Introduction. The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (TKM) tries to be several things at once—a closely argued and authoritatively supported treatise in political science, a polemical pamphlet, and an essay in biblical interpretation. In her recent The Life of John Milton, Barbara Lewalski describes its various generic elements: "Several elements are intertwined here, somewhat disjointedly: castigation of backsliding Presbyterians, rhetorical appeals to the fragmenting revolutionary parties, defenses of tyrannicide, and development of a republican political theory derived from classical and contemporary sources, and the Bible" (230). For all of its claims to be chiefly a work of theory, there's much to be gained from reading it as an occasional piece, prompted by one of England's most important political emergencies.

By December 1648, King Charles I's royalist forces had been utterly defeated by the Parliamentary Army led by Generals Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell. Attempts to come to some compromise with the King had all failed and there was very good reason to suspect that the King and his agents were negotiating (when they agreed to negotiate at all) in bad faith. Still, many in Parliament, including some Presbyterians who had supported war against the king for nearly seven years, balked at the idea of trying King Charles I for treason, and deposing and executing him. Milton argues that these procedures, however radical they may appear, are nothing more than the logical and necessary extension of having waged a just war on a tyrant who remains unrepentant and a danger to the commonwealth.

On the sixth of December, 1648, Colonel Thomas Pride led troops into the House of Commons and forcibly ejected royalist and Presbyterian supporters of rapprochement with the King. The remaining members, known as the Rump Parliament empowered a commision to try the king for treason; it found him guilty and deposed and executed him on January 30, 1649. Milton wrote TKM at this moment in support of the Rump and the Army. Though he argues forcefully for the right of a people to re-assume its natural and God-given right of popular sovereignty, he never addresses the crucial issue of whether the Rump or the Army that shaped it could justly be said to represent the sovereignty of a free-born people. By March, Milton had been appointed to a post—Secretary for Foreign Tongues—in the new commonwealth government shorn of the king (though not entirely of monarchy) and the House of Lords.

The first edition of TKM is dated 1649 on its title page and runs to forty-two quarto pages. The second edition runs to sixty quarto pages, adding a number of quotations, paraphrases, and citations from Protestant authors, continental, English, and Scottish. Some second edition copies are dated 1649 and some 1650. The Julian Calendar, which sets the new year on March 25, and the Gregorian Calendar, promulgated by a papal bull of 1582, were variously used by English printers well into the seventeenth century. For this edition I have followed the second edition, specifically the Harvard University Library's copy (Wing M2183) from Early English Books Online. For more information on early editions, see Merritt Y. Hughes preface to TKM in the Yale Complete Prose volume 3 (185-88); and John T. Shawcross, "Milton's Tenure of Kings and Magistrates: Date of Composition, Editions, and Issues." Thomas H. Luxon

The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. The complete title from the 1650 edition is "The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates: Proving, That it is Lawfull, and hath been held so through all Ages, for any, who have the Power, to call to account a Tyrant,or wicked King, and after due conviction, to depose, and put him to death; if the ordinary Magistrate have neglected, or deny'd to doe it. And that they, who of late so much blame Deposing, are the Men that did it themselves. Published now the second time with some additions, and many Testimonies also added out of the best & learnedest among Protestant Divines asserting the position of this book."

double tyrannie. On the "inward vitious rule" of "blind affections from within," see Paradise Lost 12.83-96 where the archangel Michael locates the blame for tyrannical oppression in the fallen soul, both victim and culprit.

Custom. By capitalizing the word, Milton appears almost ready to personify Custom as he did in the opening address "To Parlament" in The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (1644).

offended. Attacked.

naturally servile. That some beings -- women, slaves and animals in particular -- are naturally inferior to others and therefore naturally serve their superiors, Aristotle argues at some length in his Politics 1254b-1255a.

That doe the worke of the Lord negligently. Milton's printed marginal note refers readers to "Jer. 48. 19," but that is probably a missprint for Jeremiah 48.10: "Cursed be he that doeth the work of the LORD deceitfully, and cursed be he that keepeth back his sword from blood." Thus Milton implies that those Presbyterians who had made war on King Charles I but stopped short of trying and executing him are like the Moabites Jeremiah curses. See the Encyclopedia Britannica article on Oliver Cromwell and Henry Ireton.

these men. The Presbyterian leaders in Parliament.

palter'd. Equivocated.

Faction. The faction or party Milton refers to is the Presbyterian leadership in Parliament. They were prepared to come to terms with King Charles I if only he would agree to establish Presyterianism in England as it had been established in Scotland. Indeed, in the Engagement of December 26, 1648, Charles had promised (under pressure) the Scottish Commissioners that Presbyterianism would be established for three years and that he would suppress Independency. Milton regarded this as treachery against the republican cause and against those independents who helped Parliament win the civil war.

he toward whom they boasted thir new fidelitie. That is, King Charles I, who boasted to others that his promises to establish Presbyterianism and suppress Independency were but pretenses to buy him time.

