Introduction. Critics and readers alike have long ignored and undervalued the final two books of Milton's Paradise Lost. In his Preface to Paradise Lost, C. S. Lewis scathingly referred to the epic's denouement as "an untransmuted lump of futurity" (125). Although not all readers share Lewis' fervent dislike for books 11 and 12, John Rogers notes that the books do "strike most readers as a disappointment" (282). Milton's intricate exploration of human nature and equally ornate description of the physical world seem somewhat absent in this selectively episodic distillation of human history. Critics have speculated that this shift signifies anything from Milton's "loss of poetic power or of interest in the poem on one hand, or, on the other, to an intentional strategy to alter both Adam's perception of reality and our own" (Coiro, "'To repair . . . '" 133).

Despite these criticisms, book 11 does merit and reward close attention from a careful reader. Both the opening scene in Heaven and Michael's presentation of "future" history continue to explore many of the theological issues that Milton features throughout Paradise Lost: the relationship between the Son and the Father, the distinction between predestination and foreknowledge, and the nature of divine Providence, to name a few. Rogers discusses two different kinds of Providence that he sees Milton attempting to reconcile in his article "Milton and the Mysterious Terms of History."

The angel Michael's presentation of a providential view of human history also contains elements of typology, which is "the matching of Old Testament with New Testament figures as types or echoes of each other. It makes of the Bible a coherent and seamless document in which there are no contradictions" (Flannagan 308). According to this supersessionist view, the history of the Hebrews foreshadows Christian history. Michael's presentation of the "One Just Man" heroes, all of whom prefigure Jesus in some way, is one example of typology at work in book 11. Also, Milton's biblical references often come from both the Hebrew scriptures and the Christian scriptures, especially the Epistles, which often strive to present a typological view of history.

Readers should also take note of the educative nature of the discussions Adam and Michael have about the visions. Adam's initial emotional and logical responses to the visions often reveal his newly fallen state of mind. Coiro develops an interesting comparison between Michael's pedagogy and Milton's Of Education in her article "'To repair the ruins of our first parents': Of Education and Adam," and Michael Allen also discusses Michael's pedagogy.

The book's conclusion lacks a sense of closure, perhaps because books 11 and 12 were originally one book (book 10) in Milton's 1667 edition of Paradise Lost. Book 12, however supplies in its opening lines sufficient rationale for the division that separates the story of "the world destroy'd" from that of "the world restor'd" (12.3). Meg Fuchs & Thomas Luxon

Michael. An archangel mentioned in both the Bible and the Qu'ran. See also Acts 7:38 and Revelation 12:7.

denounces. Proclaims; see OED2.

Mercie-seat. Originally a particular construction placed above the ark of the covenant; see Exodus 25:17-22. Later a specific place in Solomon's temple; see 1 Chronicles 28:11-18. Milton imagines a heavenly version.

Prevenient Grace. According to Calvinist theology, the unasked-for grace that comes before and enables repentance in otherwise totally depraved souls.

new flesh. Milton conflates (in a perfectly orthodox fashion) Ezekiel 11:19 with the Christian doctrine of new birth in 2 Corinthians 5:17.

Unutterable. Romans 8:26 (Geneva) describes how "the Spirit" intercedes for sinners with "groans unutterable." John Bunyan used this passage to argue before Justice Kelynge that the Book of Common Prayer cannot teach a man to pray; only the Spirit can (A Relation of the Imprisonment of Mr. John Bunyan in Sharrock, ed. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners 116).

Oratorie. Prayer spoken or sung according to a prescribed order of words. Milton subscribes to the Puritan conviction that Spirit-inspired prayer is more truly prayer than prayers recited according to prescribed forms.

port. Deportment, attitude.

th' ancient Pair. For the story of Deucalion and Pyrrha see Ovid's Metamorphoses 1.314-449.

less ancient yet than these. Milton reminds his readers that Deucalion and Pyrrha postdate Adam and Eve; Milton often makes classical allusions that both engage and undercut their authority.

envious windes. Compare to the cross winds that blow religious articles and vestments into the Limbo of Vanity in 3.487.

Dimentionless. Without dimension, spiritual. Not, however, as some have suggested, immaterial, since for Milton all things, even spiritual, dimensionless things, come from "one first matter" (5.469-479).

incense. See Ezekiel 20:41.

