Fig. 2.4. Representative canopy photographs used to compare the extent of canopy closure within and among stands of mature red pine at Itasca. Images were collected with an 8 mm fish-eye lens and digitally analyzed (Canham 1988). Left image, taken near tree 68 at site 7, yielded a gap light index of 54%. Right image, taken near tree 52 at site 6, yielded a gap light index of 32%.
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