprng monte_pi_sprng.o plot.o -L/usr/local/lib/sprng/lib -llcg -L/usr/local/lib/sprng/lib -lcpgplot -lpgplot -lX11 -lftn -lm

Explanation of linking options

-L: look for library libllcg.a in the directory /usr/local/lib/sprng/lib
-L: look for libraries libcpgplot.a and libpgplot.a in the directory  /usr/local/lib/sprng/lib
-lX11: include the X11 library (a) in /usr/lib
-lm: include the math library (a) in /usr/lib