Priest. Milton may refer to Hebrews 7:25-28, where Paul describes Jesus' unique priesthood.

more pleasing savour. The Son says that these prayers of contrition, grown from the Father's planting in Adam, are sweeter than any gift Adam could have grown and offered, even before he fell from obedience.

his sighs. Not "their" sighs, but "his" sighs, produced by God's "implanted grace in Man." Presumably, Adam will either intercede for Eve as the Son does for him, or his redemption, as the saying goes, covers her as well.

Advocate. Echoes 1 John 2:1-2.

doom. Sentence of judgment. See OED2.

Made one with me. Milton imagines that the Son has always, even from Adam's day, been an intercessor between man and God, and that the act of redemption began even before Adam's first sin and repentance; see the Father's speech in 3.216, 274.

without Cloud. In the Hebrew Bible, God is often said to appear in a cloud, as in Exodus 16:10, but the Son, in Milton's poem, sees God directly.

The Law I gave to Nature. John Rogers observes that this is the first of two methods of expulsion the Father discusses; in this passage, ordinary providence (the law God gave to Nature) will automatically expel Adam and Eve's now-sinful bodies from Paradise.

fondly. Foolishly; see 9.999 and see OED2.

His final remedie. God reveals that Death is not only a punishment; sometimes it is also a blessing.

Faith and faithful works. Milton's formula of faith and works differs significantly from Luther's "faith alone" in his Larger Catechism.

Heav'n and Earth renewd. See 2 Peter 3:13.

Synod. An assembly or council; often refers to an ecclesiastical convention. See OED2.

peccant. Sinful.

When God descended. When Moses is said to have received the law on Sinai (Oreb); see Exodus 20:18. See also 1 Thessalonians 4:16.

Amarantin. Amaranthine, or from the Amaranth, flower of Paradise and symbol of immortality; see 3.353-357.

like one of us. The Father addresses the angels, which offers to account for the use of the plural "us" here and in Genesis 3:22.

defended. Forbidden.

knowledge of Good. In Areopagitica, Milton argues that good can be known only in relation to evil. In this passage, however, he seems to suggest that prelapsarian knowledge of good, independent of knowledge of evil, was superior.

Or . . . or. Either . . . or.

Vacant possession. Under common law, property left vacant could be claimed by a squatter; the Father fears that Satan would try to claim Eden were it left unguarded. See "vacant" in OED2.

drive out. The second method of expulsion: God uses extraordinary providence (direct intervention) to evict Adam and Eve by sending Michael, his representative, to perform the task. For a further discussion of the function of providence and intervention in the poem, see Rogers.

thir excess. Most commentators gloss this as "their transgression," but see OED2 where the first sense offered is "the act of going out." Certainly, by strict Aristotelian ethics, Adam's transgression is an "excess," but I think the more immediate sense is simply the enforced leaving of Eden.

Cov'nant in the womans seed. See the Argument for book 10, 10.179-81, and 10.1032.

Sword. See Genesis 3:24.

double Janus. Since a Janus is a two-faced figure often found on Roman gates, a double Janus would be four-faced; perhaps the cherubs' flaming faces would be oriented to the four cardinal compass points, guarding access to Eden and the Tree of Life. See also Ezekiel 10:14.

Argus. For the story of how Hermes outwitted Argos when Argos was guarding Io from Zeus's lust, see Ovid's Metamorphoses 1.673-715.

Leucothea. Flannagan writes: "Leucothea or Ino was a minor Roman sea deity invoked by women on behalf of the children of their brothers [fraternal neices and nephews] and called Mater Matuta, a name which associated her with Aurora, goddess of the dawn." Also see A Mask 867-875.

Orisons. Morning prayers. Recall Hamlet's request to Ophelia (Hamlet 3.1.91-92).

with fear. See Proverbs 1:7.

from Heav'n. See James 1:17.

Bending his eare. See Psalm 17:6.

thy Seed shall bruise our Foe. See 10.175-181 and 10.1031-1040.

not minded in dismay. In other words, "We didn't pay attention to the promise when we were upset."

Haile. Echoes Gabriel's address to Mary in Luke 1:28. See also 5.385-387.

