How and Why Economies Develop and Grow: Lessons from Preindustrial
Europe and China


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1. A theory of economic progress

Section 1: Production

2. Expansion of the market

3. The reorganization of production

4. Technological progress

5. The agents of economic progress: merchants and cities

Section 2: Commerce

6. Commerce as an economic activity

7. The development of commerce

8. The payments system

9. Financing production, commerce and predation

Section 3: Predation and Government

10. Predation and government as economic activities

11. The evolution of government

12. Government and economic progress

Section 4: China

13. The nature of government

14. Government and the economy

15. Commerce

16. Production

17. Conclusion