Lesson 16: Bibliography

The Shaft Graves

[Updated January 2012]

  1. Colloquia, Symposia, and Festschriften
  2. The Shaft Graves at Mycenae: Excavation, Internal Chronology, Ideology, and Social Stratification
  3. The Origins of the Shaft Grave Phenomenon at Mycenae
  4. Iconography
  5. Architecture
  6. Burial Customs
  7. Gold Masks
  8. Seals, Signet Rings, and Scarabs Jewelery
  9. Stelai
  10. Weaponry and Warfare
  11. Ceramics of the Shaft Grave Era
  12. Metal Vessels
  13. Metallmalerei and the Niello Technique
  14. Gold and its Sources
  15. Amber
  16. Faience
  17. Ivory
  18. Furniture and Wood
  19. Physical Anthropology and Genetics
  20. The Shaft Grave Period Elsewhere on the Greek Mainland
  21. External Contacts
  22. Religion
  23. Connections with Homeric Epic
  24. The Arrival of the Greeks in Shaft Grave Times

 Colloquia, Symposia, and Festschriften

J. C. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.), The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited [Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 6] (Oxford 2004).

A. Dakouri-Hild and S. Sherratt (eds.), AUTHOCHTHON: Papers Presented to O. T. P. K. Dickinson on the Occasion of His Retirement [BAR-IS 1432] (Oxford 2005).

P. Darcque and J-C. Poursat (eds.), L’iconographie minoenne [BCH Supplement 11] (Paris 1985).

W. Gauss, M. Lindblom, R. A. K. Smith, and J. C. Wright (eds.), Our Cups Are Full: Pottery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age: Papers Presented to Jeremy B. Rutter on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Oxford 2011).

R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.), The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality (Stockholm 1984).

R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist (eds.), Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm 1990).

R. Laffineur (ed.), THANATOS. Les coutumes funéraires en Égée à l’âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 1] (Liège 1987).

R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989).

R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999).

R. Laffineur and J. L. Crowley (eds.), EIKON: Aegean Bronze Age Iconography: Shaping a Methodology [Aegaeum 8] (Liège 1992).

R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier, POLITEIA: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum 12] (Liège/Austin 1995).

M.-L. B. Nosch and R. Laffineur (eds.), KOSMOS: Jewellery, Adornment and Textiles in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum   ] (Liege/Austin forthcoming)

 

The Shaft Graves at Mycenae: Excavation, Internal Chronology, Ideology, and Social Stratification

 

O. T. P. K. Dickinson, “Schliemann and the Shaft Graves,” Greece and Rome 33(1976) 159-168.

O. T. P. K. Dickinson, The Origins of Mycenaean Civilization (Göteborg 1977).

O. T. P. K. Dickinson, “‘The Origins of Mycenaean Civilization’ Revisited,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 131-136.

O. Dickinson, “Arts and Artefacts in the Shaft Graves: Some Observations,” in R. Laffineur and P. P. Betancourt (eds.), TEXNH: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum 16] (Liège 1997) 45-49.

S. Dietz, “On the Origin of the Mycenaean Civilization: Some Recent Results,” in Studies in Ancient History and Numismatics Presented to Rudi Thomsen (Aarhus 1988) 22-28.

S. Dietz, “The Concept of the Middle Helladic III Period in a Historical Perspective,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 123-129.

S. Dietz, The Argolid at the Transition to the Mycenaean Age: Studies in the Chronology and Cultural Development in the Shaft Grave Period (Copenhagen 1991).

A. J. Evans, The Shaft Graves and Bee-Hive Tombs of Mycenae and their Interrelation (London 1929).

G. Graziadio, “The Chronology of the Graves of Circle B at Mycenae: A New Hypothesis,” AJA 92(1988) 343-372.

G. Graziadio, “The Process of Social Stratification at Mycenae in the Shaft Grave Period: a Comparative Examination of the Evidence,” AJA 95(1991) 403-440.

C. Heitz, Burying the Palaces? Ideologies in the Shaft Grave Period [revised online version of MA thesis, University of Cambridge) http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/propylaeumdok/volltexte/2008/89/pdf/Heitz.pdf

G. Karo, "Die Schachtgräber von Mykenai," AM 40(1915) 113-230.

G. Karo, Die Schachtgräber von Mykenai (Munich 1930).

R. Laffineur, "Le cercle des tombes de Schliemann cent dix ans après," in R. Laffineur (ed.), THANATOS. Les coutumes funéraires en Égée à l'âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 1] (Liège 1987) 117-125.

R. Laffineur, “Mobilier funéraire et hiérarchie sociale aux cercles des tombes de Mycènes,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 227-238.

R. Laffineur, “Grave Circle A at Mycenae: Further Reflections on its History,” in R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist (eds.), Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm 1990) 201-206.

R. Laffineur, “Aspects of Rulership at Mycenae in the Shaft Grave Period,” in P. Rehak (ed.), The Role of the Ruler in the Prehistoric Aegean [Aegaeum 11] (Liège/Austin 1995) 81-94.