Mother of all Mankind. See Genesis 3:20.

all things live for Man. Eve and Mary ("second Eve") epitomize womanhood for Milton in that they are the means by which Man is to live, and by which Man will be redeemed through Jesus Christ. All living things, including women, are "for Man."

snare. See "snare" in Samson Agonistes 230 and A Mask 164. For Milton's gloss of Genesis 2:18, see Tetrachordon.

rosie progress. Milton echoes Homer's favorite epic description of sunrise, the "rosy-fingered Dawn"; see, for example, Odyssey 2.

Bird of Jove. The eagle, as in Shakespeare's Cymbeline 5.4.185 s.d. For the technical term, "stoopt," see Cymbeline 5.4.210 and OED2.

tour. Tower.

Birds of gayest plume. Peacocks, sacred to Juno.

the Beast that reigns. Before the fall, as this story would have it, lions did not hunt (4.343-344).

dust. See Genesis 3:19.

sight. Flannagan's note (page 665) to this line claims that his 1674 copy has "fight" here in place of "sight." I cannot detect this in the 1674 copy from Early English Books Online (Wing M2144). He also claims that 1667 prints "sight" correctly at 10.201, but EEBO's 1667 edition appears to me to have "fight" here instead of "sight."

Skie of Jasper. See Revelation 4:3.

made alt. Halted, alighted.

carnal fear. Unlike the fear of God, carnal fear is rooted in the body. It prevents Adam from seeing the descending angel band.

Jacob in Mahanaim. See Genesis 32:1-2.

Pavilion'd. Mahanaim means tented (or pavilioned) host or army.

In Dothan. See the story in 2 Kings 6, specifically verse 17.

Warr unproclam'd. According to the Geneva glosses on 2 Kings 6:8, the Syrian king laid an ambush (unproclaimed war) for the Israelites.

Princely Hierarch. In other words, Michael, leaving his Cherubic attendants at the gates, proceeds to find Adam and Eve by himself. See line 99 above.

Gate. Gait.

nor sociably mild. Michael is less "sociably mild" than Raphael, Adam's gentle teacher; see 5.221. For a discussion of Milton's angels and their character development throughout the poem, see Nardo's article "The Education of Milton's Good Angels."

thou retire. Adam requires Eve's absence because her presence apparently would offend the angel or mar the reverence due to him. Flannagan's suggestion that Adam's dominion over Eve has been increased by the fall invites debate.

lucid. Bright, dazzling.

Meliboean. A precious antique purple dye made in Meliboea on the coast of Thessaly.

Sarra. Another name for Tyre, famous for its Tyrean purple dye.

Iris. Michael wears a purple rarer than either Meliboean or Tyrian purple and more noble than that worn by any mortal hero: his vest is dyed in the woof by none other than Iris, goddess of the rainbow. See the Attendant Spirit's robes in A Mask 83.

glistering Zodiac. The constellation of Orion the hunter.

dread. See 6.320-327.

Inclin'd not. Michael offers no bow, not even a nod, to Adam in return for Adam's low bow. Adam offered similar courtesies to Raphael, and Raphael responded like Michael (5.359-371).

Mayst cover. See 1 Peter 4:8.

Permits not. Here, God, not Nature, forbids Adam and Eve to dwell "longer in this Paradise"; see line 48 above.

send thee. With the exception of "thee," Michael's final sentence exactly duplicates the Father's command in lines 97-8 above.

Yet all had heard. This is not the first time Eve eavesdrops; see 9.276.

Native Soile. Eve was "born" in the garden, unlike Adam, who was made of the soil outside Eden and then taken to the garden. See 8.295-306. Eve, then, was born, as it were, in the garden, but was made of Adam who was not. See line 292 below.

respit. The remainder of his life, death postponed.

ambrosial Fount. See 4.223-241.

obscure. Dark; see OED2.

not lonely. God created Eve to cure Adam's loneliness (8.364), and here Michael suggests that Eve needs company as well; as they leave Paradise, however, both of them are, in some sense, alone (12.649).

voutsaf'd. Condescended to bestow; see OED2.

Fomented. Nurtured.