Traytors death. That is to say that given half a chance King Charles would have hanged the Presbyterian leaders as traitors along with the Independents who helped them defeat the King's forces.

Vulgar and irrational men. Compare this to the Chorus's attitude towards the masses in Samson Agonistes 667-686.

gibrish Lawes. Milton shared the Levellers contempt for the Norman laws which he regarded as corruptions of the more pure and fundamental laws of Saint Edward. Law French as used in English courts of the day might well have sounded like gibberish to many.

Nero. Often used as an example of the worst sort of tyrant, Nero was emperor of Rome from 37-68 CE.

cruelties. See Proverbs 12:10.

Agag. The Amalekite king whom the prophet Samuel, according to 1 Samuel 15:33, hewed "in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal."

Jonathans. According to 1 Samuel 14, Jonathan, Saul's son and famed friend of David, defeated the Philistines.

unnecessariest clause. The clause under dispute engaged those taking the oath to "preserve and defend the King's Majesty's person and authority, in the preservation and defense of the true Religion and Liberties of the Kingdoms; that the world may bear witness with our consciences of our loyalty, and that we have no thoughts or intentions to diminish his Majesty's just power and greatness" (Complete Prose Works 3.194 note).

thir Covnant. Milton refers to the Solemn League and Covenant ratified by Parliament in 1642 and by the Scottish parliament in 1643, and makes special mention of paragraph III.

voice. Vocal support, or perhaps even vote.

presidents. Precedents.

startle. To swerve, deviate from a purpose (OED2).

immediat Revelation. That is to say, unmediated or direct revelation from God. Perhaps Milton means something like the "intimate impulse" and inward "rouzing motion" he describes Samson as experiencing in Samson Agonistes 221-22 and 1382-83. Apart from such direct revelation, Justice and Victory are the supreme warrants for the exercise of supreme power. Such notions sort well with classic republicanism, but hardly with modern notions of democracy.

memento's. Milton refers somewhat sneeringly to William Prynne's A Briefe Memento (1649) which argued against the trial of the king.

unmaskuline Rhetorick. John Gauden had argued in a pamphlet published on January 5 1649 that in showing pity on King Charles I, the Parliament and the Army would not be acting "foolish and feminine," but "masculine, Heroick, truly Christian and Divine" (Hughes, Complete Prose 3.191n). See also Early English Books Online for page 11 of the pamphlet. John Gauden was later revealed to have been the author of King Charles I's Eikon Basilike (1649).

puling. Whining, feebly wailing like a child (OED2).

Classic and Provincial Lords. The Westminster Assembly intended to reorganize the English Church into Provinces and Classes on the Presbyterian model, but it never completed the reform. Milton mocks devotion to this model of church government in his sonnet "On the New Forcers of Conscience" line 7.

pluralities. The system or practice of more than one benefice (church appointment) being held at the same time by one person (OED2), generally regarded by Puritans as a corrupt practice. Such clergymen were often called "hirelings."

both the Houses. That is, both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.

resisting of Superior powers. Romans 13:1 appears to instruct Christians to obey those in power and to forbid rebellion.

Tithes. Taxes (tenths) for the support of the clergy. Many Independents opposed tithes, and Milton argued that they had no scriptural basis and impugned Christian and English liberty.

impeach't Members. "Eleven members of Parliament were charged with conspiring with the queen in 1647" (Orgel and Goldberg 836).

Corah, Dahan, and Abiram. The story of these rebels against the leadership of Moses and Aaron is recorded in Numbers 16. Presbyterians were fond of quoting this example of God's punishment for rebels.

not to be touch'd. See Psalm 105:16, also recorded in 1 Chronicles 16:22. Royalist routinely interpreted these passages as forbidding any resistance to kings; see James I's The True Lawe of Free Monarchies (1598).

leave to Magistrates. Milton probably included John Bradshaw, president of the Council of State and of the court appointed to try King Charles I for treason, among those he considered "the uprighter sort" of magistrates.

Law of nature and right reason. The best discussion to date of Milton's sense of Natural Law is John Rogers' The Matter of Revolution: Science, Poetry and Politics in the Age of Milton.

massachers. Milton believed that the massacre, at the hands of Irish Catholics, of over 150,000 Protestants in Ulster was prompted by some promise of support for the Irish Catholics from King Charles I or his agents. See Eikonoklastes chapter 12 in the Yale Complete Prose 3.470.

not to be resisted. Milton alludes to Romans 12:1-4. This passage was quoted by many political theorists as a biblical injunction against insurrection or disobedience of any established authority, but others claimed that the injunction did not hold in cases of authorities that failed to punish evildoers, or indeed did evil themselves.

the original of Kings. That is, the origins of monarchy. Robert Filmer's Patriarcha and Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan are two of the most important seventeenth-century treatises on the subject. See the Dartmouth Library Catalog.

calumniat. Suggest untruthfully, prevaricate.

