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PHYSICS

UNDERGRADUATE COURSES

1. Understanding the Universe: From Atoms to the Big Bang, with Laboratory

11S, 12S: 12

An introduction to the evolution of physical theories and models of natural phenomena from ancient Greece to modern times. Topics include Pre-Socratic and Aristotelian natural philosophy; the scientific revolutions of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, and the birth of mechanics; electromagnetism, thermodynamics, and the physics of light in the nineteenth century; the emergence of quantum mechanics and relativity theory; modern particle physics and the search for unification; the interface of particle physics and cosmology; and physics and its contexts (other sciences, worldviews, technologies, the Cold War). Students will carry out five biweekly laboratory experiments illustrating major discoveries. Supplemental course fee required. No student may receive credit for both Physics 1 and Physics 2. Identical to Physics 2, but with the laboratory. Dist: SLA. Gleiser.

2. Understanding the Universe: From Atoms to the Big Bang

11S, 12S: 12

No student may receive credit for both Physics 1 and Physics 2. Identical to Physics 1, but without the laboratory. Dist: SCI. Gleiser.

3. General Physics I

10F: 12 11X: 11 11F: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

The fundamental laws and phenomena of mechanics, heat, wave motion, and sound, including relativistic concepts.

The sequence Physics 3-4 is designed primarily for students who do not intend to take Physics 19. One laboratory period per week. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 3. Dist: SLA. Millan.

4. General Physics II

11W, 11S, 12W, 11S: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

The fundamental laws and phenomena of electricity, magnetism, and light, including quantum mechanical concepts; atomic and nuclear physics. One laboratory period per week. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Physics 3. Dist: SLA. Lynch (winter), Brown (spring).

5. Physics for Future Leaders

12W: Arrange

This class is an introduction to modern physics, the resulting technologies and social ramiﬁcations. Physics topics include radiation, energy, atomic and nuclear structures, relativity, waves and quantum mechanics. These in turn have led to modern technologies such as microwaves, radar, GPS, lasers, nuclear power and weapons. We may also examine MRIs, X-rays, digital cameras, quantum cryptography, semiconductors including computer chips and photovoltaics. This course aims to take some of the mystery out of these technologies so that a student can be an informed citizen as society debates the uses of these machines and devices. Finally, we look at potential future developments such as quantum computing and new energy technologies. No prior physics is required. Dist: TAS .

7. First-year Seminars in Physics

Consult special listings

13. Introductory Physics I

10F, 11W, 11F, 12W: 10, 11; Laboratory: Arrange

The fundamental laws of mechanics. Reference frames. Harmonic and gravitational motion. Thermodynamics and kinetic theory. Physics 13, 14, and 19 are designed as a three-term sequence for students majoring in a physical science. One laboratory period per week. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 3 and 8 (at least concurrently). Dist: SLA. LaBelle, (fall), Rimberg, Wegner (winter).

14. Introductory Physics II

11W: 10 11S: 10, 11 12W: 10 12S: 10,11; Laboratory: Arrange

The fundamental laws of electricity and magnetism. Maxwell’s equations. Waves. Electrical and magnetic properties of bulk matter. Circuit theory. Optics. One laboratory period per week. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Physics 13 and Mathematics 8, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Caldwell (winter), Hudson, Thorstensen (spring).

15. Introductory Physics I, Honors Section

10F, 11F: 10; Laboratory: Arrange

Physics 15, 16 and 24 are an alternative sequence to Physics 13, 14, 19 and 24 for students whose substantial background in physics and mathematics enables them to study the material at a faster pace than is possible in regular sections, and who are willing to devote correspondingly more work to the course. Admission criteria are described in the First Year, available from the Office of the Dean of Undergraduate Students.

Classical dynamics of particles and rigid bodies. Special Relativity. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics including the wave-particle duality of radiation and matter, the Uncertainty Principle and the Schrodinger equation in one spatial dimension. One laboratory period per week. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 8 or 9 concurrently, and permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Rogers.

