new World. Satan's exploration of the garden also implies some critique of European colonization of the Americas. For a further exploration of the presence of colonial discourse in Paradise Lost, see Milton's Imperial Epic by J. Martin Evans.

violent wayes. Suicide; see below lines 999/1007.

entire. Undiminished (OED2).

complete. Fully able; sufficiently strong.

by this. By this time.

Entrance unseen. Satan's entrance is narrated at 9.68-76.

Celestial visages. Heavenly faces.

violated not thir bliss. We are meant to understand that the angels remain in perfect bliss even as they pity Adam and Eve and wonder at Satan's success. "Sad" and "sadness" in lines 18 and 23 must denote solemnity rather than distress of any kind (see OED2).

ethereal People. Angels, made of ethereal essence, but in the form of humanity.

approv'd. Vindicated. The angels apparently have not done wrong and so are hastily exonerated.

in Thunder. The Bible often represents God's voice as thunder or speaking in thunder or accompanied by thunder (Revelations 4: 5; 1 Samuel 7: 10). For God hidden in a cloud, see Exodus 19: 9.

Powers. Hierarchal rank of angels, but the idea of a military force seems implied as well.

speed. Succeed. See the Father's prediction in 3.92.

lightest moment of impulse. The slightest possible amount of weight that could be applied to a scale or force to a body at rest (see OED2).

His free Will. Does the personal pronoun here (and "Man" in line 41, "his" in line 43) refer to Adam alone or to both Adam and Eve? Was Adam "seduc't" to disobedience like Eve (line 41)? Is the Fall about Adam's disobedience or Eve's? Would "Man" have fallen if only Eve had been "seduc't"? For the Father's earlier discourse on Man's free will, see book 3. 97-134.

he presumes already vain. That is, Adam did not die on the day he transgressed as was promised in Genesis 2: 17. See the Geneva Bible gloss on this verse. See also Calvin's commentary on Genesis 2.

acquittance. Acquittal, exoneration.

bountie scorn'd. Flannagan glosses this as part of the financial image begun with "aquittance" above: "Since justice is given freely, it is unearned bounty and therefore should be welcomed, not scorned." But perhaps the Father is being sarcastic here; Adam may want to scorn such justice, but cannot?

Vicegerent. The Son can employ the full authority of the Father, and will serve as His deputy in judgement over Adam. See, for example Revelation 14: 14. See also John 5: 22.

might. 1667 (9.58) has "may" instead of "might".

voluntarie. For the account of the Son's volunteering, see 3.227-65.

well pleas'd. These words echo the voice of God at Jesus' baptism in Matthew 3:17. See also Paradise Regain'd 1.282-87.

so I undertook. See 3.227-65.

deriv'd. Diverted; or, once incarnated as a human being, Jesus will derive Adam's punishment from his mother's lineage.

Justice with Mercy. Compare this commonplace notion with Portia's speech in Merchant of Venice 4.1.191.

the third. Satan.

Convict. Accent on the second syllable, meaning convicted.

the Serpent. The Son will judge Adam and Eve; Satan has proved and demonstrated his guilt by fleeing; the serpent, of course, is innocent. But see Genesis 3: 14-15.

strait. As quickly as he could, right away.

cadence. Falling, sinking.

Eevning coole. Compare to the story in Genesis 3: 8.

voice of God. God speaks here through His Son, acting as His viceregent and referred to as God throughout the scene.

wont. Usually.

I miss thee here. Compare this to Adam's anticipation of and welcome for Raphael's arrival (5.308-320). The word "miss" carries the dual meaning of being unable to find and of being nostalgic for.

revile. Abuse, reproach.

