Douglas A. Irwin

John Sloan Dickey Third Century
Professor in the Social Sciences
Department of Economics

Irwin picture

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Brief Bio
Contact Information
Current Research
Selected Publications
Wall Street Journal and other Opeds
Curriculum Vitae (PDF file)

Brief Bio.

Douglas Irwin is the John Sloan Dickey Third Century Professor in the Social Sciences in the Department of Economics at Dartmouth College.  He is author of  Free Trade Under Fire (Princeton University Press, forth edition 2015), Trade Policy Disaster: Lessons from the 1930s (MIT Press, 2012), Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression (Princeton University Press, 2011), The Genesis of the GATT (Cambridge University Press, 2008, co-authored with Petros Mavroidis and Alan Sykes), Against the Tide:  An Intellectual History of Free Trade (Princeton University Press, 1996), and many articles on trade policy in books and professional journals.  He is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and has also served on the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 

Contact Information

Department of Economics
6106 Rockefeller Hall

Dartmouth College
Hanover, NH 03755-3514 USA

Office: 309 Silsby Hall
Phone: (603) 646-2942
Fax: (603) 646-2122
Email: Douglas.A.Irwin(AT)dartmouth(DOT)edu

Current Research (with Links to Working Papers)

  • "Battle Over Trade Policy", (Book Manuscript In Progress)

  • "Tariff Incidence:  Evidence from U.S. Sugar Duties", 1890-1930 (August 2014)

  • Adam Smith's "Tolerable Administration of Justice" and the Wealth of Nations (November 2014)


Free Trade
                      Under Fire Free Trade Under Fire (2015)
4th Edition

Published by Princeton University Press

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Peddling Protectionism Peddling Protectionism (2011)

Published by Princeton University Press

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Trade Policy Disaster Trade Policy Disaster (2011)

Series: Ohlin Lectures
Published by The MIT Press

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Founding Choices
Founding Choices (2011)

Published by University Of Chicago Press

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Genesis Of The GATT
Genesis Of The GATT (2008)

Published by Cambridge University Press

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Against The Tide (1996)

Published by Princeton University Press

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Selected Articles (with Links to Online Copies)


  • The Slide to Protectionism in the Great Depression:  Who Succumbed and Why?, (with Barry Eichengreen), Journal of Economic History 70 (December 2010): 872-898.

  • Trade Restrictiveness and Deadweight Losses from U.S. Tariffs. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2 (August 2010): 111-133.

  • Trade Blocs, Currency Blocs, and the Reorientation of World Trade in the 1930s, (with Barry Eichengreen) Journal of International Economics 38 (February 1995):  1-24.


  • Revenue or Reciprocity?  Founding Feuds over Early U.S. Trade Policy in Founding Choices: American Economic Policy in the 1790s, edited by Douglas A. Irwin and Richard Sylla.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press & NBER, 2011.

  • Trade Restrictiveness and Deadweight Losses from U.S. Tariffs. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2 (August 2010): 111-133.

  • Antebellum Tariff Politics:  Regional Coalitions and Shifting Economic Interests, Journal of Law and Economics 51 (November 2008): 715-742.

  • The Antebellum U.S. Iron Industry: Domestic Production and Foreign Competition (with Joseph H. Davis), Explorations in Economic History 45 (July 2008): 254-269.

  • Tariff Incidence in America's Gilded Age, Journal of Economic History 67 (September 2007): 582-607.

  • The Welfare Costs of Autarky: Evidence from the Jeffersonian Embargo, 1807-1809. Review of International Economics 13 (September 2005):  631-645.

  • The Rise of U.S. Antidumping Activity in Historical Perspective. The World Economy 28 (May 2005): 651-668.

  • The Aftermath of Hamilton's Report on Manufactures, Journal of Economic History 64 (September 2004): 800-821.

  • The Optimal Tax on Antebellum Cotton Exports, Journal of International Economics 60 (August 2003):  275‑291.

  • New Estimates of the Average Tariff of the United States, 1790-1820. Journal of Economic History 63 (June 2003): 506-513.

  • Explaining America's Surge in Manufactured Exports, 1880-1913, Review of Economics and Statistics 85 (May 2003): 364-376.

  • Interpreting the Tariff-Growth Correlation of the Late Nineteenth Century, American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 91 (May 2002): 165-169.