16. Introductory Physics II, Honors Section

11W, 12W: 10; Laboratory: Arrange

Electric and magnetic fields of charges and currents. Electromagnetic induction. Dielectric and magnetic materials. Circuit theory. Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves and optics. Special relativity. One laboratory period per week. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Physics 15 and Mathematics 13 or 14 concurrently, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA. Gleiser.

19. Introductory Physics III

10F, 11F: 9; Laboratory: Arrange

The general theme of this course is the wave-particle duality of radiation and matter, with an introduction to special relativity. Classical wave phenomena in mechanical and electromagnetic systems including beats, interference, diffraction and polarization. Quantum aspects of electromagnetic radiation include the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production and annihilation. Quantum aspects of matter include DeBroglie waves, electron diffraction, and the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The Schrödinger equation is introduced in one spatial dimension. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Physics 14 and Mathematics 13, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Mueller.

24. Introductory Physics IV

11W, 11S, 12W, 12S: 10

The theme of this course is the application of the principles of physics to the structure of matter on various scales. The Schrödinger equation is discussed in three spatial dimensions, with emphasis on the description of hydrogenic wavefunctions. Spin and the Pauli exclusion principle. Applications may include many-electron atoms, molecules, solids, nuclei and elementary particles.

Prerequisite: Physics 19, or Physics 16, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Viola (winter), Blencowe (spring).

30. Biological Physics (Identical to Engineering Sciences 30)

11S, 12S: 11

Introduction to the principles of physics and engineering applied to biological problems. Topics include the architecture of biological cells, molecular motion, entropic forces, enzymes and molecular machines, and nerve impulses.

Prerequisites: Chemistry 5, Physics 13 and 14 (or equivalent). Physics 14 (or equivalent) may be taken concurrently. Students with strong quantitative skills who have taken Physics 3 and 4 can enroll with permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI . Blencowe.

41. Electricity and Magnetism

11W, 12W: 10

The differential and integral laws of electric and magnetic fields in vector form. Potential theory and boundary value problems. Maxwell’s equations, the wave equation and plane waves.

Prerequisite: Physics 24 and Mathematics 23 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Hudson.

42. Introductory Quantum Mechanics

11X: 10A

Detailed solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a variety of systems including bound states and scattering states in one and three dimensions. Matrix representations of spin and orbital angular momenta. Applications to atomic, molecular and nuclear problems are emphasized.

Prerequisite: Physics 24 and Mathematics 23, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI.

43. Statistical Physics

10F, 11F: 9

Kinetic theory of gases. Boltzmann’s Principle. Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics. The statistical approach to thermodynamics. Applications to radiation, atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

Prerequisite: Physics 24 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Thorstensen.

44. Mechanics

11S, 12S: 11

The fundamental principles of mechanics. Lagrangian form of the equations of motion. Central force motion, collisions and scattering, dynamics of rigid bodies, vibrations, normal modes, and waves. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

Prerequisite: Physics 24 and Mathematics 23, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Lynch.

47. Optics

10F, 11F: 11

This course covers geometrical, physical, and modern optics topics including the propagation, reflection, dispersion, and refraction of radiant energy; polarization, interference, and diffraction in optical systems; the basics of coherence theory, lasers, quantum optics, and holography. Applications of optical and laser science will be discussed. Lectures and laboratory work.

Prerequisites: Physics 14 or 16 and Mathematics 13, or permission. Dist: SLA. Rimberg.

48. Electronics: Introduction to Linear and Digital Circuits (Identical to Engineering Sciences 32)

11W, 12W: 11; Laboratory

Principles of operation of semiconductor diodes, bipolar and field-effect transistors, and their application in rectifier, amplifier, waveshaping, and logic circuits. Basic active-circuit theory. DC biasing and small-signal models. Introduction to integrated circuits: the operational amplifier and comparator. Emphasis on breadth of coverage of low-frequency linear and digital networks. Laboratory exercises permit ‘hands-on’ experience in the analysis and design of simple electronic circuits. The course is designed for two populations: a) those desiring a single course in basic electronics, and b) those desiring the fundamentals necessary for further study of active circuits and systems.

