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Classics

CLASSICAL STUDIES

1. Antiquity Today: An Introduction to Classical Studies

09W, 10W: 11

Which ancient faces and personalities come alive for us when we look back at Greek and Roman antiquity? How were the Greeks and Romans like us, and how different? How and why does their world—and what we have inherited from their world—intrigue, repel, awe, amuse, or disturb us, and how much is that to do with our own preoccupations? Taking as its starting point the interface between Classical antiquity and the twenty-first century, this course explores a selection of topics that will introduce you to the different areas and disciplines that make up Classics in the new millennium.

Open to all classes. Dist: LIT or INT; WCult: CI. Christesen.

2. The Tragedy and Comedy of Greece and Rome

09S, 10S: 11

The course studies in translation selected works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Seneca (tragedy), Aristophanes and Plautus (comedy), and some of their central themes and questions: law, community, revenge, passion, justice, for example. We will approach them both as texts and as scripts/librettos, considering their relationship to other types of performance (ritual, rhetoric, music, dance) and genres (history, philosophy) as well as to theatrical space. There will be practical workshop opportunities for those interested.

Open to all classes. Dist: ART; WCult: W. Williamson.

3. Reason and the Good Life: Socrates to Epictetus

09W: 11

An introduction to philosophical thought in antiquity, especially that of Socrates, Epicurus, and the Stoics. We will concentrate especially on ethical questions; e.g. what kind of life is best for humans to pursue, how thoughtful persons should weigh the potentially competing claims of reason, pleasure, and emotion—and on how intellectual activity was perceived at Athens and at Rome. Readings to include Aristophanes’ Clouds, Plato’s Apology and Meno, and selected writings of Epicurus, Lucretius, Cicero, Seneca, and Epictetus.

Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Graver.

4. Classical Mythology

09X, 10X: 12

An introduction to Greek myths and the way in which their use in literature developed, from the use of myths as religious story to the utilization of myth in drama and its exploitation in poetry.

Open to all classes. Dist: TMV; WCult: CI. The staff.

5. The Heroic Vision: Epics of Greece and Rome

08F, 09F: 2

Why does epic poetry repeatedly depict heroes fighting against the gods? Whether Diomedes’ rout of Aphrodite, Achilles’ struggle against the river Xanthus, Capaneus’ testing of the gods, or Hannibal’s threat to Jupiter, classical literature has frequently taken theomachy (“god-fight”) to be a central theme—a preoccupation continued in Christian epic of the Renaissance and seen even today in the bestselling novels of Philip Pullman. Concentrating on theomachic scenes in selected readings in translation, we will grapple with issues as varied as human free will, the nature of divinity, the complexities of martial force, the fragility of political legitimacy, and the power and limitations of artistic expression. By the end of the class students will have gained a new perspective on some of the central works in the Western canon.

Open to all classes. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Chaudhuri.

6. Introduction to Classical Archaeology

08F, 09F: 10

The aim of the course is to familiarize students with the basic methods and principles of Classical archaeology through a survey of the principal types of sites and artifacts characteristic of Greco-Roman antiquity. Students will gain a good overview of the approaches useful in the interpretation of a wide variety of material evidence as well as of problems inherent in such evidence. At the same time, through the study of a number of major sites in roughly chronological sequence, students will acquire an appreciation of the development of material culture in the Mediterranean world from prehistory to the collapse of the Roman Empire. The course thus serves both as an introduction to Greek and Roman civilization and to the particular goals of the discipline of archaeology.

Open to all classes. Dist: INT or ART; WCult: W. Faro.

7. First-Year Seminars in Classical Studies

Consult special listings.

10. Topics in Greek and Latin Literature

10W: 10A

The staff.

11. Topics in Greek and Roman Social and Economic History

09S: 12, 2A 10W: 10

In 09S at 12, Slaves, Wives, and Concubines: Did Roman Women Have a History? (Identical to and described under Women’s and Gender Studies 21.1).

Open to all classes. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Stewart.

In 09S at 2A, Sex, Celibacy and the Problem of Purity: Asceticism and the Human Body in Late Antiquity (Identical to Religion 31 and Women’s and Gender Studies 43.2). This course examines a crucial period in the history of Christianity—Late Antiquity. Between the years 300 and 500, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, established standards of doctrine and ecclesiastical organization, and developed the attitudes towards the body, sexuality and gender, which informed Christian teaching for centuries to come. In this class we will ask: why did virginity become such an important aspect of Christian religiosity? What effect did Roman concepts of gender and sexuality have on Christian understanding of the relationship between men and women? What did martyrs, gladiators and monks have in common.

