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Biological Sciences

1. History of Modern Biology

09X: 10A

An introductory survey of the history of modern biology from Charles Darwin to the present. This course will consider major developments in biology such as Darwin’s theory of evolution, experimental embryology and the revolt against morphology, Mendelian genetics and the eugenics movement, the rise of ecology and Neo-Darwinism, and the impact of molecular biology. We will emphasize the development of biology as an experimental science and the social context for biological thought and practice.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

2. Human Biology

08F, 09F: 11

A course designed to help students (biologists and non-biologists) understand the biolog­ical basis of human health and disease. The course will emphasize the fundamental aspects of biochemistry, genetics, cell and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy, reproductive biology, and function of various organs as they relate to humans. Particular emphasis will be placed on specific topics in human health and disease and how these issues affect us all individually in our own health and collectively in our international society.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Witters.

4. Genes and Society

09S, 10S: 10A

This course is designed for the humanities or social sciences major. It focuses on how our current understanding of genetic mechanisms has led to new biological insights and to the development of powerful technologies with far reaching implications for our society. It is the aim of this course to provide a solid understanding of the mechanisms of molecular genetics and to discuss implications of genetic engineering and related technologies to our every day lives. Although this course will focus on the science, we will also consider the ethical, political, human, and economic impacts of these technologies. Several guest lectur­ers will provide personal perspectives based on their experiences. The ultimate goal of the course is to provide an understanding of the biology and technology so that students can make informed decisions on issues that continually and increasingly arise in our society.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Gross.

5. Philosophy of Biology

Not offered in the period from 08F through 10S.

This course will consider philosophical issues pertinent to the biological sciences. Topics may include genetic determinism, biology and ideology, the nature of experiment in bio­logical practice, adaptationism, the species problem, the nature of biology as a historical science, concepts of fitness and function, the units of selection debate, and phylogenetic inference.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

6. Dinosaurs

10W: 2A

This course is designed for the non-major. It will cover all aspects of dinosaur biology including their origin and evolution, phylogeny, behavior, physiology, and extinction. Because dinosaurs will be placed in their biological and geological contexts, other topics will include the geological record, the processes of fossilization, and vertebrate evolution in general. Particular attention will be paid to current debates including the origin of birds and mass extinction. The goal of this course is to teach the basic principles of evolutionary biology using dinosaurs as exemplars of evolutionary patterns and processes.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Offered in alternate years. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

7. First-Year Seminars in Biology

Consult special listings

8. Clinical Biomedical Research

09S, 10S: 2A

This course teaches the fundamentals of clinical biomedical research (CBR). The CBR curriculum offers a unique combination of direct involvement in ongoing clinical research studies with a comprehensive didactic program and experience conducting and designing clinical studies. Designated as Academic Associates, the students will spend time in the DHMC Emergency Department (E.D.) playing an integral role in patient identification, enrollment, and data collection for the ongoing clinical research studies. Coupled with this “hands-on” data collection in the E.D., the didactic program consists of weekly classes focusing on research design, data collection techniques, statistical analysis, and scientific poster preparation. At the completion of the course, each student will develop a “mock clin­ical research study”.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and permission of the instructor. Biology 2 and either 29 or Mathematics 10 are also recommended. Dist: SCI. Curtis.

9. Independent Research in History and Philosophy of Biology

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a problem in the history and/or philosophy of biology with associated study of primary literature sources under supervision for one academic term. Biology 9 does not count for biology major or minor credit.

Prerequisites: At least one Biology course and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor. The application and research proposal must be submitted at least one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. Dietrich.

11. The Science of Life

08F: 9L, 10A  09W: 10A  09S: 9L  09F: 9L, 10A  10W: 10A 10S: 9L

Biology, like all of science, is a problem-solving endeavor. This course introduces students to a major problem in biology and considers it from many different perspectives, viewpoints and biological levels of organization. Along the way, students are exposed to many of the major concepts in biology, from molecules to ecosystems. Each offering will address a different major problem.

Open to all students without prerequisite. Dist: SCI.

In 08F at 9L, DNA to Diversity. We have chosen “DNA to Diversity” as a theme because we want to highlight how modern biology integrates all levels from the molecule to the diversity of life. As an organizing principle, we focus on the development of complex multicellular organisms. We will explore how cellular processes are driven by key developmental control genes, how cells communicate, and how these molecular and cellular mechanisms shape diverse forms of life. We will investigate how ecological forces drive natural selection, and how this and other evolutionary processes have sorted and sifted DNA mutations, producing DNA blueprints that direct development. Over the course of the term, students should gain a perspective on how genetic and environmental changes have produced the astonishing variety of species and life forms that now exist on earth, and how biologists are piecing that puzzle together. Jack, Peart.