J. Maran, “Lost in Translation: The Emergence of Mycenaean Culture as a Phenomenon of Glocalization,” in T. C. Wilkinson, S. Sherratt, and J. Bennet (eds.), Interweaving Worlds: Systemic Interactions in Eurasia, 7th to 1st Millennia BC (Oxford 2011) 282-294.

J. D. Muhly, “On the Shaft Graves at Mycenae,” in M. A. Powell, Jr. and R. H. Sack (eds.), Studies in Honor of Tom B. Jones (Neukirchen-Vluyn 1979) 311-323.

G. E. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (Princeton 1966).

G. E. Mylonas, “Ho pemptos lakkoeides taphos tou kyklou A ton Mykenon,” AE (1969) 125-142.

G. Mylonas, Ho Taphikos Kyklos B ton Mykenon (Athens 1973).

J. B. Rutter, “Review of Aegean Prehistory II: The Prepalatial Bronze Age of the Southern and Central Greek Mainland,” AJA 97(1993) 745-797, esp.785-794.

H. Schliemann, Mycenae (New York 1878).

K. Schuchardt, Schliemann’s Excavations: An Archaeological and Historical Study (London 1891).

I. Strøm, “The So-called Altar above the Shaft Grave IV at Mycenae,” Acta Archaeologica 54(1983) 141-146.

I. Tournavitou, “The Shaft Grave Phenomenon: A Dead End?’” in C. Gillis, C. Risberg, and B. Sjöberg (eds.), Trade and Production in Premonetary Greece: Aspects of Trade [SIMA Pocket-book 134] (Jonsered 1995) 111-123.

S. Voutsaki, “Social and Political Processes in the Mycenaean Argolid: The Evidence from the Mortuary Practices,” in R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier, POLITEIA: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum 12] (Liège/Austin 1995) I: 55-66.

S. Voutsaki, “Mortuary Display, Prestige and Identity in the Shaft Grave Era,” in I. Kilian-Dirlmeier and M. Egg (eds.), Eliten in der Bronzezeit: Ergebnisse zweier Colloquien in Mainz und Athen (Mainz 1999) 103-117.

A. J. B. Wace, “The Grave Circle,” BSA 49(1954) 244-247.

A. Wolpert, “Getting Past Consumption and Competition: Legitimacy and Consensus in the Shaft Graves,” in J. C. Barrett and P. Halstead (eds.), The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited [Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 6] (Oxford 2004) 127-144.

J. C. Wright, “Death and Power at Mycenae: Changing Symbols in Mortuary Practice,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), THANATOS. Les coutumes funéraires en Égée à l’âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 1] (Liège 1987) 171-184.

J. C. Wright, “From Chief to King in Mycenaean Greece,” in P. Rehak (ed.), The Role of the Ruler in the Prehistoric Aegean [Aegaeum 11] (Liège/Austin 1995) 63-80.

A. Xenaki-Sakellariou, “Problèmes chronologiques des tombes du cercle A de Mycènes,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 177-182.

 

The Origins of the Shaft Grave Phenomenon at Mycenae

S. Hiller, “On the Origins of the Shaft Graves,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 137-144.

I. Kilian-Dirlmeier, Alt-Ägina IV,3: Das mittelbronzezeitliche Schachtgrab von Ägina (Mainz 1997).

H. Matthäus, “Minoan Influence on the Greek Mainland during the Sixteenth Century B.C. and the Origins of Mycenaean Civilization,” TUAS 5(1980) 37-44.

O. Pelon, “Origine de la culture des tombes à fosse en Grèce Continentale: données architecturales et rituelles,” Études indo-européennes 11(1985)

S. Penner, Schliemanns Schachtgräberrund und der europäische Nordosten: Studien zur Herkunft der frühmykenischen Streitwagenausstattung [Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 60] (Bonn 1998).

 

Iconography

F. Blakolmer, “The Silver Battle Krater from Shaft Grave IV at Mycenae: Evidence of Fighting ‘Heroes’ on Minoan Palace Walls at Knossos?,” in S. P. Morris and R. Laffineur (eds.), EPOS. Reconsidering Greek Epic and Aegean Bronze Age Archaeology [Aegaeum 28] (Liège/Austin 2007) 213-224.

F. Blakolmer, “The Iconography of the Shaft Grave Period as Evidence for a Middle Helladic Tradition of Figurative Arts?,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 508-519.

S. W. Carter, ‘The Battle of the Glen’ Revisited: A Gold Signet Ring (CMS I 16) of the Aegean Late Bronze Age in its Full Iconographic Context (undergraduate Honors thesis, Dartmouth College 2000).

J. Crouwel, “Pictorial Pottery from Mycenae at the Time of the Shaft Graves,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 155-165.

J. L. Crowley, “Subject Matter in Aegean Art: The Crucial Changes,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 203-214.

S. Hiller, “Scenes of Warfare and Combat in the Arts of Aegean Late Bronze Age. Reflections on Typology and Development,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999) 319-330.