Open to all students. Dist: TMV; WCult: W. MacEvitt.

14. Greek History: Archaic and Classical Greece

08F: 12

This course is designed to survey the major events in the history of ancient Greece from c. 1600 B.C. (the emergence of palatial culture in the Mycenaean World) to 404 B.C. (the end of the Peloponnesian War). During this period, the Greeks formed individual communities and developed unique political structures, spread their culture, language, and religion throughout the Mediterranean, invented democracy (at Athens) and enshrined these values in their art and literature. This course will cover the physical setting of and the archaic legacy to the classical city-state, its economy, its civic and religious institutions, the waging of war between cities, the occurrence and ancient analysis of conflict within the city, and the public and private lives of its citizens and less well-known classes, such as women, children, slaves, etc.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Faro.

15. Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Kings

09F: 12

This course has two aims: (1) to establish a basic understanding of the history of Alexander the Great and of Greek-speaking peoples in the eastern Mediterranean during the fourth through first centuries BCE and (2) to explore the cultural, military, political, and economic innovations of what was a singular age of experimentation.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC or INT; WCult: W. Christesen.

17. Roman History: The Republic (Identical to History 94.5)

09W: 12

This course surveys the history of the Roman people from 753 (traditional date of the founding of Rome) to 44 B.C. (the assassination of Julius Caesar). Topics include the development of Roman law, the conquest of all lands bordering on the Mediterranean, and the civil wars that destroyed Republican government. Particular emphasis is placed on the Roman political community: the political, religious and social factors that influenced the definition of the Roman aristocracy in the fourth century, the institutions that maintained the ascendancy of the elite, the military and political values inherent in the citizenship, the social and political mechanisms that militated against civil dissent, and the role of political values in the eventual destruction of Republican government from within.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Stewart.

18. History of the Roman Empire: Roman Principate to Christian Empire (Identical to History 94.6)

10W: 12

This course is designed to survey the major events in the history of Rome from 31 B.C. (Octavian/Augustus’ success at the battle of Actium) through the accession and rule of Septimius Severus. During this period, the Roman empire (signifying the territorial extent conquered by Roman armies and administered by Roman officials) became a political community extending throughout the Mediterranean and northwards into Europe as far as Scotland. This course considers the logic of the Roman system: the mechanisms promoting the political identity of diverse peoples as Roman, and the endurance of local traditions within the Roman world; the reasoning whereby the overarching leadership of a single individual was conceived as necessary and good, and the evolving relationship between the princeps and the Roman senatorial aristocracy with a tradition of competitive participation and self identity in politics at Rome; the definition of the Roman frontiers and the role of the army in the assimilation of non-Roman peoples.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Dist: INT or SOC; WCult: W. Stewart.

19. Methods and Theory in Ancient History (Identical to History 94.7)

09W: 3B 10S: 10A

This course is designed to introduce the student to the various types of documentary evidence available to the ancient historian and to the various perspectives for framing and answering historical questions. We consider the interpretive methodologies for each type of document (coin, inscription, papyrus) as well as the particular historical context in which these documents were produced. Topics include the function of coinage and economic thinking in the ancient world and the political significance of the publication of law. The final weeks of the term allow for in-depth consideration of a specific problem in ancient history.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Christesen.

20. Greek Prehistoric Archaeology: The Emergence of Civilization in the Aegean

10W: 11

This course traces the cultural evolution of humanity in the Aegean basin from the era of hunting and gathering (Palaeolithic-Mesolithic) through the early village farming stage (Neolithic) and the formative period of Aegean civilization (Early Bronze Age) into the age of the great palatial cultures of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece. The emphasis in the early part of the course will be on the different economic bases of early life in the Aegean and on regional variation within it. In the latter half of the course, study of the palaces, fortified citadels, and royal tombs at such sites as Knossos, Mycenae, Tiryns, and Troy will lead to discussions of the Greek myths about Atlantis, King Minos’ sea empire, and the Trojan War, and their basis in historical fact.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Rutter.