Prerequisite: Physics 14 or 16 or Engineering Sciences 22, or equivalent background in basic circuit theory. Dist: TAS. Odame.

49. Intermediate Physics Laboratory

Not offered in the period from 10F through 12S.

An introduction to experimental physics designed to complement the theoretical frame-work covered in Physics 41-44. Students work independently on experiments drawn from classical mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical physics, and atomic physics. Weekly seminars cover such topics as experimental design, data and error analysis, signal recovery, and computer methods. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Physics 24 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SLA.

66. Relativistic Electrodynamics

12S: 10 Offered in alternate years

Classical electromagnetic radiation and relativistic electrodynamics. Topics include: electromagnetism and relativity; Maxwell stress-tensor; electromagnetic wave propagation in free space and media; radiation by charged particles; scattering; diffraction; basic elements of general relativity.

Prerequisite: Physics 41 or Engineering Sciences 23 and Physics 44. Dist: SCI.

68. Introductory Plasma Physics

10F, 11F: 10

The physics of ionized gases with emphasis on the theory of waves and instabilities. Includes introduction to magnetohydrodynamics and kinetic theory of plasmas.

Prerequisite: Physics 41 or Engineering Sciences 23. Dist: SCI. Lynch.

70. Complex Variable and Transform Theory (Identical to Engineering Sciences 92)

10F, 11F: 2

Survey of a number of mathematical methods of importance in Engineering and Physical Sciences. Topics include integration and differentiation of multivariable functions, complex variable theory, generalized functions, Fourier and Laplace transforms, directed toward applications in such areas as fluid mechanics, electromagnetics, wave and diffusion phenomena, linear systems, and signal theory.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 33 or Engineering Sciences 22, Engineering Sciences 23, or the equivalent. Dist: QDS. Hansen.

72. Introductory Particle Physics

11S: 10 Offered in alternate years

Characterization of elementary particles and their interactions according to the standard model; leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs mechanism. Composite particles and their interactions. Methods of production and measurement of particles. Particle lifetimes and cross sections.

Prerequisite: Physics 42. Dist: SCI. Smith.

73. Introductory Condensed Matter Physics

10F, 11F: 12

The physics of condensed matter, primarily solids with periodic order. Theory and measurement of electronic, optical, magnetic, and thermal properties of solids. Lattice structures, symmetries, and bonding energies. The reciprocal lattice and the Brillouin Zone. Bloch’s Theorem. Electron energy band structure and the Fermi surface, phonon mode dispersion, and other elementary excitations.

Prerequisite: Physics 42 and Physics 43; Physics 43 may be taken concurrently. Dist: SCI. Ramanathan.

74. Space Plasma Physics

12S: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Plasma processes in the solar system. The solar cycle, solar flares, solar wind outflow and interaction with distinct types of planetary magnetospheres. Plasma waves, particle acceleration and generation of escaping electromagnetic radiation. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and ionospheric interaction with the neutral atmosphere.

Prerequisites: Physics 66 or 68, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Hudson.

75. Quantum Computation and Information

11S: Arrange

Overview of basic ideas in classical and quantum computation. Concepts and physical realizations of quantum bits (qubits). Topics in quantum computation may include the Deutsch-Jozsa, quantum Fourier transform, Shor factorization and Grover search algorithms. Topics in quantum communication include quantum key distribution schemes and quantum teleportation. Issues relating to the foundations and interpretations of quantum mechanics will be revisited throughout the course.

Prerequisites: Physics 19 or Mathematics 22 or 23. Dist: QDS. Ramanathan.