J. T. Hooker, “The Mycenae Siege Rhyton and the Question of Egyptian Influence,” AJA 71(1967) 269-281.

R. Laffineur, “Early Mycenaean Art: Some Evidence from the West House in Thera,” BICS 30(1983) 111-122.

R. Laffineur, “Iconographie mycénienne et symbolisme guerrier,” Art & Fact: Revue des historiens, archéologues et orientalistes de l’Université de Liège 2(1983) 38-49.

R. Laffineur, “Mycenaeans at Thera: Further Evidence?,” in R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.), The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality (Stockholm 1984) 133-139.

R. Laffineur, “Iconographie minoenne et iconographie mycénienne à l’époque des tombes à fosse,” in P. Darcque and J-C. Poursat (eds.), L’iconographie minoenne [BCH Supplement 11] (Paris 1985) 245-266.

R. Laffineur, “Material and Craftsmanship in the Mycenae Shaft Graves: Imports vs. Local Production,” Minos 25-26(1990-91) 245-295.

L. Morgan, “Of Animals and Men: The Symbolic Parallel,” in C. Morris (ed.), KLADOS: Essays in Honour of J. N. Coldstream [BICS Supplement 63] (London 1995) 171-184.

W-D. Niemeier, “Mycenaean Elements in the Miniature Fresco from Thera,” in D. Hardy (ed.), TAW  III:1 (Athens 1990) 37-52.

N. R. Thomas, “The War Animal: Three Days in the Life of the Mycenaean Lion,” in  R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999) 297-311.

N. R. Thomas, “The Early Mycenaean Lion Up to Date,” in A. Chapin (ed.), CHARIS : Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr [Hesperia Supplement 33] (Princeton 2004) 161-206.

E. Vermeule, The Art of the Shaft Graves of Mycenae (Norman 1975).

A. Xenaki-Sakellariou, “Identité minoenne et identité mycénienne à travers les compositions figuratives,” in P. Darcque and J-C. Poursat (eds.), L’iconographie minoenne [BCH Supplement 11] (Paris 1985) 293-309.

 

Architecture

C. Bolger, “Erbauung und Zerstörung des mykenischen Plattenringes,” JdI 10(1895) 114-127.

O. T. P. K. Dickinson, “Cist Graves and Chamber Tombs,” BSA 78(1983) 55-67.

R. D. Fitzsimons, “Monumental Architecture and the Construction of the Mycenaean State,” in N. Terrenato and D. C. Haggis (eds.), State Formation in Italy and Greece: Questioning the Neoevolutionist Paradigm (Oxford 2011) 75-118.

E. French, “‘Dynamis’ in the Archaeological Record at Mycenae,” in M. M. Mackenzie and C. Roueché (eds.), Images of Authority: Papers Presented to Joyce Reynolds on the Occasion of Her 70th Birthday (Cambridge 1989) 122-130.

C. Gates, “Rethinking the Building History of Grave Circle A at Mycenae,” AJA 89(1985) 263-274.

O. Pelon, Tholoi, tumuli et cercles funéraires (Paris 1976).

O. Pelon, “Origine de la culture des tombes à fosse en Grèce Continentale: données architecturales et rituelles,” Études indo-européennes 11(1985)

O. Pelon, “L’architecture funéraire de Grèce continentale à la transition du Bronze moyen et du Bronze récent,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Thanatos. Les coutumes funéraires en Égée à l’âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 1] (Liège 1987) 107-116.

O. Pelon, “Les tombes à fosse de Mycènes: rupture ou continuité?,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 367-376.

V. P. Petrakis, “Diversity in Form and Practice in Middle Helladic and Early Mycenaean Elaborate Tombs: An Approach to Changing Prestige Expression in Changing Times,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 403-416.

E. Protonotariou-Deïlaki, “The Tumuli of Mycenae and Dendra,” in R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist (eds.), Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm 1990) 85-106.

I. Strøm, “The So-called Altar above the Shaft Grave IV at Mycenae,” Acta Archaeologica 54(1983) 141-146.

A. J. B. Wace, “The Grave Circle,” BSA 49(1954) 244-247.

 

Burial Customs

R. S. Fox, “Vessels and the Body in Early Mycenaean Funerary Contexts,” in H. Cavanagh, W. Cavanagh, and J. Roy (eds.), Honouring the Dead in the Peloponnese (Nottingham 2011) 71-82.

M. Pomadère, “De l’indifférenciation à la discrimination spatiale des sepultures? Variété des comportements à l’égard des enfants morts pendant l’HM-HR I,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 417-429.

E. Protonotariou-Deïlaki, “Burial Customs and Funerary Rites in the Prehistoric Argolid,” in R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist (eds.), Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm 1990) 69-83.

S. Voutsaki, “Social and Political Processes in the Mycenaean Argolid: The Evidence from the Mortuary Practices,” in R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier, POLITEIA: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum 12] (Liège/Austin 1995) I: 55-66.

S. Voutsaki, “Mortuary Display, Prestige and Identity in the Shaft Grave Era,” in I. Kilian-Dirlmeier and M. Egg (eds.), Eliten in der Bronzezeit: Ergebnisse zweier Colloquien in Mainz und Athen (Mainz 1999) 103-117.