In 08F at 10A, Cooperation and Conflict in Biological Systems. Cooperation and conflict arise at all levels of biology—with molecules, cells, organisms and communities. Throughout the term, we will explore several examples of cooperation and conflict in biological systems and examine the cost and benefits of these two opposing forces. We will investigate theories about how cooperation and/or conflict have shaped how life began, the concept of “selfish” DNA, why cells have the structures they have as well as multi-protein complexes driving essential cellular processes. In addition, we will discuss the generation of multicellular organisms, cooperation of different cell types within the organism and examples of cellular competition that arise in specific diseased states such as cancer. We also will consider behavioral interactions among different types of organisms, and the organization of human societies. Ultimately, our goal is to guide students to critically evaluate the different ways that cooperation and conflict shape biological systems and to begin to understand the mechanisms underlying these two forces. Bickel, Calsbeek.

In 09W at 10A, LUCA: the Last Universal Common Ancestor. Over the course of the last 4.5 billion years, life has faced a number of challenges, and in response has evolved a number of remarkable innovations to meet those challenges. Incorporating data and perspectives from molecular and cellular biology, macroevolutionary theory, and paleobiology, we will reconstruct the biology of the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all living organisms. Her name is LUCA and unraveling her biology will require us to work within the framework of what it means to be a living cell. We will move forward in time from the origin of life, and backward in time from the remarkable diversity of life present today. We will see that much of LUCA’s biology has left “molecular fossils” in our very own DNA, and we will learn how to read this remarkable fossil record. Peterson, Sloboda.

In 09S at 9L, Emerging infectious diseases: how microbes rule the world. Emerging infectious diseases, which have shaped the course of humanity and caused untold suffering and death, will continue to challenge society as long as humans and microbes co-exist. This course will explore why infectious diseases emerge and re-emerge. The viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes that cause these diseases continually evolve in response to their hosts. Dynamic interactions between rapidly evolving infectious agents and changes in the environment and in host behavior provide such agents with favorable new ecological niches. In addition, dramatic increases in the worldwide movement of people and goods drive the globalization of disease. Guerinot, B. Taylor.

12. Cell Structure and Function

08F, 09S, 09F, 10S: 9L; Laboratory: Arrange

Biology 12 will provide a foundation in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the structure and function of eukaryotic cells. Topics include membrane transport, energy conversion, signal transduction, protein targeting, cell motility and the cytoskeleton, and the cell cycle. Emphasis will be placed on discussion of the experimental basis for understanding cell function. The laboratory section will provide students with hands-on experience in modern laboratory techniques including microscopy, cell fractionation, and protein purification.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Gladfelter, Schaller.

13. Gene Expression and Inheritance

09W: 9L  09X: 10  10W: 9L; Laboratory: Arrange

This course provides a foundation in genetics and molecular biology. Topics covered include the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. These concepts will be integrated into a discussion of contemporary problems and approaches in molecular genetics. Laboratories utilize basic molecular biology techniques to further investigate topics discussed in lecture.

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Lambie, Grotz.

14. Physiology

09W: 10 09X: 10A 10W: 10; Laboratory: Arrange

This course introduces students to the complexity of organisms by studying how their different organ systems strive to maintain internal homeostasis in the face of different environmental demands. The adaptive responses of selected organisms (humans, different animals and plants) to a variety of environmental factors will be studied from the molecular, cell, tissue, organ, and systems level of organization. Some of the topics to be covered include biological control systems (hormones, neurons) and coordinated body functions (circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, digestion). All systems studied will be integrated by analyzing how different organisms adapt to living in extreme environments (deserts, high altitude) or facing environmental demands (navigation, exercise).

Prerequisite: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Vélez, Rendi.

15. Microevolution

09S, 10S: 11; Laboratory: Arrange

A consideration of the genetics of natural populations and the process of organic evolu­tion. Topics include the source and distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variation in nature; the forces which act on genetic variation (mutation, migration, selection, drift); the genetic basis of adaptation, speciation, and phyletic evolution.

Prerequisites: Biology 11. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Kern.

16. Ecology

08F, 09S, 09F, 10S: 10; Laboratory: Arrange

This course examines fundamental concepts in the rapidly developing areas of ecology. These topics include the factors that limit the distributions and abundances of organisms, the effects that organisms have on ecosystems, the integration of ecosystems around the globe, and the conservation of species diversity. The class will also explore how the behavior and physiology of individual organisms shape both local and global patterns of distribution and abundance. Laboratories focus on experimental and quantitative analyses of local ecosystems, with an emphasis on field studies.

Prerequisite: Biology 11 or permission of the instructor. Biology 12-16 may be taken in any order. Dist: SLA. Irwin, Mbora.

21. Population Ecology

08F: 10A; Discussion: Arrange

This course explores the description of populations, population growth, and the determi­nation of abundance. Examples will be drawn from a diversity of plant and animal taxa to illustrate the broad scope of population ecology, including its role as a foundation for evo­lutionary ecology and community ecology, and its contributions to applied problems in conservation biology, pest management, human demography, and the management of har­vested populations. Throughout, this course will emphasize the development of verbal, graphical, and mathematical models to describe populations, generate predictions, test hypotheses, and formalize theory. No student may receive course credit for both Biology 21 and Biology 51, Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Ayres.