76. Methods of Experimental Physics

11S, 12S: 2A

Experiments emphasizing modern techniques and topics in physical measurements. Experiments will cover areas including condensed matter, particle and plasma physics, and such practical laboratory techniques as noise suppression, digital data acquisition, and operation of standard laboratory equipment. Supplemental course fee required.

Prerequisite: Physics 24. Dist: SLA. Rimberg.

77. Introduction to General Relativity and Gravitation

11F: 12 Offered in alternate years

An introduction to Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Topics: review of special relativity and spacetime diagrams; equivalence principle; coordinates and four vectors; the spacetime metric; particle motion from a variational principle, the geodesic equation; spacetime physics; redshift and time dilation in the solar system, gravitational lenses, black holes, the expanding universe, gravitational waves, time machines (closed timelike curves); the field equations of General Relativity, connecting spacetime curvature to energy and momentum.

Prerequisites: Physics 44 and Physics 41. Dist: SCI.

82. Special Topics Seminar

All terms: Arrange

Advanced study in physics or astrophysics. Students will read and report orally on significant journal articles and write a paper summarizing their library research.

85. Reading Course

All terms: Arrange

87. Undergraduate Research

All terms: Arrange

Intensive individual work on an experimental or theoretical problem in physics or astronomy under the guidance of a staff member.

Prerequisite: permission of the Chair.

91. Intermediate Quantum Mechanics

11W, 12W: 12

Formalism of quantum mechanics, operator methods and transformation theory. Measurement theory and uncertainty relations. Position and momentum representation. The harmonic oscillator and ladder operators. Introduction to path integrals. Perturbation methods: WKB, time-independent and time-dependent perturbation theory. Interaction of matter and radiation and selection rules. Symmetries and conservation laws.

Prerequisites: Physics 42. Dist: SCI. Viola.

92. Physics of the Early Universe

11W: 11 Offered in alternate years

An introduction to the study of the early universe, focusing on the interaction of nuclear and particle physics and cosmology, the so-called inner-space outer-space connection. After an investigation of the Robertson-Walker metric and its application to the Big Bang model, the course will address the following topics; thermodynamics in an expanding universe; nucleosynthesis (synthesis of light nuclei) and baryogenesis (origin of excess matter over antimatter); inflationary models of cosmology; primordial phase transitions; introduction to quantum cosmology.

Prerequisites: Physics 41-44, and Astronomy 25 (recommended). Dist: SCI. Gleiser.

GRADUATE COURSES

100. Methods in Applied Mathematics I (Identical to Engineering Sciences 100)

10F, 11F: 11

Concepts and methods used in the treatment of linear equations with emphasis on matrix operations, differential equations, and eigenvalue problems will be developed following a brief review of analytic function theory. Topics include the Fourier integral, finite and infinite dimensional vector spaces, boundary value problems, eigenfunction expansions, Green’s functions, transform techniques for partial differential equations, and series solution of ordinary differential equations. Properties and uses of orthogonal polynomials and such special functions as the hypergeometric, Bessel, Legendre, and gamma functions are discussed. Applications in engineering and physics are emphasized.

Prerequisite: one of Engineering Sciences 92, Mathematics 43, or Mathematics 33 with permission of instructor, or the equivalent. Caldwell.

101. Classical Mechanics

10F, 11F: 10A

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, canonical transformations, relativistic mechanics, and continuum mechanics.

Prerequisite: Physics 44. Kress.

103. Advanced Quantum Mechanics

12S: 10 Offered in alternate years

Time-dependent and time-independent perturbation theory, and the variational method. Identical particles, the two-electron system, the Helium atom, many particle systems, and the Hartree-Fock approximation. Scattering theory, bound and resonance states, atom-electron scattering, and Coulomb scattering. Interaction of radiation with matter. The Dirac equation and introduction to second quantization.

Prerequisite: Physics 91, 100, and 101.