C. Zerner, “Ceramics and Ceremony: Pottery and Burials from Lerna in the Middle and Early Late Bronze Ages,” in R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist (eds.), Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm 1990) 23-34.

 

Gold Masks

W. Arentzen, “An Early Examination of the ‘Mask of Agamemnon’,” AntCl 70(2001) 189-192.

W. Calder, “Is the Mask a Hoax? Nine Reasons to be Skeptical,” Archaeology 52(1999) 53-55.

K. Demakopoulou, “The Case for Authenticity: Why Calder and Traill Are Wrong,” Archaeology 52(1999) 57-58.

O. Dickinson, “The ‘Face of Agamemnon’,” Hesperia 74(2005) 299-308.

G. Kopcke, “Zum Stil der Schachtgräbermasken,” AM 91(1976) 1-13.

T. Mühlenbruch, “Noch einmal zur ‘Maske der Agamemnon’,” Heinrich-Schliemann-Gesellschaft Ankershagen Informationsblatt 15(2003) 48-50.

D. Traill, “Insistent Questions: A Simple Test Could Resolve the Matter,” Archaeology 52(1999) 55-56.

R. Witte, “Die ‘Maske des Agamemnon’ oder Erkenntnisgewinn durch Diskussion,” ˆHeinrich-Schliemann-Gesellschaft Ankershagen Informationsblatt 12(2000) 22-24.

 

Seals, Signet Rings, and Scarabs

J. H. Betts, “The Seal from Shaft Grave Gamma: A ‘Mycenaean Chieftain’?,” TUAS 6(1981) 2-8.

N. Boufides, “A Scarab from Grave Circle B of Mycenae,” AAA 3(1970) 273-274.

S. W. Carter, ‘The Battle of the Glen’ Revisited: A Gold Signet Ring (CMS I 16) of the Aegean Late Bronze Age in its Full Iconographic Context (undergraduate Honors thesis, Dartmouth College 2000).

G. T. Martin, “The Lapis Lazuli Scarab from Grave Circle B at Mycenae,” in E. Czerny, I. Hein, H. Hunger, D. Melman, and A. Schwab (eds.), Timelines: Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak (Leuven 2006) II: 191-196.

V. Stürmer, “Zur Ikonographie des Kampfes auf dem Siegelring, CMS I, no. 16,” Opuscula Atheniensia 14(1982) 111-118.

 

Jewelery

I. Kilian-Dirlmeier, “Beobachtungen zu den Schachtgräbern von Mykenai und zu den Schmuckbeigaben mykenischer Männergräber,” JRGZM 33(1986) 159-198.

I. Kilian-Dirlmeier, “Jewelry in Minoan and Mycenaean ‘Warrior-Graves’.” in E. French and K. A. Wardle (eds.), Problems in Aegean Prehistory (Bristol 1988) 161-171.

B. Kling, “Evidence for Local Style on the Shaft Grave Diadems,” TUAS 6(1981) 29-38.

R. Laffineur, “À propos des ‘Gamaschenhalter’ des tombes à fosse de Mycènes,” in E. De Miro, L. Godart, and A. Sacconi (eds.), Atti e memorie del secondo congresso internazionale di micenologia [Incunabula Graeca 98] (Rome 1996)  III: 1229-1238.

 

Stelai

W. A. Heurtley, “The Grave Stelai,” BSA 25(1921-23) 126-146.

G. Kopcke, “Treasure and Aesthetic Sensibility – the Question of the Shaft Grave Stelai,” TUAS 6(1981) 39-45.

G. E. Mylonas, “The Figured Mycenaean Stelai,” AJA 55(1951) 134-147.

W. Reichel, “Die mykenischen Grabstelen,” Eranos Vindobonensis (Vienna 1893) 24-33.

J. G. Younger, “The Stelai of Mycenae Grave Circles A and B,” in R. Laffineur and P. P. Betancourt (eds.), TEXNH: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum 16] (Liège 1997) 229-239.

 

Weaponry and Warfare

P. Acheson, “The Role of Force in the Development of Early Mycenaean Polities,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999) 97-104.’,”

T. Bader, “Neue Beiträge zu den mykenischen Schwerter von Typ A aus Rumänien,” Zeitschrift für Archäologie 20(1986) 1-15.

C. W. Blegen, “The ‘Halberd’ from the Sixth Shaft Grave,” in Epitymbion Chr. Tsounta (Athens 1941) 423-428.

E. Borgna, L’arco e le frecce nel mondo miceneo (Rome 1992).

S. W. Carter, ‘The Battle of the Glen’ Revisited: A Gold Signet Ring (CMS I 16) of the Aegean Late Bronze Age in its Full Iconographic Context (undergraduate Honors thesis, Dartmouth College 2000).

J. H. Crouwel, Chariots and Other Means of Land Transport in Bronze Age Greece (Amsterdam 1981).

S. Deger-Jalkotzy, “Military Prowess and Social Status in Mycenaean Greece,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999) 121-131.