22. Methods in Ecology

09X: 12; Laboratory: M 1:45-5:45

This course is an introduction to sampling and survey methodologies for populations and communities in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The course will be divided into week-long modules, each focusing on a particular group of organisms in the environment. A great deal of emphasis will be placed on hypothesis generation, experimental design and statistical analysis. Participation in the laboratory/field component is both required and critical as one of the primary benefits of this course will be “on the ground” training in field methods.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. Cottingham.

23. Aquatic Ecology

09F: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

The study of interactions between biological communities and their freshwater environ­ment. Lectures and readings provide the scientific background necessary for understanding the physical, chemical, and biological dynamics of freshwater habitats. Emphasis is placed on application of fundamental concepts to problems in conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems. The laboratory and field work, including a weekend field trip during the first week of classes, will acquaint stu­dents with modern methodological approaches for studying aquatic ecosystems. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 16. Dist: SLA. Taylor.

24. Vertebrate Zoology

10W: 10

This course will examine origins, diversity, structure and function within and among the vertebrate classes (including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). We will con­sider the evolution of the vertebrate body plan and innovations associated with common organ systems (e.g., skeletal, muscular, digestive, sensory, etc.) shared by different taxa. In addition, we will consider specialization of form and function to the diverse ecology of ver­tebrates as well as the manner in which very different taxa cope with similar habitats and environmental demands. In so doing, we will draw on evolutionary principles such as adap­tation, convergent and parallel evolution and evolutionary constraints. The course will pri­marily consist of lecture and readings with examination of specimens and opportunities for off-campus field trips. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist. SCI. Calsbeek.

25. Introductory Marine Biology and Ecology

09F: 11

A course designed both for biology majors and other students interested in the interrela­tionships between marine organisms and their physical and biological environments. The course emphasizes the marine environment as an ecosystem with special focus on communities in coastal margin, open ocean, and deep sea habitats ranging from polar to tropical latitudes. Applied issues relevant to human impact and conservation in marine ecosystems will also be covered.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Chen.

27. Animal Behavior

09W: 10A; Laboratory-Discussion: Arrange

Behavioral sciences are extremely broad and the study of animal behavior requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates psychology, ecology, evolutionary biology, neural science and the underpinnings of learning and memory science. We will draw on each of these fields as we explore topics ranging from signaling and cognition to mating behaviors and sexual selection to foraging and optimality theory. We will consider how proximate and ultimate causality structure behavior throughout the animal kingdom. Thus, the course will take an evolutionary approach to understand behavior in vertebrates and insects and other invertebrates; in fresh water and marine systems, and in terrestrial groups.

Prerequisite: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SLA. Calsbeek.

28. Macroevolution

09S: 2A

This course focuses on evolution above the level of individual species, and is designed to complement Biology 15. We will first examine the evolution of whales to learn the basic principles and methodology of macroevolutionary analysis. Then, using these tools, we will examine in detail the origin of animals, the Cambrian explosion, and their subsequent evo­lution from the Cambrian to the Recent. Topics covered will include body plan evolution and development, rates of morphological and molecular evolution, punctuated evolution, group selection theory, and mass extinction. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15 or 16. Dist: SCI. Peterson.

29. Biostatistics

09W, 10W: 12; Laboratory M or Tu 1:45-5:45

The course will cover basic descriptive statistics, simple probability theory, the funda­mentals of statistical inference, regression and correlation, t-tests, one-way analysis of vari­ance, basic analyses of frequency data and non-parametric statistics, and the general philosophy of experimental design. We will explore these topics from the perspective of biological applications. Examples will be drawn from all subdisciplines of biology (e.g. biochemical kinetics, development, physiology, ecology, evolution).

Prerequisites: Biology 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16. Dist: QDS. Cottingham.

31. Physiological Ecology

09S: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

What factors determine the distribution and abundance of organisms? What are the con­sequences of climate change for biological communities? This course is an exploration of environmental effects on fundamental physiological processes in plants and animals. Abi­otic factors, such as temperature and water availability, interact with biotic forces, such as predation, herbivory, and competition, to constrain the ability of organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce. Physiological solutions that allow success in one environment may preclude it in another. This course seeks to build up from physiological principles to under­stand characteristics of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Laboratories will chal­lenge students to generate and test their own hypotheses using contemporary theoretical frameworks and modern research apparatus. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, 14, 15, or 16. Dist: SLA. Ayres.

34. Neurobiology

08F, 09F: 11; Laboratory: Arrange

This course emphasizes a cellular approach to the study of nervous systems. The study of the cellular basis of neuronal activity will form the foundation for studies on sensory phys­iology, the control of muscle movement, and neuronal integration. Selected topics of cur­rent research activities with vertebrate and invertebrate species will be discussed in order to provide a perspective on how the field of neuroscience is developing. Laboratory exer­cises will provide the opportunity to learn extracellular and intracellular electrophysiolog­ical recording techniques.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 14. Dist: SLA. Vélez.