104. Statistical Mechanics

11S, 12S: 11

Ensemble theory in classical and quantum mechanics with selected applications. Statistical interpretation of thermodynamics. The approach to equilibrium. Transport processes.

Prerequisite: Physics 91. Viola.

105. Electromagnetic Theory I

11W, 12W: 10A

Potential theory of electrostatics, magnetostatics, and steady currents. Maxwell’s equations, gauge transformations, and conservation laws.

Prerequisite: Physics 41. Rogers.

106. Electromagnetic Theory II

11S: 10A Offered in alternate years

Solutions of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous wave equations, retarded potentials, covariant formulation. Radiation, radiation reaction, and dynamics of charged particles. Scattering and dispersion.

Prerequisite: Physics 66 and 105. Rogers.

107. Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

12W: 11 Offered in alternate years

Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism. The Weinberg-Salam model. Path integral quantization of scalar fields and functional formalism. The effective action and the effective potential. Divergences and renormalization of field theories. Finite temperature field theory. Symmetry restoration at high temperatures.

Prerequisite: Physics 101 and 103.

108. Fluid Mechanics

Offered as needed

Theory of fluid motion. Kinematics of flow fields. Viscous and ideal flows. Shear flows, hydrodynamic stability, transition, and turbulence. Gas dynamics and shocks. Boundary layers. Rotating fluids, geophysical flows. Thermal convection and conduction. Waves.

Prerequisite: Physics 101, or permission of the instructor.

109. Quantum Many Body Systems

12W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Second quantization and quantum field theory applied to many-particle systems at finite temperatures. Perturbation theory, Feynman diagrams and self-consistent theories. Selected topics include quasiparticle and collective excitations, broken symmetries and phase transitions.

Prerequisite: Physics 103.

110. Methods in Applied Mathematics II (Identical to Engineering Sciences 200)

12W: 12

Continuation of Physics 100 with emphasis on variational calculus, integral equations, and asymptotic and perturbation methods for integrals and differential equations. Selected topics include functional differentiation, Hamilton’s principle, Rayleigh-Ritz method, Fredholm and Volterra equations, integral transforms, Schmidt-Hilbert theory, asymptotic series, methods of steepest descent and stationary phase, boundary layer theory, WKB methods, and multiple-scale theory.

Prerequisite: Physics 100, or equivalent. The staff.

111. Plasma Kinetic Theory

12W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Statistical mechanics and kinetic theory of plasmas. Transport and thermal relaxation phenomena. Microscopic foundations of a fluid description. Waves and instabilities, linear and nonlinear. Emission, absorption, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation.

Prerequisite: Physics 68, and preferably Physics 106, or permission of the instructor.

113. Microscopic Theory of Solids

12W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Microscopic theory of electron energy bands in solids; vibrational magnetic and electronic elementary excitations. Applications to classical and quantum transport, magnetism, and superconductivity.

Prerequisite: Physics 73 and 91, or permission of the instructor. Physics 103 recommended.

114. General Relativity and Cosmology

Not offered in the period from 10F through 12S

Structures on manifolds; spacetime structure. Einstein’s field equations and their classic solutions. Models of stellar equilibrium and collapse. Gravitational waves. Relativistic cos-mologies.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

115. Magnetohydrodynamics (Identical to Engineering Sciences 152)

11W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

The fluid description of plasmas and electrically conducting fluids including magnetohydrodynamics and two-fluid fluid theory. Applications to laboratory and space plasmas including magnetostatics, stationary flows, waves, instabilities, and shocks.

Prerequisites: Physics 68 or equivalent, or permission of the instructor.

116. Quantum Information Science

12S: Arrange Offered in alternate years

An introduction to some of the active research areas on quantum information science, from a physics perspective. While the final choice and balance will be adjusted to actual demand and interest, special emphasis will be devoted to: Quantum algorithms for efficient search, factoring, and quantum simulation; theory and applications of entanglement; methods for quantum control and error correction; physical implementations of quantum information processing.