M.H. Feldman and C. Sauvage, “Objects of Prestige? Chariots in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean and Near East,” Ägypten und Levante 20(2010) 67-181.

C. R. Floyd, “Observations on a Minoan Dagger from Chrysokamino,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999) 433-442.

A. Harding, “Horse-Harness and the Origins of Mycenaean Civilisation,” in A. Dakouri-Hild and S. Sherratt (eds.), AUTHOCHTHON: Papers Presented to O. T. P. K. Dickinson on the Occasion of His Retirement [BAR-IS 1432] (Oxford 2005) 296-300.

K. M. Harrell, Mycenaean Ways of War: The Past, Politics and Personhood (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Sheffield 2009).

K. M. Harrell, “The Weapon’s Beauty: A Reconsideration of the Ornamentation of the Shaft Grave Swords,” in M.-L. B. Nosch and R. Laffineur (eds.), KOSMOS: Jewellery, Adornment and Textiles in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum   ] (Liege/Austin forthcoming)

S. Hood, “Shaft Grave Swords: Mycenaean or Minoan?,” Pepragmena tou DDiethnous Kretologikou Synedriou (Athens 1980) I: 234-237.

G. S. Korres, “H megaloprepeia ton mykenaïkon kranon,” AAA 2(1969) 446-462.

R. Laffineur, “Iconographie mycénienne et symbolisme guerrier,” Art & Fact: Revue des historiens, archéologues et orientalistes de l’Université de Liège 2(1983) 38-49.

R. Laffineur, “Mycenaeans at Thera: Further Evidence?,” in R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.), The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality (Stockholm 1984) 133-139.

M. A. Littauer, “The Military Use of Chariots in the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age,” AJA 76(1972) 145-157.

M. A. Littauer and J. Crouwel, “Evidence for Horse Bits from Shaft Grave IV at Mycenae?,” PZ 48(1973) 207-213.

T. J. Papadopoulos, “The Greek Mainland and its Aegean Neighbors during the Transitional Period from MBA to LBA: The Evidence of Metalwork,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 183-189.

S. Penner, Schliemanns Schachtgräberrund und der europäische Nordosten: Studien zur Herkunft der frühmykenischen Streitwagenausstattung [Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 60] (Bonn 1998).

S. Piggott, The Earliest Wheeled Transport: from the Atlantic to the Caspian (Ithaca 1983).

J.-C. Poursat, “Les armes en Égée au Bronze Moyen: Quelques remarques,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Égée à l’Âge du Bronze [Aegaeum 19] (Liège/Austin 1999) 427-431.

A. Sakellariou, “Un cratère d’argent avec scène de bataille provenant de la IVe tombe de l’acropole de Mycènes,” Antike Kunst 17(1974) 3-20.

A. Sakellariou, “La scène du “siège” sur le rhyton d’argent de Mycènes d’après une nouvelle reconstitution,” RA (1975) 195-208.

N. K. Sandars, “The First Aegean Swords and their Ancestry,” AJA 65(1961) 18-29.

V. Stürmer, “Zur Ikonographie des Kampfes auf dem Siegelring, CMS I, no. 16,” Opuscula Atheniensia 14(1982) 111-118.

A. Târlea, “Playing by the Rules: Swords and Swordfighters in the Mycenaean Society,” Dacia 48-49(2004-05) 125-150.

J. R. Weinstein, “Hafting Methods on Type B Swords and Daggers,” TUAS 6(1981) 48-55.

J. Whitley, “Objects with Attitude: Biographical Facts and Fallacies in the Study of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Warrior Graves,” CAJ 12(2002) 217-232.

A. Xenaki-Sakellariou, “Poignées ouvragées d’épées et poignards,” in Aux origines de l’hellénisme (Paris 1984) 129-137.

 

Ceramics of the Shaft Grave Era   [see also “Early Mycenaean Pottery” in Lesson 19]

J. Crouwel, “Pictorial Pottery from Mycenae at the Time of the Shaft Graves,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 155-165.

J. L. Davis, “Polychrome Bird Jugs. A Note,” AAA 9(1976) 81-83.

J. L. Davis, “Brauron and Keos in the Shaft Grave Period,” AAA 10(1977) 270-272.

J. L. Davis, “The Mainland Panel Cup and Panelled Style,” AJA 82(1978) 216-222.

J. L. Davis, “LH I Pottery from Korakou,” Hesperia 48(1979) 234-259.

S. Dietz, The Argolid at the Transition to the Mycenaean Age: Studies in the Chronology and Cultural Development in the Shaft Grave Period (Copenhagen 1991).

J. L. Kramer, Analysis and Classification of the Late Helladic I Pottery in the Northeastern Peloponnese of Greece (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cincinnati 2004).

A. Mathioudaki, E ‘Epeirotike Polychrome’ Kerameike sten Epeirotike Ellada kai to Aigaio (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Athens 2010).

I. Mathioudaki, “’Mainland Polychrome’ Pottery: Definition, Chronology, Typological Correlations,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 621-633.