35. Human Physiology

09S: 11

This course is an introduction to the biochemical aspects of human physiology. The adaptive responses of different human organ systems will be studied from the molecular, cellular, organ and systems level of organization. Topics to be covered include biological control systems (nerves, hormones, sensory and muscle cells) and coordinated body functions (circulation, respiration, osmoregulation, digestion). All the different organ systems working together during exercise will provide a framework for the final course synthesis. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 or 14. Dist: SCI. Vélez.

36. History of Genetics

08F, 09F: 10A

This course is a survey of the history of genetics for students with some knowledge of genetics such as Biology 13 or 15. Proceeding from Galton to the present, this course will emphasize the main intellectual trends in genetics as well as the interconnection between genetics and society. Topics for discussion will include whether Gregor Mendel was a Mendelian, the importance of Thomas Hunt Morgan’s Drosophila network, the relationship between eugenics and genetics, the effect of Atomic Energy Commission report on human genetics, and the impact of molecular biology.

Prerequisite: Biology 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. Dietrich.

37. Endocrinology

09S, 10S: 10A

The regulatory functions, physiology and molecular mechanisms of the endocrine system and related metabolic pathways will be explored with an emphasis on human and mamma­lian biology. Course requires a student paper on selected topics, stemming from an exami­nation of the biology and pathobiology of these systems in health and disease. These topics will be drawn, in part, from timely publications in the biomedical literature.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 and 13; Biology 14 recommended. Dist: SCI. Witters.

38. Experimental Genetic Analysis

09S, 10S: 12; Laboratory: Meets every M, W, F 1:45-2:50

This course provides in-depth coverage of the analysis of gene transmission and function. Biology 38 will build on material covered in Biology 13, emphasizing the use of model organisms to obtain information relevant to important problems in human genetics. Investigative laboratory exercises will reinforce and complement material covered in lecture.

Prerequisite: Biology 13. Dist: SLA. Lambie.

39. Computational Molecular Biology

09W, 10W: 10A

Computers and computer programs have become essential tools in modern molecular biology. As the amount of DNA and protein sequence data continues to grow, the use and understanding of these computational tools is becoming increasingly important. Deriving biological understanding from sequence data requires sophisticated computer analyses while demanding from molecular biologists the ability to interpret intelligently the results from these analyses. Not only can these programs provide the biologist with information about his or her sequence of interest, but a solid understanding of these tools can also be used to make predictions of biological phenomena that can be tested in the lab. This course will explore computational molecular biology through both lectures and hands-on com­puter experimentation through homework assignments.

This course will discuss approaches to analyzing protein and DNA sequences and will foster an understanding of how to extract biologically relevant information from the numer­ous databases containing all this information. Topics will include basic computer architec­ture and operating systems, database design and searching, sequence comparisons, pattern discovery, genome comparisons, gene discovery, determining evolutionary relationships, RNA and protein structure predictions, data mining, and DNA array analysis. No computer programming experience is needed, but familiarity with using the Internet is recommended.

Prerequisites: Biology 13. Dist: SCI. Gross.

40. Biochemistry

08F, 09F: 10; Discussion W or Th 2:00-3:00

This course studies molecular structure and function from a biochemical point of view, emphasizing the biochemistry of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Topics include protein structure and function, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, lipids and membranes, and carbohy­drates and cell walls. The participation of these biomolecules in metabolism is also dis­cussed, and focuses on the metabolic pathways of glycolysis, glucogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. The course concludes with a look at the integration of metabolism in mammals. Students with credit for Chemistry 41 may not receive credit for Biology 40.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and Chemistry 52 or 58 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Schaller.

42. Biology of the Immune Response

09W, 10W: 9L

This course will consider immunoglobulin structure, antigen-antibody reactions, comple­ment, hypersensitivity, immunogenetics, immunodeficiency, tumor immunology and ther­apy, and autoimmunity.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 13, or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Fanger.

43. Developmental Biology

08F, 09F: 9L

An analysis of early cell and tissue development leading to organ differentiation. Fertili­zation, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation will be considered in terms of recent advances in developmental biology.

Prerequisite: Biology 12 or 13. Dist: SCI. Erives.

44. Integrative Cell Physiology

10W: 12

In this course students will extend their knowledge of cell biology by exploring several functional relationships between various fundamental cellular processes. For example, how do extracellular signals mediate cytoskeletal rearrangements that allow cells to move? What is the relationship between mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and controlled cell death? What controls organelle biogenesis? Discussions will emphasize modern experimental approaches for investigating cell function.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13. Dist: SCI. Smith.

45. Molecular Biology

09W, 10S: 11 

This course will build upon the material presented in Biology 13 with in depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying fundamental processes including DNA replication, transcription and translation in bacteria and eukaryotes. Key regulatory events that influence gene expression will be discussed including the function of promoters and enhancers, chromatin structure and epigenetics, RNA mediated silencing and mRNA processing. Emphasis will be placed on understanding how molecular techniques are used to elucidate critical aspects of these processes. Selected papers from the primary literature will be presented to illustrate current advances.

Prerequisite: Biology 13. Dist SCI. Grotz.