21. From Disaster to Triumph: Greek Archaeology from the Destruction of Mycenae to the Persian Wars

10S: 11

This course examines in detail through archaeology the cultural process whereby Greece evolved from a scattered group of isolated and backward villages in the Dark Ages (ca. 1100-750 B.C.) to a series of independent, often cosmopolitan city-states united against the threat of Xerxes’ invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. Where did the Greeks acquire the concept of monumental temple architecture and why did they choose to build temples in only two or three different architectural styles? Where did the Greeks learn to write in an alphabetic script and what did they first write down? Who taught the Greeks the art of sculpture and why did they begin by carving what they did? When and why did the Greeks begin to portray their myths in art?

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Rutter.

22. Greek Classical Archaeology: City-States and Panhellenic Sanctuaries

09W: 10

From the allied Greeks’ expulsion of Persian invaders through their great victories at Plataea and Mykale in 479 B.C. to their catastrophic defeat by Philip, Alexander, and the Macedonians at Chaeronea in 338 B.C., the history of Greek culture is that of dozens of individual city-states in constant competition for hegemony in a wide variety of different arenas, from battlefield to stadium to pan-Hellenic sanctuary. In this course, particular attention is paid to the material cultural achievements of the richest and artistically most influential of these poleis, the city of Athens, when that city developed the western world’s first democracy, built the Parthenon, and played host to the schools established by Plato and Aristotle.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: ART; WCult: W. Faro.

24. Etruscan and Early Roman Archaeology: The Rise of Rome

09W: 2

This course begins with the archaeology of Late Neolithic and Iron Age Italy, then focuses upon the Etruscans, early Latium and the development of Republican Rome and her colonies, concluding with the death of Caesar in 44 B.C. In addition to the chronological development of the material culture of Italy, we will explore at least two important cultural topics: 1) Etruscan religion and its influence on the Roman sacro-political system; 2) the machinery of Roman government as expressed in the spaces in Rome (and other sites) that played host to political ritual: the Arx, the Forum, the Comitium, the Curia, the Tribunal and the Basilica.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: SOC; WCult: W. Ulrich.

25. Early Roman Imperial Archaeology: The First Emperors

09S: 10

Through archaeological sites and related artifacts, this course examines the Roman empire as it was transformed under the rule of the emperors. This course begins with a close look at the first emperor, Augustus, then continues with an examination of the reigns of the Julio-Claudians, Flavians, and Trajan. Discussion focuses on how ancient Italic traditions were transformed to suit the needs of the Imperial government (for example, the adaptation of the Republican, Hellenized Domus to the Imperial Palatia). The most dramatic change in religious practice is the development of the Imperial cult. Site analysis will stress the need for an imperial idiom, the accommodation of urban masses and the promotion of a sense of a shared cultural experience. The course will also examine the technological developments that led to Rome’s ‘architectural revolution.’

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: ART; WCult: W. Ulrich.

26. Later Roman Imperial Archaeology: The Golden Age and Beyond

10S: 12

This course surveys Roman archaeology from Hadrian to Constantine. Emphasis is placed upon the Antonine and Severan emperors, then shifts rapidly over most of the mid-third century to focus on Diocletian and the tetrarchy, Constantine and the move of the capital to Constantinople. The course ends with a look at the great church of Hagia Sophia, and consideration of the debt of early Christianity to pagan religious traditions. A major component of the course is the study of the Romanization of the provinces, and, more specifically, the complex process of cultural hybridization (imported Roman traditions melding with local practices). Such sites as Baalbek, Petra, Dura-Europos, Palmyra, Roman Egypt, Tripolitania, Tunisia and Algeria, Constantinian Jerusalem, Trier, Spalato, etc., may be included.

May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art History. Open to all classes. Dist: ART; WCult: W. Ulrich.

29. Independent Study Project

09S: D.F.S.P. (Greece) 09F: D.F.S.P. (Italy)

The independent study project to be completed by a student while a member of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Greece or Italy.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. WCult: W. Christesen, Stewart, Ulrich.

30. Classical Art and Archaeology: Study Abroad

09S: D.F.S.P. (Greece) 09F: D.F.S.P. (Italy)

Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the work of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Greece or Italy. May be taken in partial fulfillment of the major in Art.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. Dist: ART; WCult: W. Christesen, Stewart, Ulrich.

31. Ancient Literature and History: Study Abroad

09S: D.F.S.P. (Greece) 09F: D.F.S.P. (Italy)

Credit for this course is awarded to students who have successfully completed the work of the Dartmouth Foreign Study Program in Greece or Italy.