Prerequisites: Physics 42 and 75, or Physics 91.

118. Computational Plasma Dynamics (Identical to Engineering Sciences 153)

11S: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Theory and computational techniques used in contemporary plasma physics, especially nonlinear plasma dynamics, including fluid, particle and hybrid simulation approaches, also linear dispersion codes and data analysis. This is a “hands-on” numerical course; students will run plasma simulation codes and do a significant amount of new programming (using Matlab).

Prerequisites: Physics 68 or equivalent with Engineering Sciences 91 or equivalent recommended, or permission of the instructor. Denton.

120. Nonlinear Systems

Not offered in the period from 10F through 12S

Analysis of systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. Qualitative features of the phase plane, critical points, structural stability, limit cycles, domains of attraction, bifurcations. Poincare section. Linear and nonlinear stability. Floquet theory. Asymptotic analysis using multiple time-scale and averaging methods. Examples are derived from problems in nonlinear oscillations, Hamiltonian systems, nonlinear waves, fluid dynamics, and/or control theory.

Prerequisite: Engineering Sciences 100 or equivalent.

121. Seminar

All terms: Arrange

Study and discussion in a current area of physics or astronomy.

122. Special Topics

All terms: Arrange

Advanced treatment of topics in physics and in astronomy.

123. Optics (Identical to Engineering Sciences 123)

12S: Arrange Offered in alternate years

The physical principles and engineering applications of optics, with an emphasis on optical systems. Geometric optics: ray tracing, first-order analysis, imaging, radiometry. Wave optics: polarization, interference, diffraction, Fourier optics. Sources and detectors. Fiber optic systems.

Prerequisite: Engineering Sciences 50 or Physics 41, and Engineering Sciences 23 and 92 or equivalent.

124. Optical Devices and Systems (Identical to Engineering Sciences 124)

11W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Light has now taken its place beside electricity as a medium for information technology and for engineering and scientific instrumentation. Applications for light include telecommunications and computers, as well as instrumentation for materials science, biomedical, mechanical and chemical engineering. The principles and characteristics of lasers, detectors, lenses, fibers and modulators will be presented, and their application to specific optical systems introduced. The course will be taught in an interdisciplinary way, with applications chosen from each field of engineering. Students will choose design projects in their field of interest.

Prerequisite: Engineering Sciences 23 or Physics 41. Garmire.

126. Semiconductor Theory and Devices (Identical to Engineering Sciences 122)

12W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Elementary physics (classical and quantum) is applied to create models for the behavior of semiconductor devices. The distribution of electron energy, the gap between energy bands, and the mechanisms of current flow are derived. The pn junction and its variations, bipolar junction transistor, junction field effect transistor, and MOSFET devices are studied. Other devices studied are chosen from among opto-electronic and heterojunction devices.

Prerequisite: Engineering Sciences 24 and 32 or equivalents.

127. Reading Course

All terms: Arrange

Advanced graduate students may elect a program of independent reading.

128. Methods of Materials Characterization (Identical to Engineering Sciences 137 and Chemistry 137)

12S: 2A Offered in alternate years

This survey course discusses both the physical principles and practical applications of the more common modern methods of materials characterization. It covers techniques of both microstructural analysis (OM, SEM, TEM, electron diffraction, XRD), and microchemical characterization (EDS, XPS, AES, SIMS, NMR, RBS and Raman spectroscopy), together with various scanning probe microscopy techniques (AFM, STM, EFM and MFM). Emphasis is placed on both the information that can be obtained together with the limitations of each technique. The course has a substantial laboratory component, including a project involving written and oral reports, and requires a term paper.

Prerequisite: Engineering Sciences 24 or permission.

137. Graduate Research I: Level I

All terms: Arrange

Part time (one credit) thesis research under the guidance of a staff member. Open to candidates for the M.S. degree and Ph.D. students before admission to candidacy.