46. Microbiology

08F, 09F: 12; Laboratory: Arrange

A lecture, discussion, and laboratory course considering the biology of microorganisms, with emphasis on bacteria. Topics such as structure, function, genetics, and metabolism of bacterial cells will be covered. The ecological role of various species of microorganisms will also be discussed.

Prerequisite: Biology 12, 13, or 16. Dist: SLA. Guerinot, O’Toole.

47. Human Genomics

09W: 2

This course is an introduction to genomics, the study of biological organisms from a whole-genome perspective, and focuses on the genome of Homo sapiens and its relations to other genomes. Some of the topics discussed include: the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the human genome; the human gene complement; evolution of vertebrate and human genomes; comparative primate genomics; human nucleotide diversity and the human haplotype map; drug discovery in the post-genomic era; and a variety of experimental whole genome approaches for identifying global changes in gene regulation (e.g. subtractive hybridization, micro-array analysis, serial analysis of gene expression and whole-genome bioinformatics). Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 13 or 15. Dist: SCI. Erives.

51. Advanced Population Ecology

08F: 10A Discussion: Arrange

This course explores theory and data regarding properties of biological populations. Topics of lectures and analytical exercises include: descriptions of abundance, dispersion, and demographic schedules; applying life tables and matrix models to understand population growth and age structure; life history theory; influence of endogenous feedbacks and exogenous forces on population dynamics; spatial patterns and processes; and contributions of population ecology to applied issues in conservation, pest management, human demography, and the management of harvested populations. No student may receive course credit for both Biology 21 and Biology 51. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 16 and one course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: SCI. Ayres.

52. Advanced Conservation Science (Identical to Environmental Studies 86)

09S: 2A

Rigorous scientific methods are essential to the effective conservation of biodiversity and management of natural resources. This course will examine a range of analytical techniques employed in conservation and natural resource management. Techniques covered will include trend detection, population viability analysis, mark-recapture methods for the estimation of population size and demographic parameters (birth, death, migration), and movement and dispersal models. An important goal will be to understand the strengths and limitations of these methods and their practical applications. The emphasis will be on reading and discussing primary literature and working real-world examples using data collected on species of conservation and management significance. Students will be instructed in the use of a number of computer software packages useful in the analysis of population data. Grading will be based on exams, homework, and a term project.

Prerequisites: Environmental Studies 20 or Biology 21/51, or permission of the instructor. Dist: TAS. Bolger.

55. Ecological Research in the Tropics I

09W, 10W: D.F.S.P.

The Biology Foreign Studies Program (Biology 55, 56, 57) exposes students, through intensive, full-immersion study, to Earth’s most diverse biological communities. Biology 56 is a continuation of Biology 55; these courses comprise the first two-thirds of the FSP, and focus on land (tropical forests) and tropical freshwater ecosystems in Costa Rica. Biology 57 focuses on coral reef ecosystems in the Caribbean. Students are challenged to know, understand and appreciate the diversity of form and function in organisms, and the interactions that generate the often-spectacular patterns they see in the field. Habitats in Costa Rica include lowland rain forest, cloud forest, dry forest, montane forest, alpine paramo, streams and wetlands. The schedule is full, including fieldwork, laboratories, lectures and discussions, with emphasis on original research, mostly in small groups of 2-3. Faculty and advanced graduate TAs share field accommodations with students, and are in continuous contact as mentors, day and evening, throughout the program. Students master field and analytical methods (including hypothesis testing, statistical and software skills) for observational and experimental research. We pursue a great variety of research topics, including plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions, processes driving coral reef structure (and coral reef decline), determinants of species distributions, animal behavior, and conservation ecology. Students practice the classic scientific approach: making observations, asking testable questions, generating hypotheses, developing experimental protocols, collecting data, making statistical inferences, writing scientific papers, and presenting seminars. Research papers are published in an annual book. Accommodations are at field stations in Costa Rica, and at a marine laboratory in the Caribbean.

Prerequisites: Biology 16, one course from among Biology 20-28, 31; acceptance into program, Biology 15 and 29 recommended. Dist: SLA. Irwin.

56. Ecological Research in the Tropics II

09W, 10W: D.F.S.P.

A continuation of Biology 55. See Biology 55 for a description of the Biology Foreign Study Program.

Prerequisites: Biology 55 (taken in same term). Dist: SLA. Peart.

57. Ecological Research on Coral Reefs

09W, 10W: D.F.S.P.

Field and laboratory investigations of marine organisms and coral reef communities. Lecture and research topics include studies of algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, and fish, with emphasis on populations, species interactions, community structure and energetics, and reef conservation and management. The course is based at the Little Cayman Research Center, Little Cayman Island. Scuba diving is optional. See Biology 55 for an overview of the Biology Foreign Study Program.

Prerequisites: Biology 55 and 56 (taken in same term). Dist: SLA. Peart.