I gave thee charge. See Genesis 3: 11 for the source of God's statement.

strait. "Narrowed or restricted condition" (see OED2).

other self. This phrase is familiar to the discourse of friendship and eros, beginning with Aristophanes' fanciful anthropology of the original globular humans in three sexes (Symposium 189d-192e ["human nature"]), and Aristotle's description of complete friendship in Nicomachean Ethics 1166a ("another self"). According to Eve's story, Adam used this language when he first spoke to her (4.487-88). For more examples of the discourse of friendship, see Pakaluk, ed. Other Selves: Philosophers on Friendship.

necessitie. The narrator in book 4.394 calls necessity the "Tyrant's plea."

Divine. Adam's language of Petrarchan praise borders on the idolatrous in referring to Eve as "Divine," and the Son's response a few lines later may thus appear appropriate.

seem'd to justifie. See Adam's similar remarks to Raphael about Eve in 8.547-567 and Raphael's rebuke.

thy God. The question implies an accusation of idolatry, that is, obeying Eve rather than the voice of God. See 1 Corinthians 11: 8-9.

perfection farr excell'd. Was Eve made to be "but equal" (147) to Adam in matters of guidance, or is this part of a rhetorical question with "Superior," implying that Eve was neither superior or even equal to Adam in such matters? The Son explicitly states that Adam, in his "Manhood," was placed by God "above her," since she was made of him, and that his "perfection" (or completeness) "farr excelled" hers in "dignitie" at least, if not in substance. In Feminist Milton, Joseph Wittreich appears to have misunderstood "feminism" more than he misunderstood Milton, but he ignores this passage and passages like it in Tetrachordon. See also others who think Milton not particularly sexist: Diane McColley and Barbara Lewalski; and those who recognize that his theology and metaphysics is sophisticatedly sexist: Mary Nyquist and Linda Gregerson.

part/ And person. Theatrical terms: role and character.

known thy self. Raphael counseled Adam to know himself and esteem himself justly in 8.570-575. See also John Guillory's brilliant essay, "Milton, Narcissism, Gender: On the Genealogy of Male Self-Esteem," and Richard Strier's "Milton against Humility."

Say Woman. Does the Son's use of "Woman" echo Adam's above (line 137)? Is it meant as a term of derision, or at least lack of respect? It certainly is different from the glorious epithets Adam routinely (and Raphael occasionally) applies to Eve earlier in the poem.

Line 167. "Since the serpent cannot speak, he cannot accuse Satan; and hence the first instance of God's justice after the fall is the condemnation of the only wholly innocent party to the crime." (Orgel & Goldberg 908). The problem of the serpent's guilt or innocence occupied many biblical commentators: see the Geneva Bible comment, for example; and Calvin's effort. The Father has already said "Conviction to the serpent none belongs" (line 84), but Milton here tries to rationalize the serpent's punishment as recorded in the Genesis story — though innocent, the serpent's body has been "vitiated in nature" (line 169) and so can never again be as it originally was created.

in mysterious terms. In Milton's usage, this usually means "allegorically," though some Miltonists would prefer the term "typologically." The implication, however, is that the punishment of the serpent is not really what it appears to be, but something else; it signifies or stands in for the punishment of Satan. Milton's use of the term in other places is interesting to trace: Il Penseroso 147, PL 3.516, 4.312, 4.741, 4.750, 8.599, Reason of Church Government 2, Tetrachordon Genesis, and later in the same. See also Don Cameron Allen's landmark book, Mysteriously Meant.

like Lightning. See Luke 10:18 and the Geneva Bible gloss.

Prince of the Air. See Ephesians 2:2.

Principalities and Powers. See Colossians 2:15 and the Geneva Bible notes.

Captivity led captive. Echoes Ephesians 4: 8, and in turn Psalm 68:18 and Geneva Bible notes.

fatal bruise. See Romans 16:20 in the Geneva Bible version.

Thine shall submit. Some commentators read this as the first institution of Eve's submission to Adam, but Milton has been clear that Eve submitted to Adam as her superior long before the fall (4.440-43 and 4.490). In the Genesis account, this is the advent of Eve's requirement to submit. Others see the reiteration of submission as an apt accompaniment to the pain-in-childbirth punishment. Otherwise Eve might respond by saying she will never submit to Adam's desire and so avoid the punishment. See Calvin's Commentary ( find "subjection"). It is as if we were being reminded that, according to Milton and maybe even Genesis, there is no such thing as rape in marriage.

to dust returne. See the Geneva Genesis 3:17-19.