Presbyterial. Presbyterian or Calvinist. Milton draws on Jean Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, John Knox and other Protestant divines for his political theories.

borne free. Robert Filmer, in Patriarcha, denied any notion of natural freedom calling it a dangerous opinion. Earlier theorists, even many Roman Catholic monarchists, often acknowledged an original natural liberty in all human beings.

born to command. See Genesis 1:26 and Paradise Lost 12.67-72.

Adams transgression. See Michael's theory of the origin of tyranny in Paradise Lost 12.79-96.

self-defence and preservation. According to most theorists of natural rights, these are the two humans enjoy by right of nature.

King. Milton follows Aristotle's account of the different sorts of kings in Politics 1285b.

Claudius Sesell. Milton quotes from Claude de Seyssel's (1450?-1520) La Grande Monarchie de France of 1519; see the Dartmouth Library Catalog.

German. The Holy Roman Emperor was elected by seven aristocratic electors.

Italian. Milton refers to independent Italian states, the most republican of which was Venice, ruled by a doge and council for more than a thousand years.

Arragonian. The medieval Kingdom of Aragon was ruled by a monarch and parlimentary assembly.

Scottish Histories. Milton may refer here to the Declaration of Arbroath of 1320. Addressed from Scottish Lairds to the Pope, it asserts Scotland's independence from England and describes a monarchy rooted in natural human liberties.

Conqueror. Some royalists believed that English monarchy was rooted in William the Conqueror's conquest of England in 1066 rather than in aristocratic consent.

Albanes. George Walker, in his Anglo-Tyrannus (1650) page 50, argued that William of Normandy, after invading England successfully, was "received, and crowned King by consent of the English," and that he was later required to renew his oath to maintain English liberties in a ceremony at Saint Alban's (51). Walker's chief argument in the tract claims that all abuses of English monarchy, including those of the late Charles I, can be traced to the Norman kings and their attempted suppressions of Anglo-Saxon liberties.

Aristotle. In the section of the Nicomachean Ethics (1160b) devoted to the theory of friendship, Aristotle defines kingship by distinguishing it from tyranny. Kings consider the advantage of their subjects; tyrants their own advantage.

Isai 26:13. Isaiah 26:13. As did almost everyone in his day, Milton refers to the ancient Hebrews as Jews.

Tertullian. Tertullian's De Corona (201) ends with a tirade against the worldly vanities of crowns, seeing taht Christ promises his followers a heavenly crown.

King. The first King of over Israel was Saul. The story of Israel's desire for a king rather than a judge to rule over them is found in 1 Samuel 8. Milton refers in particular to verse 7.

inclinable to slavery. In Paradise Regain'd 3.403-432, Milton imagines the Son of God speaking a diatribe against ancient Israel's apostacy and self-enslavement, and remarks that the Jews, the "race" they "left behind," are indistinguishable from gentiles and quick to forgo their natural liberties. See also Galatians 4 and Galatians 5: 6 and Romans 2: 25 for the Pauline origins of such attitudes towards post-advent Jews.

accountable to none but God. Such was James I's claim in his treatise The True Lawe of Free Monarchies (1598). See the Norton Topics Online article or the original from Early English Books Online.

fourth of his politics chap. 10. Aristotle's Politics 1259a.

Against thee onely have I sinn'd. From Psalm 51:4. This passage was often cited by extreme monarchists who interpreted to mean that a king is accountable only to God.

murder Uriah and adulterate his Wife. The story of David's treachery towards Uriah and lust after his wife is told in 2 Samuel 11.

above his brethren. See Deuteronomy 17:20.

Euripides. Euripides' Heraclidae 420-24.

Trajan. Trajan was Emperor of Rome from 98 until 117. Milton may have adaptedthis quotation from George Buchanan's Rerum Scoticarum Historia of 1582. An English translation was printed in 1690 as The History of Scotland; see page 268 from Early English Books Online.

Theodosius. Theodosius I was Emperor of the Eastern Empire from 392-395. George Buchanan attributes this statement to Theodosius immediately after citing the Trajan line from above: The History of Scotland page 268-69 (Early English Books Online).

Code of Justinian. The Latin Codex Justinaeus, formally Corpus Juris Civilis ("Body of Civil Law"), is the collection of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I from 529 to 565. See Britannica Online.

Scripture. Deuteronomy 17:14 and 1 Samuel 8.

2 Sam. 5.3. 2 Samuel 5:3.

1 Chron. 11. 1 Chronicles 11.

2 Kings 11.17. 2 Kings 11:17.

Roboam. The most notorious tyrant in the Hebrew Bible, see 1 Kings 12.

the misgoverment of his Sons. See 1 Samuel 8.