Express. See Hebrews 1:3.

supernal. Heavenly; see 7.573.

once thou slepst. See 8.460-478.

obvious. Exposed, vulnerable.

Visions of God. See Ezekiel 40:2.

Ken. View, prospect.

second Adam. That is, Jesus; see Matthew 4:8, Luke 4:5, and Paradise Regain'd 3.251 and following.

Cambalu. Capital city of Mongolian Cathay, ruled by the Khan.

Oxus, Temirs Throne. Samarkand lies near the Oxus River in Uzbekistan and was once ruled by Temir (Marlowe's Tamburlaine the Great).

Paquin. Peking, now Beijing, seat of the Chinese (Sinean) kings.

Agra and Lahor. Moghul capitals in northern India.

Chersonese. Malacca and Thailand.

Ecbatan. Ecbatana, capital of "the Persian" (king).

Hispahan. Isfahan became the Persian capital around 1600.

Bizance. Byzantium or Istanbul, capital of Turkey; the Sultan was from Turkestan.

ken. View, see.

Negus. Negus was the title bestowed on the ruler of Abyssinia.

Ercoco. Arkiko, an Ethiopian port on the Red Sea.

Melind. Mombaza (Mombassa) and Malindi (Melind) are ports on the coast of Kenya; Kilwa (Quiloa) is on the coast of Tanzania.

Ophir. Sofala, a port city in Mozambique, was once thought to be the biblical land of Ophir from whence Solomon procured gold for the temple. See 1 Kings 9:28.

Almansor, Fez and Sus. Almansor, a title meaning "the victorious"; bestowed on Amir Mohammed of Cordova (939-1002), king of Andalusia. Sus is modern-day Tunis.

Tremisen. Tlemcen in Algeria.

in Spirit. Not physically, since these other places are half-way round the globe.

Atabalipa. Atahuallpa, conquered by Pizarro in 1533.

Geryons Sons. The narrator refers to the Spanish. Geryon is a monster of fraud in Dante's Inferno 17.99. Spenser uses Geryon to personify Spanish oppression in The Faerie Queene 5.10.8.

Filme remov'd. Many epic heroes underwent ritualistic eye-cleaning. See Homer's Iliad 5.127, Virgil's Aeneid 2.604, Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered 18.93 (XCIII). See also Paul in Acts 9:18.

Euphrasie and Rue. Herbs reputed to clear eyesight.

behold. Aeneas and his father, Anchises, also behold a vision of the future in Virgil's Aeneid 6:680-686, 756.

sin. Not in the 1674 edition, but it was in the 1667 edition and appears necessary for proper metrics.

His eyes he op'nd. In her article "'To repair the ruins of our first parents,'" Coiro makes an interesting connection between Michael's instruction of Adam and Milton's ideal pedagogy as expressed in Of Education.

tilth. Cultivated. See OED2.

sord. Sod, turf.

First Fruits. See Exodus 23:19.

Uncull'd. That is, not selected in any way. The story is from Genesis 4. In Genesis 4:3-4, we are told that Abel brought "firstlings" from his flock and Cain brought "an offering of the fruit of the ground"; Milton (and other commentators) inferred that Cain's offering was "uncull'd" and therefore unacceptable to God.

meek. Milton views meekness as a positive quality in men. See Raphael in 8.217 and the Son in Paradise Regain'd 4.401, 636. See also Matthew 5: 5.

sincere. See 2 Corinthians 9:7.

his grim Cave. In Virgil's Aeneid 6.237, Avernus, the underworld river, runs in a deep, deep cave.

Intemperance. Milton probably uses this term in quite a precise Aristotelian fashion; see Nicomachean Ethics 1117b.

Lazar-house. Hospital for incurably ill and infectious patients, especially lepers.

