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Powder Diffraction of X-rays

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Points of Emphasis

Prerequisites

Lab Activities

The students study the structure of a solid solution of salts (KCl and KBr) using the powder method. Specifically, they investigate how the lattice constant depends on the composition of the KCL-KBr binary system.

Course Level

Student Handouts

Equipment

Number of set-ups available: 20

Per lab station:

Materials needed to make the samples:

1 bunsen burner/gas supply
1 tripod stand with wire crucible holder
1 pair of tongs
1 morter and pestle
1 Mettler balance
weighing paper
small crucibles (~7 per student)
small sample bottles (~7 per student)
solid glass rods (~6 per student; ~ 5 mm in diameter)
chemical spoons (1 for each chemical plus some extra)
potassium bromide
potassium chloride
Duco cement (1 tube)
matches
safety glasses (1 per student)

Materials needed to prepare and develop film:

1 film cutter and puncher
1 metal can with plastic box to hold new film
1 35 mm developing tank
No-Screen X-Ray film
GBX Developer and Replenisher
GBX Fixer and Replenisher
2 gallon bottles to hold developer and fixer
2 quart bottles to hold smaller quanities of developer and fixer
2 larg funnels
1 500 ml graduated cylinder
1 Kodak measuring container
1 thermometer

Materials need to take and analyze picture:

1 Phillips X-Ray machine/copper target
1 Debye-Scherrer camera with O-ring drive belt
1 film analyzer
film badges (1 per student)
X-ray log sheets
Apparatus

Materials for making the samples.


Apparatus

X-ray source and camera.


Apparatus

Film development and analysis materials.

Notes


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