Tarquinius. Tarquin, according to legend, was the last king of Rome (534-509 BCE). In Livy's History of Rome 1.59, he is called by his full name and title, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.

Numa. Numa, according to the legends recorded in Livy's History of Rome 1.19, succeeded Romulus as king of Rome and, guided by nocturnal interviews with a nymph Egeria, reorganized Roman religion.

I Kings 12.24. 1 Kings 12:24.

I Pet. 2.13. &c. 1 Peter 2:13 was often cited, along with Romans 13, by extreme divine-right monarchists.

Rom. 13. See Romans 13:1-2.

Luke 4.6. Luke 4:6.

Revelation. Revelation 13.

forecited Chapter. Romans 13:4.

Chrysostome. Royalists usually cited St. John Chrysostom's (345-407) Homily 23 on Romans, along with Romans 13 to support absolute monarchy.

Psalm 94.20. Psalm 94:20.

St. Basil. Milton quotes a similar passage in his Commonplace Book (Complete Prose Works 1.453).

Hercules. Milton quotes and translates lines from Seneca's Hercules Furens 922-24.

Ehud. See Judges 3:14-30.

prerogative. "That special pre-eminence which the sovereign, by right of regal dignity, has over all other persons and out of the course of the common law, the royal prerogative, a sovereign right (in theory) subject to no restriction or interference" (OED2). Royal prerogative had expanded under Elizabeth I and James I, but Parliament began efforts to restrict it as early as 1628.

As thy Sword hath made women childless. 1 Samuel 15:33.

Jehu. See 2 Kings 9:6-7.

anointed. Saul was the first King of Israel, and referred to as the Lord' anointed becuase he was anointed by Samuel under God's direction. See 1 Samuel 24:10 and 1 Samuel 26:8-9. Royalists typically used the example of David's refusal to kill Saul as support for absolutist theories of monarchy.

Gentilism. A term that makes the state of being a gentile (not Hebrew or Jewish) sound like an ideological position.

Benefactors. See Luke 22:25-26.

Matt. 20.25. Matthew 20:25.

Mark 10.42. Mark 10:42-43.

Luc. 13. Luke 13:32. Jesus refers to King Herod.

the Virgin Mary. Luke 1: 46-55 records Mary's prayer-song of thanksgiving, traditionally referred to as "the Magnificat," especially when recited or sung liturgically.

Dynasta's. Dynasties; the precise phrase from Luke 1:52 is "He hath put down the mighty from their seats."

Ludovicus Pius. Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor from 814-840.

Du Haillan. Milton cites Girard du Haillan's Histoire de France. He wrote down the quoted portion in his Commonplace Book (see Complete Prose Works 1.455).

Constantinus Leo. Leo III, Byzantine Emperor from 717 to 741. Milton quotes from Eclogue or Delectus Legum Compendiarus, Factus ab Leone, et Constantino, Sapientibus Augustis, ex Institutionibus & Digestis, & Codice, & Novellis Magni illius Justiniani Constitutionibus as he read it in Johann Leunclavius's Juris Graeco-Romani (Frankfurt 1596) (Hughes in Complete Prose Works 3.218 n. 104).

Sword of St. Edward. King Edward the Confessor (1042-1066). Milton cites Matthew Paris, a thirteenth-century historian, to the effect that the sword, called Curtano, was carried by the Earl of Chester in procession at the coronation as "a token that he has the authorty by law to punish the king if he will not do his duty" (Commonplace Book in Complete Prose Works 1.447).

ancient books of Law. Merritt Hughes (Complete Prose Works 3.219) suggests that Milton refers here to The Booke Called The Mirrour of Justices, translated from French by William Hughes and published in London in 1646. The title page gives the name of Andrew Horne, but William Hughes is recorded as "W.H."

caveats. A process in court to suspend proceedings (OED2).

circumstantial. Pompous, distinguished only by office.

Richard the second. King Richard II (1377-1399) was forced by "the Merciless Parliament" to renew his coronation oath.

Peter Martyr. In his commentary on the book of Judges, Peter Martyr (1500-1562) discusses the election and deposition of kings. See also Judges 3.

Sir Thomas Smith. Milton read and transcribed into his Commonplace Book (Complete Prose Works 1.455-56) passages from Sir Thomas Smith's De Republica Anglorum (1583).

Gildas. Gildas (516?-570) was one of the very earliest historians of Britain. His Liber Querelus de Excidio Britanniae was published in English in 1638 as The Epistle of Gildas, the Most Ancient British Author.

Keyes. The power of the keys is the original authority for church discipline, based on Matthew 16:18-19.

Duke of Saxonie, Lantgrave of Hessen. Philip of Hesse (1504-1567), an early Lutheran and founder of the League of Schmalkald in 1531.