Dæmoniac Phrenzie. Physicians in the 17th century still believed that many mental illnesses were caused by demonic or Satanic possession, and exorcisms were common. Mental illness was also thought to be caused by an imbalance of the bodily humors (blood, phlegm, choler, and black bile). Finally, people believed that mental illness, whatever its physical cause, was punishment for sin (both the original sin of Adam and Eve and the sin of the mad indivdual).

moaping Melancholie. One example of the abundant alliteration in this passage. Melancholy, or depression, was believed to be caused by an overabundance of black bile (one of the four humors).

pining Atrophie Marasmus. Marantic atrophy, caused by extreme malnutrion and low protein intake. Marasmus means "withering" in Greek.

oft invokt. There is a long classical tradition of invoking death; see, for example, Sophocles' Philoctetes 797-798, Horace's Odes 2.18.38-40, and Pliny's Natural History 7.1.167.

best of Man. Shedding tears is proverbially unmanly. Sadness, even being emotionally moved, is not unmanly (see 453 above), but tears are. Adam's tears are unusual: he is so moved that he weeps, even though he was not born of a woman and thus has no "woman" in him.

recovering words. As a man, Adam's proper means of expressing emotion is supposed to be through words and "firmer thoughts," that is, reason and discourse. See 4.489-491.

Better end heer unborn. After seeing Death, Adam perhaps unconsciously echoes Eve's earlier wish to save their descendents from death by never begetting them (10.979-91).

erect. In 4.288-289, Adam and Eve's erect stature shows their physical resemblance to God.

His Image whom they serv'd. After the fall, God's image in Man is lost, and Man instead comes to resemble the images of the various vices he serves. See A Mask 63-77 for an example of transformation as a result of sin.

connatural. Of the same nature.

temperance. Aristotle's rule of the mean (Nicomachean Ethics 1117b).

volant. Nimble, flying.

Instinct through all proportions. The use of the word "proportions" suggests that Milton is referring to theories of speculative music (musica speculativa) that were in vogue in the 17th century. Speculative music explores the concept that the entire universe is resonating with a chord and that the music created by man on earth (musica practica) is, or should be, an attempt to find and join the heavenly harmonies. Apparently this musician can instinctively find the exact proportions (frequencies) of the music of the spheres.

fugue. In the 17th century, fugues were associated with Masses and other worship services. The fugue is a rigidly structured form of music that is essentially an ornamented canon. The word "canon" also refers to church law, a secondary meaning of which Milton was surely aware (see OED2).

clods. Lumps.

Fusil. Cast. Milton is at some pains to account for how metals like these would have been obtained before mining was known. His notion of how metals and metallurgy were first discovered comes from Lucretius's On the Nature of Things 5.1791.

they seemd. That is, to Adam or any other human observer. Milton's story is from Genesis 6, a passage about the origins of "the nephilim," or giants; see Calvin's Commentary.

ey'd them. The story of "The Sons of God" from Genesis 6 has invited a wide variety of interpretations. Some commentators, following the Book of Enoch (Chapter 15), took the "Sons of God" to be angels who had lusted after women, coupled with them, and produced a race of giants. This is the interpretation Milton alludes to in 5.446-448, though he expresses doubts about the veracity of this reading. In book 11, Milton seems to opt for the reading favored by many reformed commentators — that the "Sons of God" were the descendants of Seth and lived in the mountains pursuing a life of piety, learning, and special skills until they descended to the plain, "eyed" the daughters of Cain, and were forever corrupted. The offspring of these unions became the corrupt men who prompted God to flood the world. But in Paradise Regain'd, Milton opts for a different reading of Genesis 6's "Sons of God" (Paradise Regain'd 2.178-181). See Arnold Williams, Common Expositor.

of love they treat. These seemingly "just men" turn their attention from the study of right worship, natural science, and political science (lines 577-580) to the composition of love ditties (584) as soon as they descend from their mountain habitation to the plain below. In Tetrachordon, Milton argues that men must sometimes "slack" their intense study and vacation, as it were, in the company of women, but these men appear to have abandoned study altogether.

Eevening Star. Venus, the planet of love.

Hymen. Milton says that marriage was instituted in Paradise before the fall, coincident with the creation of Eve; see 8.484-499 and Genesis 2:18-24. But not until after the fall was Hymen, the god of marriage, invoked at weddings.

Symphonies. In the 17th century, a "symphony" was simply a piece for instruments (winds, keyboard, gambas, etc.); the symphony had no strict form. Symphonies were a form of secular music and often served as dance music, especially in France. After these "[j]ust men" interact with the women, their music changes from sacred and structured (fugues) to secular and free (symphonies).

bent of Nature. Adam ascribes his decision to disobey God to the "bent" or "bond" or "link"; see 9.914 and 9.956. Apparently, "bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh" (Genesis 2:23) has both a spiritual sense and a carnal sense. According to Milton, the spiritual sense (see 4.741-743 and Ephesians 5:31-32), existed before the fall, and the carnal sense helps to cause the fall.