I. Mathioudaki, “Honouring the Dead with Polychrome Pots: The Case of Mainland Polychrome Pottery in Peloponnesian Funerary Contexts (An Interpretative Approach),” in H. Cavanagh, W. Cavanagh, and J. Roy (eds.), Honouring the Dead in the Peloponnese (Nottingham 2011) 459-466.

J. C. Overbeck, “The Middle Helladic Origin of ‘Shaft-Grave Polychrome’ Ware,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 615-619.

J. B. Rutter, “A Ceramic Definition of Late Helladic I from Tsoungiza,” Hydra 6(1989) 1-19.

J. B. and S. H. Rutter, The Transition to Mycenaean: a Stratified Middle Helladic II to Late Helladic IIA Pottery Sequence from Ayios Stephanos in Lakonia (Los Angeles 1976).

C. Zerner, “Ceramics and Ceremony: Pottery and Burials from Lerna in the Middle and Early Late Bronze Ages,” in R. Hägg and G. C. Nordquist (eds.), Celebrations of Death and Divinity in the Bronze Age Argolid (Stockholm 1990) 23-34.

 

Metal Vessels

E. N. Davis, The Vapheio Cups and Aegean Gold and Silver Ware (New York 1977).

J. T. Hooker, “The Mycenae Siege Rhyton and the Question of Egyptian Influence,” AJA 71(1967) 269-281.

R. B. Koehl, “The Silver Stag ‘BIBRU’ from Mycenae,” in J. B. Carter and S. P. Morris (eds.), The Ages of Homer: A Tribute to Emily Townsend Vermeule (Austin 1995)  61-66.

R. Laffineur, “Réflexions sur le trésor de Tod,” Aegaeum 2 (Liège 1988) 17-30.

N. W. Leinwand, “A Ladle from Shaft Grave III at Mycenae,” AJA 84(1980) 519-521.

J. Maran, “Die Silbergefässe von el-Tod und die Schachtgräberzeit auf dem griechischen Festland,” PZ 62(1987) 221-227.

H. Matthäus, Die Bronzegefässe der kretisch-mykenischen Kultur  [Prähistorische Bronzefunde II,1] (Munich 1980).

T. G. Palaima, “The Inscribed Bronze ‘Kessel’ from Shaft Grave IV and Cretan Heirlooms of the Bronze Artist Named ‘Aigeus’ vel sim. in the Mycenaean Palatial Period,” Cretan Studies 9(2003) 187-201.

A. Sakellariou, “Un cratère d’argent avec scène de bataille provenant de la IVe tombe de l’acropole de Mycènes,” Antike Kunst 17(1974) 3-20.

A. Sakellariou, “La scène du “siège” sur le rhyton d’argent de Mycènes d’après une nouvelle reconstitution,” RA (1975) 195-208.

 

Metallmalerei and the Niello Technique

E. N. Davis, “Metal Inlaying in Minoan and Mycenaean Art,” TUAS 1(1976) 3-6.

K. Demakopoulou, E. Mangou, R. E. Jones, and E. Photos-Jones, “Mycenaean Black Inlaid Metalware in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens: A Technical Examination,” BSA 90(1995) 137-154.

A. Xenaki-Sakellariou and C. Chatziliou, ‘Peinture en métal’ à l’époque mycénienne (Athens 1989).

 

Gold and its Sources

W. David, “Gold and Bone Artefacts as Evidence of Mutual Contact Between the Aegean, the Carpathian Basin, and Southern Germany in the Second Millennium B.C.,” in I. Galanaki, H. Tomas, Y. Galanakis & R. Laffineur (eds.), Between the Aegean and Baltic Seas. Prehistory Across Borders (Liège/Austin 2007) 411-420.

E. Davis, “The Gold of the Shaft Graves: the Transylvanian Connection,” TUAS 8(1983) 32-38.

A. Hartmann, “Die Goldsorten des Äneolithikums und der Frühbronzezeit im Donauraum,” Studia Praehistorica 1-2(1978) 182-191.

A. Hartmann, Prähistorische Goldfunde aus Europa II: spektralanalytische Untersuchung und deren Auswertung (Berlin 1982).

J. Muhly, “Gold Analysis and Sources of Gold in the Bronze Age,” TUAS 8(1983) 1-14.

A. Xenaki-Sakellariou, “E chrysokentrese ste mykenaïke epoche,” Archaiognosia 3(1982) 29-39.

 

Amber

A. Harding and H. Hughes-Brock, “Amber in the Mycenaean World,” BSA 69(1974) 145-172.

H. Hughes-Brock, “Amber and the Mycenaeans,” Journal of Baltic Studies 16:3(1985) 257-267.

H. Hughes-Brock, “Amber in the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age: Some Problems and Perspectives,” in C. W. Beck and J. Bouzek (eds.), Amber in Archaeology (Prague 1993) 219-229.