58. Advanced Community Ecology

09W: 10

This course will examine the various mechanisms structuring ecological communities of plants and animals. The course will consist of regular lectures, readings from the primary literature, and individual projects. Topics to be covered include simple two-species inter­actions (e.g. predation, competition, parasitism, mutualisms), simultaneous multispecies interactions, food web structure, regulation of species diversity on ecological and evolu­tionary time scales, community succession, and biogeography. Emphasis will be placed on the development of mathematical models and their relationship to empirical studies. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: Biology 15, 16 and one course from among Biology 20-31. Dist: SCI. McPeek.

59. Biostatistics II

09S: 9L

This is an advanced course in statistics and experimental design, as applied to biological systems. There will be lectures and computer laboratories, regular homework assignments, and a major term project of statistical analysis. Topics covered include analysis of variance, generalized linear models and logistic regression, multivariate analysis methods, experimental design, and an introduction to Bayesian methods. Emphasis will be placed on the use of statistical programming for performing analyses. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 29. Dist: QDS. McPeek.

65. Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotes

08F: 2

Lectures dealing with the structure, function, organization, dynamics, and regulation of genes in higher eukaryotes and their viruses. Topics ranging from transposition of genes, to regulation of transcription, to targeted gene disruption in transgenic organisms will be covered. New topics in the literature will be included as well.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 or permission of the instructor. Dist: SCI. Grotz.

66. Molecular Basis of Cancer

09W, 10W: 10A

In this course we will explore how cancer develops on a cellular level. Using primary literature as a guide, we will examine the basic cellular processes malignant tumors exploit to promote their rapid, invasive growth and ultimately disease. Topics that will be considered include the genetic factors that initiate cancer cell formation, cell cycle regulation, programmed cell death, cell signaling, angiogenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangements as well as how current cancer therapies work on a cellular level.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 38, 44, 45. Dist: SCI. Gladfelter.

67. The Biology of Fungi and Parasites that Cause Disease

09W, 10W: 2A

This course will focus on the molecular features of fungi and parasites that form the basis of strategies for adhering to and invading human host cells and tissues. The difficulties associated with development of drugs that neutralize eukaryotic fungi and parasites, but do not harm mammalian cells, heighten the importance of research on fungi and parasites and emphasize the unique aspects of eukaryotic pathogens compared to bacteria. Fungi, which are major pathogens in AIDS and other immunosuppressed patients, and parasites, such as malaria, which devastate human populations world-wide, will be emphasized.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 40, 45, or 46. Dist: SCI. Sundstrom.

68. The Biophysical Chemistry of Biological Motors and Their Filament Tracks (Identical to Chemistry 45)

08F, 09F: 10A; Laboratory: Arrange

This course will study complex cellular machines using the approaches offered by biological, chemical, structural, and morphological techniques. Biological motors use ATP to perform work by interacting with a filamentous substrate. Dynein, kinesin, and myosin will be studied using cell biological, biochemical, and biophysical characterization of their activities. The course will then discuss the chemical kinetics and thermodynamics of motor proteins. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy will provide examples that inform our understanding of motor chemistry and motor biology. The laboratory section will provide students with exposure to motor protein analysis using video enhanced fluorescence microscopy and other techniques.

Prerequisites: Biology 12, Chemistry 51 (or 57) and one of the following (Biology 40, 44, 45, or Chemistry 41). Dist: SLA. Kull and Sloboda.

69. Cell Signaling

09S, 09F: 10A

This course will focus on how signals are transmitted from the cell surface into changes in cellular function. Detailed analysis of specific membrane receptors, second-messenger systems, and protein kinases will be presented as well as how these components are integrated into larger “systems” such as apoptosis, metabolic signaling, synaptic transmission, and sensory transduction. Particular emphasis will be on the biochemical analysis of the pathways and their individual components as well as how these pathways are impaired in certain disease states. The course will consist of lectures and weekly discussions of recent primary literature.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13, and at least one course from the following list: Biology 40, 44, 45, Chemistry 41. Dist: SCI. Rendi.

71. Advanced Topics in Cell Biology

09S, 10S: 2A

This course will cover in depth one or more specific topics in cell biology such as cell division, chromosome structure and function, signal transduction, the cytoskeleton, mem­brane assembly, and intracellular protein targeting. Material will be presented in a manner designed to encourage student comments and to demonstrate how modern molecular, bio­chemical, immunological, and genetic techniques are employed to study problems in cell biology. Reading assignments will be taken from the current research literature.

Prerequisites: Biology 12, 13 and one from among Biology 38, 44 or 45. Dist: SCI. Bickel.

74. Advanced Neurobiology

10S: 10A

A seminar course that considers recent advances in specific areas of neurobiology. Topics to be discussed will be selected among ion channels, neurotransmitters, synaptic transmis­sion, intracellular signaling pathways, synaptic connections, neuronal plasticity, brain bio­chemistry, behavioral neurobiology or developmental neurobiology. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: Biology 34. Dist: SCI. Vélez.