Sleidan. Johann Philippson (1506-1556) was better known as John Sleidan. His book on the state of religion and the republic under Emperor Charles V was translated into English in 1556 as The General History of the Reformation of the Church from the Errors and Corruptions of the Church of Rome, Begun in Germany by Martin Luther (1689).

Queen Regent. Mary of Guise, widow of James V King of Scotland, mother of Mary Queen of Scots and grandmother of James VI King of Scotland who became in 1603 James I King of England.

Buchanan. Milton refers to George Buchanan's Rerum Scoticarum Historia of 1582. See and English translation printed in 1690 as The History of Scotland.

John Knox. John Knox (c. 1514-1572) was the leader of Presbyterian church reform in Scotland. Exiled during Queen Mary's five-year reign, he published several anti-Marian pamphlets from abroad, including A Faythfull Admonition made by Iohn Knox, vnto the Professours of Gods Truthe in England (1554) and The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstruous Regiment of Women (1558).

Lethington. William Maitland of Lethington was secretray of state under Mary Queen of Scots. Lethington and John Knox debated issues of church and state in public; those debates are recorded in David Lang's edition of The Works of John Knox (6 volumes, 1846-48).

Jehu and others against thir King. For the story of Jehu's attacks on tyrants of Judah, see 2 Kings 9.

Answerable. Equivalent or to much the same purpose.

John Craig. John Craig (1512-1600) was Minister at Holyrood House and preacher at Canongate Church in Edinburgh as well as one of John Knox's most fervent supporters. He also contributed a translation of Psalm 136 to the 1562 English Psalter and several to the 1564 Scottish Psalter. See Milton's own rendering of Psalm 136.

Ecclesiastical History of Scotland. John Knox's History of the Reformation of the Church of Scotland (1644).

same yeare. Mary Queen of Scots was forced by the Scottish lairds to abdicate the throne after she married the Earl of Bothwell in 1567. The Earl was believed by nearly everyone to have murdered her first husband Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley.

Buch. Hist., l. 20. Milton refers to George Buchanan's Rerum Scoticarum Historia of 1582. See and English translation printed in 1690 as The History of Scotland.

Gibson. Merritt Hughes notes that James Gibson warned James VI in 1586 against opposing the Presbyterians, saying that he might suffer the fate of Jereboam (1 Kings 11), who was killed for violating the true worship of God (Complete Prose Works 3.226n).

Si mereor in me. George Buchanan tells this story of Trajan in his History of Scotland, book 20: the Emperor Trajan, in delivering the ceremonial sword of office to the Provost of the Empire, said to him "If I command as I should, use this sword for me: but if I do otherways, unsheath it against me" (Hughes in Complete Prose Works 3.90).

States of Holland. In 1581, the republic of the Netherlands was formed when the estates assembly declared themselves independent of King Philip II of Spain.

Thuan. Jacques-August de Thou (1533-1617), Historiarum Sui Temporis Pars Prima (1604).

prejudicial eye. The Dutch officially protested the trial of Charles.

Waldenses. The Waldensians, a radical protestant sect of northeren Italy, southern France and Bohemia, were later to be brutally slaughtered on April 24, 1655. See Milton's Sonnet 18 and Eikonoklastes, chapter 17 (in Complete Prose Works 3.513-514.

round. Straightforwardly, freely.

two Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. English subjects were required to declare their allegiance to the crown and to the monarch as supreme head (Act of Supremacy 1534 and 1559) of the Church of England.

seven years. War between Parliament and the King broke out in the summer of 1642.

somtimes adhering to the lesser part. Milton criticizes the Presbyterian party's habit of shifting allegiances, sometimes voting with the Independents and later siding with the King's party.

fine clause. Milton refers to a much-disputed clause in the Covenant; see note above.

relatives. Relative, rather than absolute terms; one cannot exist without the other for its existence depends on its relation to the other.

deny'd to Treat with him. Another reference to the vote of "No More Addresses" in which both Houses of Parliament resolved to make and to permit no further negotiation with Charles (Hughes, Complete Prose Works 3. 231).

supererogating. Beyond what is necessary.

like occasion. A reference to the Dutch Protestants' establishment of the United Provinces of Holland as a republican state in 1581.

and. The copytext has an inverted "n" here ("aud") which I have corrected.

prison. After Charles surrendered to the Scots on May 5, 1646, he was virtually a prisoner of Scotland, a Presbyterian state. In January 1647 the Scots surrendered him to agents of the English Parliament, led at the time by a junta of English Presbyterians. Finally he was taken into custody by the army on June 4, 1647.

whose matchless valour. Milton refers to Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), general of the New Model Army.

Chancellour of Scotland. John Campbell, Earl of Loudon, had King Charles in custody at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1646.

improper Treaty. The so-called Treaty of Newport refers to negotiations between Parliamentary agents and Charles I on the Isle of Wight (where Charles was in custody) from September to November 1648. Milton calls the negotiations "improper" because in January 1648 Parliament had agreed to allow no further "addresses" to the king without "the leave of both houses."

obnoxious. Liable to punishment.