Prerequisite: membership in the Foreign Study Program. WCult: W. Christesen, Stewart, Ulrich.

80. Senior Seminar in the Classics

09S, 10S: 10A

In 09S, Roman Numismatics. This course surveys the numismatic production of Republican and imperial Rome with special attention to mounting a coin exhibition at the Hood Museum. Students will learn the history of coin production at Rome and the analytical perspectives on that production. Satisfies the departmental requirement for the culminating experience. Stewart.

85. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

87. Thesis

All terms: Arrange

Independent research and writing under supervision of a member of the Classics faculty. Open to honors students in their senior year and to other qualified students by consent of the Department.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

GREEK

1-3. Intensive Greek

Not offered in the period from 08F through 10S

1. Introductory Greek

08F, 09W, 09F, 10W: 9

Study of Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary accompanied by reading of simple Greek prose selections. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement. The staff.

3. Intermediate Greek

09W, 09S, 10W, 10S: 9

Continued study of Greek grammar and syntax. Readings in Greek prose authors. Completion of Greek 3 satisfies the College language requirement and serves as a prerequisite to the major in Classical Archaeology. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement.

Prerequisite: Greek 1, or equivalent. The staff.

10. Readings in Greek Prose and Poetry

08F: 9 09S, 09F, 10S: 2

Readings in Greek prose and poetry at the intermediate level, typically including selections from Plato and/ or Euripides. Prerequisite: Greek 3, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W (unless otherwise indicated). Whaley.

11. Modern Greek I

09W: 2

(See Modern Greek section below)

20. Homer

10W: 2

Reading in Greek and discussion of selections from the Iliad or Odyssey. Reading of the whole poem in translation and discussion of its character, style, and composition.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. The staff.

22. The Lyric Age of Greece

09W: 10

A study of selected poetry from the archaic period of Greek literature. In addition to excerpts from the hexameter poems of Hesiod and the Homeric hymns, readings will include shorter lyric poems such as those of Archilochus, Alcaeus, Sappho, Theognis, Xenophanes and Anacreon. Discussion will include both literary aspects of the poems and their social and cultural context, including the ways in which gender is figured in their performance.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Williamson.

24. Theatre

09S: 2

A study of the tragedy and comedy of Classical Greece through detailed reading of at least one play of Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, and Aristophanes.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Kretler.

26. Intellectual Enquiry in Classical Athens

10S: 2

This course centers on the period of intellectual ferment and enquiry in fifth and fourth century Athens, when traditional beliefs came under scrutiny and many different figures laid claim to truth telling, from orators and sophists to poets and the practitioners of philosophy and history. Texts studied will be taken from the following: philosophy (the sophists, the early dialogues of Plato); history (Herodotus and/or Thucydides); the medical writers; dramatists (Euripides, Aristophanes): orators.

Prerequisite: Greek 10 or equivalent. Dist: TMV; WCult: W. The staff.

28. Philosophy

09F: 10

A thoughtful reading of Plato’s Symposium, the dinner-party dialogue on erotic love. Accompanying material from Greek poetry, oratory, and the visual arts illustrates the cultural backdrop against which Plato developed his ideas. Requirements commensurate with registration in Greek 10 or Greek 28.

Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Graver.

29. New Testament

08F: 9

A brief introduction to the language, vocabulary, and idiom of New Testament Greek, followed by readings in the Gospels and the Epistles of St. Paul.

Prerequisite: Greek 10, or equivalent. Dist: TMV; WCult: W. Whaley.

30. Comparative Studies in Greek and Latin Literature (Identical to Latin 30)

09X, 10X: Arrange

A joint seminar for students in Greek and Latin on a topic that will involve common meetings of both Greek students and Latin students, as well as selected texts in Greek for those electing Greek 30, and texts in Latin for those electing Latin 30. Previous topics have been such themes as “Tragicomedy” (a cross reading of Euripides and Plautus) and “The Poet and the City.”

Dist: LIT; WCult: W. The staff.

85. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

87. Thesis

All terms: Arrange

Independent research and writing under the supervision of a Department member. Open to honors students in their senior year and other qualified students by the consent of the Department.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

MODERN GREEK

11. Modern Greek I

09W: 2

An introduction to Modern Greek as a spoken and written language, with emphasis on practical conversation. Intensive study of basic grammar, syntax and vocabulary through drills, conversation, written exercises, and oral presentations, supplemented by laboratory exercises and by drill-sessions with a teaching assistant.