75. Genomic Circuitry

10S: 10

Many genomes, including the human genome, have been sequenced. Now, increasing attention has turned to a cryptic, yet fundamental component of these genomes: gene cir­cuitry, i.e. the “wiring” that links together activated genes in a genomic program. Special­ized DNA sequences determine where and when a given gene is expressed during an organism’s life cycle. These genomic “regulatory” sequences play a major role in basic evolutionary processes. How do regulatory sequences encode differential gene expression? How do they evolve? How do we identify and decode them? This course will investigate these questions as well as landmark papers necessary to understand present and future work in this field. Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisites: One of the following: Biology 39, 43, 45 or 47. Dist: SCI. Erives.

76. Advanced Genetics

09S: 3A

Methods and strategies for the analysis of gene structure, function and genetic interac­tions. The course will examine how the genetic manipulation of model organisms, includ­ing yeast, Drosophila, C. elegans, and mouse, is used to explore the mechanisms of fundamental biological processes such as cell division, development, and intercellular com­munication. Emphasis will be placed on the application of classical genetic methods, including mutant screens, recombination and complementation analysis, genetic mosaics, and the use of conditional mutations. Modern molecular-based approaches, including gene knockout, gene dosage and misexpression studies will also be included. Three hours of lec­ture and one hour of discussion per week.

Prerequisites: Biology 12 and 13 and one from among Biology 38, 45, 47 or permission of instructor. Dist: SCI. Berger.

78. Molecular Mysteries of Human Biology

09W, 10W: 9L

Knowledge of molecular mechanisms allows new approaches to understanding human biology and disease. This course will explore the normal and abnormal biology of several human conditions relying on biochemistry, molecular genetics, and physiology as tools of inquiry. Examples will be drawn from the histories of John Hunter, Mona Lisa, Michel-Eugène Chevruel, Hendrickje Stöffels. Bobby Sands, Paul Cézanne, Lance Armstrong, Pearl Buck and Auguste D. among others.

Prerequisites: Biology 13 and 40 (or Chemistry 41) or permission of instructor. A prior course on some aspect of mammalian physiology is recommended (e.g. Biology 2, 14, 35 or 37). Dist: SCI. Witters.

79. Genetics and Physiology of Behavior

Not offered in the period from 08F through 10S

Examination of the genetic, physiological, cellular, and molecular basis of behavior and responses to environmental factors in eukaryotic organisms. Topics to be covered from the current and classic literature will include circadian rhythmicity, learning and memory, and other areas of current research, and will vary somewhat from year to year.

Prerequisites: Biology 45 and permission of the instructor Dist: SCI.

95. Independent Research in Biology I

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a biological problem with associated study of primary literature sources under the supervision of a member of the staff for one academic term. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors and minors. Projects may include laboratory or field research or modeling that will further understanding of a relevant basic or applied research problem. May be taken as one course in the major by students not enrolled in the honors program. Students electing both Biology 95 and Biology 97 may count only one among the six courses in the area of concentration. In no case may a student elect more than two courses among Biology 95, 96, and 97.

Prerequisites: at least two Biology courses above the foundation level, a 2.67 average in previous biology courses, and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor. The application and research proposal must be submitted at least one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

96. Independent Research in Biology II

All terms: Arrange

A second term of original and independent investigation of a biological problem under the supervision of a member of the staff. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors who have satisfied the requirements for Biology 95 and who wish to continue their independent research for a second term. Does not count for credit in the major.

Prerequisites: Satisfactory completion of Biology 95 (including research paper) and per­mission of both the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instruc­tor(s). The application and research proposal must be submitted at least one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

97. Honors Research in Biology

All terms: Arrange

Original and independent investigation of a biological problem with associated study of primary literature sources under the supervision of a member of the staff. Open only to Dartmouth Biology majors. Projects may include laboratory or field research or modeling that will further understanding of a relevant basic or applied research problem. Required of honors students as part of the major. Students taking both Biology 95 and Biology 97 may count only one term toward the elective courses for their major. In no case may a student elect more than two courses among Biology 95 and 97. Students who have completed or are taking Biology 97 may enroll and receive college credit for Biology 99 during spring term of their senior year.

Prerequisites: at least two Biology courses above the foundation level, a 3.0 average in previous Biology courses, and permission of the chair of the Undergraduate Committee and the supervising instructor, obtained at least one month prior to the beginning of the term in which the course is to be elected. The staff.

99. Senior Seminar in Biology

09S, 10S: 2

This course will focus on presentation techniques and critical evaluation of other stu­dents’ research and presentations. Students who have conducted Independent Research will present background information related to their research projects, develop seminars based on their own findings, and receive feedback. All students taking Biology 97 are encouraged to enroll in this course.

Prerequisites: Senior standing and previous or current enrollment in Biology 97. Grotz.

GRADUATE COURSES

110. Scientific Integrity and Research Ethics

08F, 09F: Tu 1:00-3:00

This course is designed to introduce scientific researchers to issues in research ethics. We will emphasize foundational principles underlying scientific integrity and their application to a range of issues including data management, animal and human subjects, collaboration, mentoring, peer review and the ethical implications of different forms of scientific research. Analysis and presentation of case studies will constitute important focal points for discus­sion in class meetings. Dietrich.

120. Advanced Population Ecology

08F: 10A

Described under Biology 51. Ayres.