Newport. The preamble of the treaty stated, "Whereas both Houses of the Parliament of England have been necessitated to undertake a war in their just and lawful defense." Charles agreed to accept this article only if he and Parliament definitely resolved all differences between them by negotiation. Charles never felt that this condition was met. (Hughes, Complete Prose Works 3.234).

Ahab. For the story of Ahab, see 2 Kings 9: 6-7.

Antiochus. Persecutor of the Jews, and suppressor of Jehovah worship, Antiochus was overthrown by Judas Maccabaeus. See 2 Maccabees 9.

Meroz. For the curse spoken against the people of Meroz see Judges 5:23. This scripture passage was used frequently in the pamphlet battles of the civil wars to accuse Presbyterians and others of hypocrisy. See, for example The Grand Rebels Detected, or The Presbyter Unmasked (1660) and A Parallel between the Ministerial Ingenuity Of the Forty Seven London Ministers and the Foule Miscarriages of the Army, in Their Declarations, and Covenants-Breaking (1649).

Supreme Magistracy. Parliament, or at that time, the House of Commons. See the resolution of January 11 1649: The Joynt Resolution and Declaration of the Parliament and Counsell of the Army, for the Taking Away of Kings and Lords.

his forme of Goverment. After the exodus from Egypt, the ancient Hebrews were governed by a succession of religious judges. The story of Israel's desire for a king rather than a judge to rule over them is found in 1 Samuel 8.

œconomize. To act as the governor of a household (OED2).

havock. To make havoc of; to devastate; to lay waste (OED2).

Pismires. Ants.

unforcible things. Matters of conscience, indifferent matters.

old and perfet enemy. The old and complete, or utter, enemy is Charles I who constantly tried to divide and conquer his enemies.

Stories. That is, histories; for example George Buchanan's History of Scotland.

Christiern the second. Christiern II of Denmark (1481-1559). George Buchanan's History of Scotland (269) reports that he was forced from his throne and into exile for cruelty to his people.

Maxmilian. Maxmilian I (1459-1519), when Archduke of Austria and King of Germany, took revenge in 1490 upon the city of Bruge for an earlier rebellion.

massacre at Paris. Milton refers to the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 24-25 August 1572.

Naples. In 1648 the Spanish Habsburghs put down a popular rebellion led by Tomaso Aniello.

twise promis'd. 1 Samuel 19:6 and 26:21.

in season and out of season. See 2 Timothy 4:2.

pragmatical Sidesmen. Partisans, those who take sides, but see also OED2.

Simony. The act or practice of buying or selling ecclesiastical preferments, benefices, or emoluments; traffic in sacred things (OED2).

rav'nous Wolves. See "Lycidas," lines 113-131.

conversation. Social relations.

progging. To solicit, to beg, to go about begging (OED2).

Oblations. Offerings.

Consistory. According to continental and Scottish Presbyterian church discipline, presbyters (parish clergy) "govern through a series of representative consistories, from the local congregation to area and national organizations, commonly termed sessions, presbyteries, synods, and assemblies" (Britannica Online). Lay (non-ordained) elders were also elected to represent congregations throughout all the levels of government. In England, this sort of Presbyterian discipline was only ever imperfectly implemented.

Sion. Sion College was the meeting place of the Presbyterian provincial assembly from 1647 until 1659.

Characters. The title pages of the letters addressed by the clergy to General Fairfax and Parliament had more large capitals than was usual in tracts of the time. For an example see A Sad and Serious Discourse, upon a Terrible Letter, Sent by the Ministers of the Province of London . . ..

people. The first edition of The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649) ended here.

Lib. contra Rusticos apud Sleidan. Milton quotes here from John Sleidan's book on the state of religion and the republic under Emperor Charles V, translated into English in 1556 as The General History of the Reformation of the Church from the Errors and Corruptions of the Church of Rome, Begun in Germany by Martin Luther (1689). Book 5 of Sleidan's treatise is titled "Book against the Peasants."

Is est hodie rerum status. On page 94 of The General History of the Reformation, John Sleidan records Martin Luther's warning to the German nobles in 1525: "For this is now the present state of Affairs, that Men neither can, nor will, nor indeed ought to suffer our Arbitrary Rule any longer. You must be wholly transformed, and give place to the Word of God; for if the people bring it not to pass at this time, others shall succeed." Luther also counseled the peasants against rebellion as Sleidan records on earlier pages.

Neque vero Caesarem. In his Book 14, or "Book against the Turks," John Sleidan reports on Martin Luther's 1542 "Camp Sermon" against waging war on the Turks. See page 294 of The General History of the Reformation.

Cochlæus. Johannes Dobeneck, better known as Johannes Cochlaeus (1479-1552), served as court chaplain to Duke George of Saxony who employed him in anti-Lutheran polemics. Milton quotes here and again further down from Cochlaeus's Miscellaneorum Libri Primi Tractatus . . . (Ingoldstadt 1545).