Nature seems fulfilld. See Comus's arguments about Nature's purposes in A Mask 710-729. I have always suspected it was this passage of Paradise Lost that gave Stanley Fish the idea for Surprised by Sin.

By pleasure. For Aristotle's extended dicussion of the relationship between pleasure and the good, see Nicomachean Ethics 1147b.

Of wickedness. See Psalm 84:10.

chief praise. Michael echoes Adam's statement about "houshold good" in 9.232-234. Compare this, however, to Adam's confidential talk with Raphael about Eve's beauty in 8.533-559.

appetence. Appetite.

troule. The OED2, citing this use of "troule," defines it as moving (the tongue) "volubly."

traines. Traps, wiles; see OED2. See also Samson Agonistes 533.

Mans effeminate slackness. Michael upbraids Adam for his simplistic misogyny in laying all the blame on Eve. Milton proposes a far more sophisticated, but still misogynistic, account of blame for the fall. Adam was the first to "yield up" his "manly grace/ And wisdom which alone is truly fair" (4.490-491) and to "fondly" subordinate his manliness to "femal charm" (9.999). Adam's disobedience, according to Milton, is also a failure of the self-esteem proper to manliness (8.568-575), and a failure to esteem Eve's beauty for what it is; in a sense, Adam allowed Eve, for a moment at least, to be his "god" (10.145). On "slackness," see also Tetrachordon; on "effeminacy," see Samson 410.

Concours. Hostile encounter; see OED2.

Giants. The offspring of the Sons of God and the "fair Atheists" (see earlier note).

fat Meddow. Fertile meadow.

call in. All one word in the 1674 edition: "callin"; I have taken the liberty of separating the two words.

ensanguind. Bloodied.

one rising, eminent. Enoch, the first of the "One Just Man" (line 681 below) heroes Milton lists. Enoch, according to Genesis 5:21-24 (Geneva), was the father of Methuselah, and he lived a godly life for 365 years; he never died for "God took him." Hebrews 11:5 says Enoch was "translated" "by faith." See also Enoch Chapter 14:8-9 and Sirach 44:16 and 49:14. Milton's treatment of Enoch and the other heroes from the Hebrew scriptures demonstrates his successionist view of history: these men are all regarded as prefigurations of Jesus, the most important and only fully successful of the "One Just Man" heroes.

Exploded. Hooted and jeered off the stage. See OED2.

Heroic Vertu'call'd. Readers will recall Milton's diatribe about traditional epic heroism in the early lines of book 9.

the seventh from thee. That is, the seventh generation, or Enoch; see Jude 1:14.

balmie Cloud. Elijah was taken up into the clouds in a similar manner (2 Kings 2:11). See also the closing lines of Damon's Epitaph.

Reverend Sire. Noah, the second in Milton's line of solitary Just Men. The story of Noah begins in Genesis 6:9 and ends in chapter 9. Milton also alludes to some details from Josephus's Antiquities 1.80.

seavens, and pairs. See Genesis 7:2.

Southwind. The description of the southwind recalls Ovid's narration of the Deucalion and Pyrrha story in Metamorphoses 1.264-226.

thou. Throughout book 11, Milton's narrator ("the epic voice") has been a passive observer describing the visions Adam has seen, but here, the narrator directly addresses Adam in a brief apostrophe.

Anough to bear. Echoes Matthew 6:34.

Which neither his foreknowing can prevent. See the Father's distinction between foreknowledge and predestination in 3.111-119.

period. The end stop punctuation is supplied.

denouncing. Proclaiming; see OED2.

rack. Destruction, as in "rack and ruin."

Orcs. The orc is a mythical sea monster.

Sea-mews. Seagulls.

hull. Drift or float.

North-winde. Again, echoing Metamorphoses 1.328.

Heav'n his windows. See Genesis 8:2.

Bow. The rainbow. See Genesis 8:21 and 9:8-17.

fire. See 2 Peter 3:5-7, 12-14.