No previous knowledge of Greek is assumed. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement. Kacandes.

LATIN

1. Introductory Latin

08F: 9, 2 09W: 9 09F: 9, 2 10W: 2

Introduction to Latin grammar, vocabulary, and syntax through prose readings of gradually increasing difficulty. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement. The staff.

3. Intermediate Latin

08F: 9 09W: 9, 2 09S: 9 10W: 9,2 10S: 2

Continued study of Latin grammar, vocabulary, and syntax with reading of selected literary texts. Completion of Latin 3 satisfies the College language requirement. Never serves in partial satisfaction of the Distributive Requirement.

Prerequisite: Latin 1, or equivalent. The staff.

10. Readings in Latin Prose and Poetry

08F: 10A 09S: 9 09F: 9 10S: 10A

Readings in Latin prose and poetry at the intermediate level, typically including selections from Catullus, Cicero, Livy, or Ovid.

In 08F, Friendship. Explores the political, literary, and philosophical dimensions of amicitia in variety of texts from the last century of the Republic, from the poetry of Catullus to the personal correspondence of Cicero. Issues to be considered include the boundaries of personal intimacy, countercultural implications of friendship circles, the intersection of friendship with patronage networks, and alternatives to sheer utility as the basis of friendship. Meets concurrently with Latin 22, but with requirements commensurate with intermediate level of instruction.

Prerequisite: Latin 3, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. The staff.

20. Vergil

09W: 10A

We shall consider the relationship of Vergil’s major works (Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid) to their generic heritage and to their contemporary historical context. We shall read from all three poems but will spend most time on one book of the Aeneid (8, 9, or 11). Depending on the text chosen the focus of the course may range from the connection between epic and history to the successes and failures of martial heroism. The course may also include a component on the late antique commentary of Servius, which will reveal some of the continuities and disjunctions between modern views of the poem and at least one ancient reader’s approach.

Prerequisite: Latin 10 or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Chaudhuri.

22. Literature of the Republic

08F, 09F: 10A

In 08F, Friendship. Explores the political, literary, and philosophical dimensions of amicitia in variety of texts from the last century of the Republic, from the poetry of Catullus to the personal correspondence of Cicero. Issues to be considered include the boundaries of personal intimacy, countercultural implications of friendship circles, the intersection of friendship with patronage networks, and alternatives to sheer utility as the basis of friendship.

Prerequisite: Latin 10 or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Graver.

24. The Augustan Age

10W: 10A

Ovid’s Fasti: we will read at least one book of Ovid’s fascinating poetic Fasti and the entirety in English. As context we will read passages from Varro and the inscriptional Fasti. Thematically, we will focus on the cultural function of festivals and the social relevance of calendars and time.

Prerequisite: Latin 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. The staff.

26. Literature of the Early Empire

10S: 2A

The particular interest of the course is in the inner dynamics of literary works that gesture toward an emperor as the premier internal reader. Readings include Horace’s Epistle to Augustus, Ovid’s Letters from Pontus, Seneca’s On Clemency, Martial’s humorous epigrams, and selections from Lucan and Tacitus.

Prerequisite: Latin 10 or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. The staff.

28. Literature of the Later Empire and the Middle Ages

09S: 12

Readings from the late Empire to the high Middle Ages that will include selections from the Vulgate, St. Augustine’s Confessions, the Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicity, Hrotsvitha’s Dulcitius, and the Carmina Burana.

Prerequisite: Latin 10, or equivalent. Dist: LIT; WCult: W. Beaulieu.

30. Comparative Studies in Greek and Latin Literature (Identical to Greek 30)

09X, 10X: Arrange

A joint seminar for students in Greek and Latin on a topic that will involve common meetings of both Greek students and Latin students, as well as selected texts in Greek for those electing Greek 30, and texts in Latin for those electing Latin 30. Previous topics have been such themes as “Tragicomedy” (a cross reading of Euripides and Plautus) and “The Poet and the City.”

Dist: LIT; WCult: W. The staff.

85. Independent Reading and Research

All terms: Arrange

87. Thesis

All terms: Arrange

Independent research and writing under the supervision of a member of the Classics faculty. Open to honors students in their senior year and to other qualified students by consent of the Department.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.