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|(5) Other scripting languages|
"#!/path/to/program"convention allows any of them to be used as a scripting language to create new commands. Some are highly specialized, and some are much more efficient than the equivalent shell scripts at certain tasks. There is never only one way to perform a function, and often the choice comes down to factors like:
A pattern matching and data (text and numeric) manipulation tool. Predates perl. Installed on all Unix systems. Often used in combination with shell scripts.
The most used scripting language for Web CGI applications and system administration tasks. Perl is harder to learn, and is uusually installed by default now. It is more efficient and has an enormous library of functions available. You could use Perl for almost all scripting tasks, but the syntax is very different to the shell command line
An object-oriented scripting language. Commonly installed by default on modern systems.
Tool Command Language. Another general purpose scripting language. The "tk" component is a scripted interface to standard X-windows graphical components, so the combination is often used to create graphical user interfaces.
Ksh93 can be extended by linking to shared libraries providing additional internal commands. One example of an extended shell is
tkshwhich incorporates Tcl/Tk with ksh and allows generation of scripts using both languages. It can be used for prototyping GUI applications.
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