J. Maran, “Wessex und Mykene. Zur Deutung des Bernsteins in der Schachtgräberzeit Südgriechenlands,” in B. Hänsel and E. Studenikova (eds.), Zwischen Karpaten und Ägäis: Neolithikum und Ältere Bronzezeit [Gedenkschrift für Viera Nemejcova-Pavukova] (Rahden 2004) 47-65.

 

Faience

K. P. Foster, “Faience from the Shaft Graves,” TUAS 6(1981) 9-16.

Ivory

J-C. Poursat, Les ivoires mycéniens: essai sur la formation d’un art mycénien (Paris 1977).

J-C. Poursat, Catalogue des ivoires mycéniens du Musée National d’Athènes (Paris 1977).

I. Sakellarakis, To elephantodonto kai e katergasia tou sta mykenaïka chronia (Athens 1979).

J. G. Velsink, “The Ivories from the Shaft Graves at Mycenae,” BABesch 78(2003) 1-33.

 

Furniture and Wood

P. Muhly, “Furniture from the Shaft Graves: the Occurrence of Wood in Aegean Burials in the Bronze Age,” BSA 91(1996) 197-211.

 

Physical Anthropology and Genetics

A. Bouwman, K. Brown, and J. Prag, “Middle Helladic Kinship: Families, Faces and DNA at Mycenae,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 453-459.

A. S. Bouwman, K. A. Brown, A. J. N. W. Prag, and T. A. Brown, “Kinship between Burials from Grave Circle B at Mycenae Revealed by Ancient DNA Typing,” JAS 35(2008) 2580-2584.

T. A. Brown, K. A. Brown, C. E. Flaherty, L. M. Little, and A. J. N. W. Prag, “DNA-Analysis of Bones from Grave Circle B at Mycenae: A First Report,” BSA 95(2000) 115-119.

J. H. Musgrave, R. A. H. Neave, and A. J. N. W. Prag, “Seven Faces from Grave Circle B at Mycenae,” BSA 90(1995) 107-136.

A. Nafplioti, “Mycenae Revisited Part 2. Exploring the Local versus Non-Local Geographical Origin of the Individuals from Grave Circle A: Evidence from Strontium Isotope Ratio (87Sr/86Sr) Analysis,” BSA 104(2009) 279-291.

I. Papazoglou-Manioudaki, A. Nafplioti, J. H. Musgrave, and A. J. N. W. Prag, “Mycenae Revisited Part 3. The Human Remains from Grave Circle A: Behind the Masks: A Study of the Bones of Shaft Graves I-V,” BSA 105(2010) 157-224.

I. Papazoglou-Manioudaki, A. Nafplioti, J. H. Musgrave, R. A. H. Neave, D. Smith, and A. J. N. W. Prag, “Mycenae Revisited Part 1. The Human Remains from Grave Circle A: Stamatakis, Schliemann and Two New Faces from Shaft Grave VI,” BSA 104(2009) 233-277.

 

The Shaft Grave Period Elsewhere on the Greek Mainland

S. Dietz and M. Stavropoulou-Gatsi, “Pagona and the Transition from Middle Helladic to Mycenaean in Northwestern Peloponnese,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 121-128.

S. Iakovidis, “Royal Shaft Graves Outside Mycenae,” TUAS 6(1981) 17-28.

W. A. McDonald and N. C. Wilkie (eds.), Excavations at Nichoria in Southwest Greece II: The Bronze Age Occupation (Minneapolis 1992).

M. Kasimi-Soutou, “Mesoelladikos taphos polemiste apo te Theba,” AD 35A(1980) [1986] 88-101.

M. Lindblom, “Early Mycenaean Mortuary Meals at Lerna VI with Special Emphasis on their Aeginetan Components,” in F. Felten, W. Gauss, and R. Smetana (eds.), Middle Helladic Pottery and Synchronisms [Agina-Kolonna Forschungen und Ergebnisse I] (Vienna 2007) 115-135.

M. Lindblom and S. Manning, “The Chronology of the Lerna Shaft Graves,” in W. Gauss, M. Lindblom, R. A. K. Smith, and J. C. Wright (eds.), Our Cups Are Full: Pottery and Society in the Aegean Bronze Age (Oxford 2011) 140-153.

Y. Lolos, “The Tholos Tomb at Koryphasion: Evidence for the Transition from Middle to Late Helladic in Messenia,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 171-175.

J. Maran, “Zur Zeitstellung der Grabhügel von Marmara,” Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 18(1988) 341-355.

J. Maran, “Structural Changes in the Pattern of Settlement during the Shaft Grave Period on the Greek Mainland,” in R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier, POLITEIA: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age [Aegaeum 12] (Liège/Austin 1995) I: 67-72.

L. Phialon, “Funerary Practices in Central Greece from the Middle Helladic into the Early Mycenaean Period,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 397-402.

L. Phialon, L’émergence de la civilisation mycénienne en Grèce centrale [Aegaeum 32] (Liège/Austin 2011).

J. B. Rutter, “A Ceramic Definition of Late Helladic I from Tsoungiza,” Hydra 6(1989) 1-19.

J. B. and S. H. Rutter, The Transition to Mycenaean: a Stratified Middle Helladic II to Late Helladic IIA Pottery Sequence from Ayios Stephanos in Lakonia (Los Angeles 1976).