  • The Antebellum Tariff on Cotton Textiles Revisited (with Peter Temin), Journal of Economic History 61 (September 2001): 777-798

  • Tariffs and Growth in Late Nineteenth Century America, The World Economy 24 (January 2001): 15-30.

  • Could the U.S. Iron Industry Have Survived Free Trade After the Civil War? Explorations in Economic History 37 (July 2000): 278-299.

  • Did Late Nineteenth Century U.S. Tariffs Promote Infant Industries?  Evidence from the Tinplate Industry, Journal of Economic History 60 (June 2000): 335-360.

  • Interests, Institutions, and Ideology in Securing Policy Change: The Republican Conversion to Trade Liberalization after Smoot-Hawley (with Randall S. Kroszner), Journal of Law and Economics 42 (October 1999): 643-673.

  • Changes in U.S. Tariffs: The Role of Import Prices and Commercial Policies, American Economic Review 88 (September 1998): 1015-1026.

  • The Smoot-Hawley Tariff: A Quantitative Assessment, Review of Economics and Statistics 80 (May 1998): 326-334.

  • Higher Tariffs, Lower Revenues?  Analyzing the Fiscal Aspects of the Great Tariff Debate of 1888, Journal of Economic History 58 (March 1998): 59-72.

  • From Smoot-Hawley to Reciprocal Trade Agreements: Changing the Course of U.S. Trade Policy in the 1930s, in Michael Bordo, Claudia Goldin, and Eugene White (eds.), The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

  • Log-Rolling and Economic Interests in the Passage of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, (with Randall S. Kroszner) Carnegie-Rochester Series on Public Policy, 45 (December 1996): 173-200.

  • Trade Politics and the Semiconductor Industry, in Anne O. Krueger (ed.), The Political Economy of American Trade Policy (Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 1996).


  •  Airbus versus Boeing Revisited:  International Competition in the Aircraft Market (with Nina Pavcnik), Journal of International Economics 64 (December 2004):  223‑245.

  •  Causing Problems?  The WTO Review of Causation and Injury Attribution in U.S. Section 201 Cases, World Trade Review 2 (November 2003):  297‑325.

  •  Does Trade Raise Income?  Evidence from the Twentieth Century (with Marko J. Terviö), Journal of International Economics 58 (October 2002): 1-18.

  •  High Tech R&D Subsidies:  Estimating the Effects of Sematech, (with Peter J. Klenow) Journal of International Economics 40 (May 1996): 323-344.

  •  The GATT's Contribution to Economic Recovery in Post-War Europe, in Barry Eichengreen (ed.), Europe's Postwar Growth (New York:  Cambridge University Press, 1995).

  •  The GATT in Historical Perspective, American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 85 (May 1995):  323-328.

  • Learning-by-Doing Spillovers in the Semiconductor Industry, (with Peter J. Klenow) Journal of Political Economy 102 (December 1994): 1200-1227.

  • The Political Economy of Free Trade:  Voting in the British General Election of 1906, Journal of Law and Economics 37 (April 1994):  75-108.

  • Multilateral and Bilateral Trade Policies in the World Trading System: An Historical Perspective, in Jaime de Melo and Arvind Panagariya (eds.), New Dimensions in Regional Integration (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

  • Free Trade and Protection in Nineteenth Century Britain and France Revisited:  Comment on Nye, Journal of Economic History 53 (March 1993):  146-152.

  • Strategic Trade Policy and Mercantilist Trade Rivalries, American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 82 (May 1992):  138-143.

  • Mercantilism as Strategic Trade Policy:  The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry for the East India Trade, Journal of Political Economy 99 (December 1991):  1296-1314.

  • Political Economy and Peel=s Repeal of the Corn Laws, Economics and Politics 1 (Spring 1989):  41-59.

  • Welfare Effects of British Free Trade:  Debate and Evidence from the 1840s, Journal of Political Economy 96 (December 1988):  1142-1164.


  •  Trade Will Lead To Freedom, Wall Street Journal (December 18, 2014).

  • Why Modern Monetarists are Skeptical about QE3, Financial Times (October 16, 2012).

  • Return of the Protectionist Illusion, Wall Street Journal (July 2, 2012).

  • How ‘Protectionist’ Became an Insult, Wall Street Journal (June 18, 2010).

  • If We Buy American, No One Else Will, New York Times (February 1, 2009).