138. Graduate Research I: Level II

All terms: Arrange

Part time (two credits) thesis research under the guidance of a staff member. Open to candidates for the M.S. degree and Ph.D. students before admission to candidacy.

139. Graduate Research I: Level III

All terms: Arrange

Full time (three credits) thesis research under the guidance of a staff member. Open to candidates for the M.S. degree and Ph.D. students before admission to candidacy.

256. Instruction in Teaching for Graduate Students

10F, 11W, 11F, 12W: Arrange

Two-term, one credit course designed for incoming graduate students who will serve as graduate teaching assistants in the department. The course will provide students with resources and experiences directly relevant to typical teaching assistant duties, including public speaking, lab supervision, teacher/student relations and grading.

Required of entering Ph.D. students. This course is not open for credit to undergraduates. Caldwell.

257. Supervised Undergraduate Teaching

All terms: Arrange

Tutoring, laboratory teaching, student evaluation, and leading recitation classes, under the supervision of a faculty member.

Prerequisite: Physics 256.

297. Graduate Research II: Level I

All terms: Arrange

Part time (one credit) thesis research under the guidance of a staff member. Open to candidates for the Ph.D. degree.

298. Graduate Research II: Level II

All terms: Arrange

Part time (two credits) thesis research under the guidance of a staff member. Open to candidates for the Ph.D. degree.

299. Graduate Research II: Level III

All terms: Arrange

Full time (three credits) thesis research under the guidance of a staff member. Open to candidates for the Ph.D. degree.

ASTRONOMY

1. Exploration of the Solar System

11S, 12S: 11

An introduction to the study of the nine major planets and their natural satellites, together with asteroids and comets. Topics to be discussed include formation and evolution of the early solar system, Terrestrial and Jovian planetary surfaces and atmospheres, comparative planetology, and the collision of planetary bodies. Course material will include results from recent planetary spacecraft missions. Labs include making observations with telescopes. No prerequisite. Supplemental course fee required. Dist: SLA. Fesen.

2. Exploring the Universe

10F: 11 11X: 10 11F: 11

A survey of contemporary knowledge of the nature and the evolution of stars, galaxies and the universe. Topics include stellar evolution, the origin of the elements, the deaths of stars, black holes, the structure of our Galaxy, other galaxies, dark matter, the expanding universe and the big bang. Physical processes underlying these phenomena are discussed. No student may receive credit for both Astronomy 2 and Astronomy 3. Identical to Astronomy 3, but without the observing laboratory. Dist. SCI. Chaboyer (fall), Fesen (summer).

3. Exploring the Universe, with Laboratory

10F: 11 11X: 10 11F: 11

A survey of contemporary knowledge of the nature and the evolution of stars, galaxies and the universe. Topics include stellar evolution, the origin of the elements, the deaths of stars, black holes, the structure of our Galaxy, other galaxies, dark matter, the expanding universe and the big bang. Physical processes underlying these phenomena are discussed. Students will make observations with radio and optical telescopes. Supplemental course fee required. No student may receive credit for both Astronomy 2 and Astronomy 3. Identical to Astronomy 2, but with an observing laboratory. Dist. SLA. Chaboyer (fall), Fesen (summer).

4. The Development of Astronomical Thought

Not offered in the period from 10F through 12S

A survey of the development of theories of the cosmos from ancient to modern times in an historical sequence, commencing with ancient attitudes and progressing to modern concepts. Topics discussed include the Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, the emergence of an observational basis of astronomy through the works of Kepler and Galileo. Newton’s synthesis, relativity theory and its application to modern cosmologies. Supplemental course fee required. Dist: SCI.

7. First-year Seminars in Astronomy

Consult special listings

15. Stars and the Milky Way

11S, 12S: 10A

An introduction to astronomy and astrophysics for science majors and others with some background in physics, providing an observational and theoretical background for more advanced topics in astrophysics. Topics include basic properties of stars as derived from observations, stellar evolution, black holes, transfer of energy by electromagnetic radiation, the interstellar gas and the Milky Way galaxy. Students will make observations with the telescope.