Covnant at Smalcaldia. The Schmalkaldic Articles was the name given to a statement of faith written by Martin Luther in 1536 in anticipation of a general council called by Pope Paul III to deal with the emergent Reformation. Though never formally adopted by the Schalkaldic League of theologians (they endorsed the Augsburg Confession in 1537), forty-four theologians signalled their assent to its tenets with their signatures. Read the Smalcald Articles in their 1537 form.

Phalaris. King of Acragas (modern Agrigento), Sicily, Phalaris (died c. 554 BCE) and notorious for his cruelty. He was said to have roasted his enemies alive inside a brass bull.

Zwinglius. Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) was a Swiss reformer who tried to give Zurich an effectively republican constitution. Milton quotes from "Opus Articulorum sive Conclusionum Huldrichi Zwingli" and from a letter. See The Latin Works and the Correspondence of Huldreich Zwingli, edited, with introductions and notes, by Samuel Macauley Jackson; translations by Henry Preble, Walter Lichtenstein, and Lawrence A. McLouth. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912- ).

Calvin. John Calvin (1509-1564) was one of the most important reformers on the continent. Author of the widely influential Institutes of the Christian Religion (1539), he is the father of Presbyterianism. Milton quotes here from his Praelectiones in Librum Prophetarium Danielis (Geneva 1561). The passage Milton cites is from "Lecture Twentieth" of his Commentaries on the Prophet Daniel.

Abdicant se terreni pricipes. Milton quotes from "Lecture Thirtieth" of "Lecture Twentieth" of his Commentaries on the Prophet Daniel.

Bucer. Martin Bucer (1491-1551) was a "Protestant reformer, mediator, and liturgical scholar best known for his ceaseless attempts to make peace between conflicting reform groups." This passage is taken from Bucer's commentary on Matthew 5:39 in his Sacra Quattor Evangelica or The Four Holy Gospels.

Peter Martyr. In his commentary on the book of Judges, Peter Martyr (1500-1562) discusses the election and deposition of kings. Milton referred to this above.

Paræus. Milton quotes from David Paraeus's (1548-1622) commentary on Romans 13.

Knox Appeal. Milton refers to John Knox's The Appellation of John Knoxe from the Cruell and Most Unjust Sentence Pronounced against Him by the False Bishoppes and Clergy of Scotland, with his Supplication and Exhortation to the Nobilitie, and Comunalitie of the Same Realme, published in Geneva in 1558. The "postscript," called "John Knox to the Reader," appears near the end of the volume and promises a sequel to the The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstruous Regiment of Women (1558).

Cartwright. Thomas Cartwright (1535-1603) was Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. One of the founders of English Presbyterianism, Cartwright defended the Admonition to Parliament (1572), and wrote A Second Admonition to Parliament (1572). See also the Britannica Online article on the Admonition.

Fenner. Dudley Fenner (1558?-1587) was a close associate of Thomas Cartwright during their exile in Middleburg. In 1583 he led a protest against the Act of Supremacy. Milton refers here to his Sacra Theologia, sive, Veritas quae est secundum pietatem (Geneva 1586), to which Thomas Cartwright contributed a preface.

Gilby. Anthony Gilby (1510-1585?), like Cartwright and Fenner above, was also a Marian exile. He assisted William Whittingham and Thomas Sampson in preparation of the first English Geneva Bible, known as the "Breeches Bible" in 1560. Milton misattributes these quotations to Gilby's Englands Complaint to Jesus Christ agains the Bishop's Canons (1640). Sonia Miller demonstrated in her 1951 article, "Two References in Milton's Tenure of Kings," that the true source of Milton's passages is John Ponet's (1514-1556) A Short Treatise of Politique Power; and of the True Obedience which Subjects Owe to Kings, and Other Civill Governours. As Miller points out, Milton probably collected these quotations indirectly from Sir Thomas Aston's A Remonstrance, against Presbitery (1641).

Christopher Goodman. Another Marian exile, Christopher Goodman (1520-1603), taught divinity at Oxford and co-pastored with John Knox the English exile community in Geneva. Milton quotes from How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558).

C. 10. p. 139. Milton quotes from Christopher Goodman's How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558).

C. 11. p. 143, 144. Milton quotes from Christopher Goodman's How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558).

C. 13. p. 184. Milton quotes from Christopher Goodman's How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558).

p. 185. Milton quotes from Christopher Goodman's How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558).

p. 190. Milton quotes from Christopher Goodman's How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558).

Queen Mary. Daughter of Henry VIII (reigned 1509-1547) and Catherine of Aragon, Mary reigned as Queen of England from 1553 until 1558, and tried to roll back the Reformation of the English Church which her father began and her brother's reign (Edward VI) consolidated.