G. Touchais, “Le passage du Bronze Moyen au Bronze Récent en Grèce continentale: état de la question,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989)113-121.

E. Zabbou, “Evremata tes mesoelladikes kai tes proïmes mykenaïkes epoches apo te Sparte kai te Lakonia,” in A. Philippa-Touchais, G. Touchais, S. Voutsaki, and J. Wright (eds.), MESOHELLADIKA: The Greek Mainland in the Middle Bronze Age [BCH Supplement 52] (Paris 2010) 87-99.

 

External Contacts

W. David, “Gold and Bone Artefacts as Evidence of Mutual Contact Between the Aegean, the Carpathian Basin, and Southern Germany in the Second Millennium B.C.,” in I. Galanaki, H. Tomas, Y. Galanakis & R. Laffineur (eds.), Between the Aegean and Baltic Seas. Prehistory Across Borders (Liège/Austin 2007) 411-420.

E. Davis, “The Gold of the Shaft Graves: the Transylvanian Connection,” TUAS 8(1983) 32-38.

O. T. P. K. Dickinson, “Cretan Contacts with the Mainland during the Period of the Shaft Graves,” in R. Hägg and N. Marinatos (eds.), The Minoan Thalassocracy: Myth and Reality (Stockholm 1984) 115-118.

S. Dietz, “Some Notes on the Pattern of Foreign Influence in the B-Circle at Mycenae (The Ceramic Evidence), Kolloquium zur ägäischen Vorgeschichte, Mannheim, 20.-22.2.1986 [Schriften des deutschen Archäologen-Verbandes 9] (1987) 113-119.

S. Dietz, “The Cyclades and the Mainland in the Shaft Grave Period – A Summary,” Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens 2(1998) 9-36.

G. Graziadio, “Trade Circuits and Trade-routes in the Shaft Grave Period,” SMEA 40(1998) 29-76.

S. Hiller, “Die Schachtgräber von Mykene in ägyptischem Kontext,” Minos 29-30(1994-95) 7-31.

J. T. Hooker, “The Mycenae Siege Rhyton and the Question of Egyptian Influence,” AJA 71(1967) 269-281.

R. Laffineur, “Material and Craftsmanship in the Mycenae Shaft Graves: Imports vs. Local Production,” Minos 25-26(1990-91) 245-295.

J. Maran, “Wessex und Mykene. Zur Deutung des Bernsteins in der Schachtgräberzeit Südgriechenlands,” in B. Hänsel and E. Studenikova (eds.), Zwischen Karpaten und Ägäis: Neolithikum und Ältere Bronzezeit [Gedenkschrift für Viera Nemejcova-Pavukova] (Rahden 2004) 47-65.

H. Matthäus, “Minoan Influence on the Greek Mainland during the Sixteenth Century B.C. and the Origins of Mycenaean Civilization,” TUAS 5(1980) 37-44.

H. Matthäus, “Mykenai, der mittlere Donauraum während des Hajdusamson-Horizontes und der Schatz von Vakitran,” in J. G. P. Best and N. M. W. de Vries (eds.), Thracians and Mycenaeans (Leiden 1989)    .

S. Penner, Schliemanns Schachtgräberrund und der europäische Nordosten: Studien zur Herkunft der frühmykenischen Streitwagenausstattung [Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 60] (Bonn 1998).

Religion

J. van Leuven, “The Religion of the Shaft Grave Folk,” in R. Laffineur (ed.), Transition. Le monde égéen du Bronze moyen au Bronze récent [Aegaeum 3] (Liège 1989) 191-201.

 

Connections with Homeric Epic

C. Belger, Die mykenische Lokalsage von den Gräbern Agamemnons und der Seinen im Zusammenhange der griechischen Sagenentwicklung (Berlin 1893).

C. S. Colburn, “The Symbolic Significance of Distance in the Homeric Epics and the Bronze Age Aegean,” in S. P. Morris and R. Laffineur (eds.), EPOS. Reconsidering Greek Epic and Aegean Bronze Age Archaeology [Aegaeum 28] (Liège/Austin 2007) 203-211.

 

The Arrival of the Greeks in Shaft Grave Times

O. Dickinson, “Invasion, Migration and the Shaft Graves,” BICS 43(1999) 97-107.

R. Drews, The Coming of the Greeks: Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East (Princeton 1988), esp. 158-196.

J. D. Muhly, “On the Shaft Graves at Mycenae,” in M. A. Powell, Jr. and R. H. Sack (eds.), Studies in Honor of Tom B. Jones (Neukirchen-Vluyn 1979) 311-323.

W. F. Wyatt, Jr., “The Indo-Europeanization of Greece,” in G. Cardona, H. M. Hoenigswald, and A. Senn (eds.), Indo-European and Indo-Europeans (Philadelphia 1970) 89-111.

W. F. Wyatt, Jr., “The Prehistory of the Greek Dialects,” TAPA 101(1970) 557-632.

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