123. Advanced Community Ecology

09W: 10

Described under Biology 58. McPeek.

125. The Nature and Practice of Science

09S: Arrange

This course compares and contrasts the nature and practice of science across the range of contemporary biological disciplines. Topics include: What is science? What is the structure of scientific knowledge? What are the philosophical, logical, and practical aspects of hypothesis testing? What are intellectual strategies for successful research in biology? What is the role of ethics in science? Format includes readings, exercises, and discussion. Alternate years. Ayres, Dietrich.

128, 129. Statistics and Experimental Design I and II

09W 09S: 12

Described under Biology 29, 59.

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and at least one elementary course in statistics. Cotting­ham, McPeek.

133. Foundations of Ecological and Evolutionary Biology

08F: Arrange

This course is a reading seminar in which graduate students will read and discuss a series of classic papers taken from the primary literature on various topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Each week a set of 2-4 papers will be discussed covering a different major topic. The papers will be chosen to expose students to the foundations of the major ideas and theories. The course will meet one evening per week, and each week a different student will lead this discussion of the assigned papers. Offered in alternate years. Taylor.

139. Computational Molecular Biology

09W: 10A

Described under Biology 39. Gross.

165. Molecular Genetics of Eukaryotes

09F: 2

Described under Biology 65. Grotz.

166. Molecular Basis of Cancer

09W, 10W: 10A

Described under Biology 66. Gladfelter.

169. Supervised Teaching in Biology

All terms: Arrange

This course is required for all graduate students, based on the assertion that an essential element of graduate education is the experience gained in teaching other students. Such teaching experience is of particular relevance to students interested in academic careers. Students will conduct laboratory or discussion sessions in undergraduate courses under the supervision of the course faculty. The faculty and student teaching assistant work very closely to develop lab and discussion assignments. In some cases, the students are encour­aged to present lectures for which they receive detailed feedback on their teaching style. In all cases students will receive instruction on effective teaching techniques through weekly preparation sessions. Topics for discussion include how to teach the material, how to run a discussion, how to evaluate student responses, and grading. Performance will be monitored throughout the term and appropriate evaluation, coupled with detailed suggestions for improvement, will be provided. This course is not open to undergraduates. The staff.

171. Advanced Cell Biology

09S, 10S: 2A

Described under Biology 71. Bickel.

173. Cell Signaling

09S: 10A

Described under Biology 69. Dolph.

175. Genomic Circuitry

10S: 10

Described under Biology 75. Offered in alternate years. Erives.

176. Advanced Genetics

09S: 3A

Described under Biology 76. Berger.

197. Graduate Research I: Level I

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergradu­ate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries one course credit and should be elected by students conducting research and also electing two or more other graduate or undergraduate courses. The staff.

198. Graduate Research I: Level II

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergradu­ate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries two course credits and should be elected by students electing only depart­mental colloquia in addition to research. The staff.

199. Graduate Research I: Level III

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergradu­ate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, prior to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries three course credits and should be elected by students conducting research exclusively in any one term. The staff.

262-270. Graduate Research Colloquium in Biological Sciences

F, W, S: Arrange

This course is required of all students during each term of residence, except summer. An essential element of scientific training is in the critical analysis and communication of experimental research in an oral format. Evaluation will be based on quality of the work described, quality of critical analysis, and on presentation style, including effective use of audiovisual materials. All students will be required to participate in at least one Journal Club/Research in Progress series. Although minor variations in format exist among the sev­eral series, all students will make oral presentations that describe work from the current lit­erature or their own research. Normally these series meet weekly. This course is not open to undergraduates. The staff.

Biology 262, Mechanisms of Evolution and Development

Biology 263, Cell Biology

Biology 264, Complex Adaptive Systems

Biology 265, Microbial Ecology and Environmental Biology

Biology 266, Ecology and Evolution

Biology 268, Genes and Gene Products

Biology 269, Plant Molecular Biology

Biology 270, Computational Biology

271. Research in Progress Colloquium

09S, 10S: Arrange

This course is designed to monitor participation of first year MCB graduate students in the Research in Progress Seminars. The Research in Progress Seminars are presentations by MCB students, second year and older. These Research in Progress Seminars meet five times per month for 1-1.5 hours from September through May. The course will be taken by all first year MCB students in the Spring term, and the course will monitor Research in Progress Seminar participation throughout the first year.

297. Graduate Research II: Level I

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergradu­ate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, sub­sequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries one course credit and should be elected by students conducting research and also electing two or more other graduate or undergraduate courses. The staff.

298. Graduate Research II: Level II

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergradu­ate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, sub­sequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries two course credits and should be elected by students electing only departmental colloquia in addition to research. The staff.

299. Graduate Research II: Level III

All terms: Arrange

An original individual experimental or theoretical investigation beyond the undergradu­ate level in one of the fields of biology. This course is open only to graduate students, sub­sequent to passing their qualifying examination; it may be elected for credit more than once. This course carries three course credits and should be elected by students conducting research exclusively in any one term. The staff.