Whittingham in the Preface. That is, the Preface to Christopher Goodman's How Superior Powers Oght to Be Obeyd of Their Subjects: and Wherin They May Lawfully by Gods Worde Be Disobeyed and Resisted (1558) contributed by Whittingham. William Whittingham (1524-1579) also was a Marian exile, active chiefly in Frankfurt.

Harpy's. A fabulous monster, from Greek and Latin mythology, "rapacious and filthy, having a woman's face and body and a bird's wings and claws, and supposed to act as a minister of divine vengeance" (OED2).

under another title. That is, they called themselves presbyters instead of priests and bishops, but they practiced the same corruoptions as they did when they were priests and prelates. See also the last few lines of Milton's sonnet "On the New Forcers of Conscience" and John Goodwin's diatribe against Presbyterian leaders in Sion-Colledg Visited (1648).

Phylactery. "One of two small, black leather, cube-shaped cases containing Torah texts written on parchment, which, in accordance with Deuteronomy 6:8 (and similar statements in Deuteronomy 11:18 and Exodus 13:9, 16), are to be worn by male Jews of 13 years and older as reminders of God and of the obligation to keep the Law during daily life. The name phylactery is derived from the Greek phylakterion, meaning amulet" (Britannica Online). One (tefillin shel rosh) was to be worn on the forehead between the eyes. Milton, following the anti-Jewish bias of Protestant Christianity, associates phylacteries with the Pharisees of the Gospels, alleged enemies of Jesus, and thus implies that the Presbyterian leaders of his day are Pharisees. See also the last few lines of Milton's sonnet "On the New Forcers of Conscience."

Scripture and Reason. Milton refers to a pamphlet entitled Scripture and Reason Pleaded for Defensive Armes: or The Whole Controversie about Subjects Taking up Armes (1643), published, as the title-page announces, "by divers Learned and Reverend Divines."

to the Romans. That is Romans 13:1-2.

p. 34. Milton paraphrases from Section 4, page 34 of Scripture and Reason Pleaded for Defensive Armes: or The Whole Controversie about Subjects Taking up Armes (1643).

amerce. Punish (OED2).

golden rule of justice and moralitie. In algebra, the "rule of three" is traditionally called the golden rule. According to this rule, if one knows three terms in a pair of proportions, or in a sequence, the unknown fourth term may be calculated, as in 3:21 as 7:x. See OED2 under "golden." Daniel Featley refers to it in his Clavis Mystica of 1636 as a rule of "sacred algebray" (21.279).
Another more well-known sense of the golden rule refers to Jesus's reported words in Luke 6:31. John Lillburne associated this ethical rule with the supposed natural right of every person to self-preservation in Regall Tyrannie Discovered (1647), page 60.

Euclid. Euclid (flourished about 300 BCE) is often called the founder of geometry. In Tetrachordon Milton uses the expression, "as clear in the reason of common life, as those given rules wheron Euclides builds his propositions."

Apollonius. Apollonius of Perga (262-190 BCE) wrote a treatise on conic sections.

p. 37, 38. Milton paraphrases from Section 4, pages 37-38 of Scripture and Reason Pleaded for Defensive Armes: or The Whole Controversie about Subjects Taking up Armes (1643).

p. 19, 20. Milton paraphrases from pages 19-20 of Scripture and Reason Pleaded for Defensive Armes: or The Whole Controversie about Subjects Taking up Armes (1643).

p. 19, 20. Milton quotes from page 19 of Scripture and Reason Pleaded for Defensive Armes: or The Whole Controversie about Subjects Taking up Armes (1643).

condigne. Worthy, deserving.

St. Peters rule. See 1 Peter 2:13-14.

thir motions. Milton sustains over several sentences a metaphor that compares the spiritual "motions" Presbyterian divines to the military "motions" of footsoldiers on parade, except that he insists the divines don't know (or ignore) the difference between right and left. He may have been inspired by Captain Lazarus Haward's Military and Spirituall Motions for Foot Companies (1645) which acrostically appends spiritual precepts to military marching orders. See, for example, page 1.

truth. See similar personifications of truth in Areopagitica: first, second.

Jebusites. In 2 Samuel 5:8 Jebusite are referred to as the enemies of Israel's King David.

Adonibezec. Adonibezek was a Canaanite king defeated by the Israelites in their conquest of the "promised" land (Judges 1:5-6); the Israelite soldiers cut off his fingers and his toes.

Simon Magus. The man from whom simony, trafficking for personal gain in ecclesiastical appointments and other sacred things, gets its name (Acts 8:9-25).

advousons, donatives, inductions, and augmentations. Various appointments to, and emoluments from, clerical office. See OED2.

Priests of Bel. In The Book of Bel, the prophet Daniel exposes the priestly deceptions that allowed them to profit from oblations made to the god.

fellow locusts. See Revelation 9:1-6.