Prerequisite: an introductory physics course (or permission of instructor) and Mathematics 3. Dist: SCI. Chaboyer.

25. Galaxies and Cosmology

11W, 12W: 10A

This is a course in physical cosmology. The first half builds the Universe from the bottom up, focusing on galaxies. Topics include galaxy classification dynamics, clustering, dark matter, and evidence for the large scale homogeneity. The second half builds the Universe from the top down, developing the Big Bang cosmology. Topics include FRW equation classical cosmological tests, nucleosynthesis, and cosmic microwave background.

Prerequisite: Physics 14 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Thorstensen.

61. Observational Techniques in Astronomy

11F: Arrange Offered in alternate years

The fundamental techniques of observational astronomy. Topics include detectors, photometry, spectroscopy, data acquisition and analysis.

Prerequisite: Astronomy 2, 3 or 15. Dist: SLA.

74. Astrophysics

11W: 12 Offered in alternate years

A study of modern astrophysics for the advanced physics undergraduate or graduate student who may or may not have previous background in astronomy. The overall theme of the course is the creation of the elements—from the big bang to the current epoch. Physical processes in stellar interiors, stellar evolution, and nucleosynthesis will be emphasized. No student may receive credit for both Astronomy 74 and Astronomy 115.

Prerequisite: Physics 43 and Astronomy 2, 3 or 15, or permission of instructor. Dist: SCI. Chaboyer.

75. High Energy Astrophysics

10F: 12 Offered in alternate years

The physics and observations of black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs, supernova remnants, and extragalactic objects through x-ray, gamma-ray, and cosmic rays.

Prerequisites: Physics 19 and Astronomy 25 or the equivalent, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Wegner.

81. Special Topics in Astronomy

All Terms: Arrange

Advanced study of a topic in observational astronomy, culminating in a one- to two-week observing session at the observatory in Arizona.

87. Undergraduate Research in Astronomy

All terms: Arrange

Intensive individual work on an observational or theoretical problem in astronomy or cosmology under the guidance of a staff member.

Prerequisite: permission of the Chair.

115. Advanced Stellar Astrophysics

11W: 12 Offered in alternate years

A study of the physical processes in stellar interiors, stellar evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Topics to be covered include big bang nucleosynthesis, the equations of stellar structure, equations of state, opacities, nuclear reactions, energy transport in stars, polytrope models, stellar models, the evolution of stars, and supernovae. No student may receive credit for both Astronomy 74 and Astronomy 115.

Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Chaboyer.

116. Galactic Systems

11S: Arrange Offered in alternate years

The structure of galaxies and the dynamics of stellar systems. Topics include application of the Boltzmann transport equation to stellar systems, star cluster models, spiral structure, stellar populations, and the classification of galaxies. Active galaxies and their physical processes.

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Wegner.

117. Interstellar Astrophysics

12S: Arrange Offered in alternate years

Structure, dynamics, and energy balance of the interstellar medium. Topics covered include high-energy particle and radiation interactions with interstellar gas, H II regions, shocks, molecular clouds, star forming regions, stellar mass loss nebulae and bubbles, and supernova remnants.

Prerequisite: Astronomy 74, or permission of the instructor.

118. Observational Cosmology

12W: Arrange Offered in alternate years

The observational determination of the structure of the universe. Determination of the astronomical distance scale, Hubble’s law, and measurements of the space distribution and peculiar motions of galaxies. Statistical treatment of the data. Quasars and gravitational lenses, nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. Comparison with cosmological models and theories of galaxy formation.

Prerequisite: Astronomy 74, or permission of the instructor.

122. Special Topics

All terms: Arrange

Advanced treatment of topics in astronomy.