Must suffer change. That is, seasons, including winter and cold and rainy nights, must now occur.

when he wash'd. See John 13: 5-17, where Jesus washes his disciple's feet.

or slain. "or . . . or" is equivalent to "either . . . or." The Son made clothes here either from slain beasts or from beasts who, like snakes, shed their skins regularly.

Opprobrious. Full of shame. See (OED2).

Robe of righteousness. See Isaiah 61: 10.

In counterview. Opposite each other.

Sin opening. Sin having opened the gates.

Wings growing. See 9.1009-11, where Adam and Eve fancy they grow wings of intoxication immediately following the fall. Their fall occurs simultaneous to this conversation between Sin and Death, and as Adam and Eve fall, Sin rises up on her "wings."

Or. "or . . . or" is equivalent to "either . . . or."

connatural force. Innate force linking one to another. Sin and Death were introduced in book 2.648.

must with. Supply "come" between these words.

Maine. The sea of Chaos, see book 2.919.

merit high. Satan, we were told in 2.5-6, was "by merit rais'd/ To that bad eminence."

intercourse. Coming and going.

transmigration. Permanent emigration.

Against. In anticipation of.

Feature. Form or shape; Death is not really a creature, but a feature of such a one.

Sagacious. On the scent.

Hovering upon the Waters. Sin and Death enact a parody of the Spirit's creative "brooding" in book 1.21.

shoaling. Pushing up shoals or sandbars as they go to form a causeway over the abyss of Chaos.

Cronian Sea. Arctic Ocean.

th' imagin'd way. The northern passage to Asia for which Henry Hudson sought in 1608.

Petsora. Or Pechora, a Siberian river.

Cathaian. Cathay was imagined to be a kingdom in the north of China, beyond the Great Wall.

Mace petrific. This may be a parodic image of the Pope and his symbolic mace; the Pope was often referred to in Latin as Pontifex maximus, or the greatest bridge builder, alluding to his role as uniter of the Church Universal (or Catholic). The Pope's apostolic authority was said to derive from the apostle Peter whose name in Greek also means "rock"; in Matthew 16:18 (Geneva), Christ appears by use of a pun to designate Peter ( petros, "this rock") as the foundation of his church.

cold and dry. When creating the worlds, Milton's God used warm and wet elements (7.236-237).

Delos floating. "When Leto, or Latona, was pregnant by Jupiter, Neptune created the floating island of Delos as a haven for her from the anger of Juno, and there she gave birth to the twins Apollo and Diana. Jupiter later anchored the island among the Cyclades" (Orgel & Goldberg 909).

Gorgonian rigor. Gorgons could turn people to stone with a glance; for example, the look of Medusa.

Asphaltic slime. See "asphalt" in the OED2. Asphalt slime or pitch was associated with hell in Ecclesiasticus 13:1. See also book 1.729.

Mole. Massive pier; "A great mass, large piece; the collective mass of any object," OED2.

Wall. Outer shell of the universe.

fenceless. Also now defenceless. Just as Neptune anchored Delos to the bottom of the sea, so now Earth is anchored to Hell, though the universe when created was, according to Milton, anchored to heaven (2.1051). C. S. Lewis, in his novel, Perelandra, reimagines Eden as floating islands on Venus, and that the first couple was forbidden to spend the night on the "fixed land."

inoffensive. With no obstacles. See also Matthew 7: 13-14.

scourg'd with many a stroak. According to Herodotus, when waves from a storm destroyed the bridge of ships that Xerxes had created to cross the Hellespont, he ordered the sea to be beaten with three hundred lashes (The History 7.35 ["lashes"]). Death's act of creating this bridge, which will inevitably be destroyed when the Day of Judgment comes, is as futile as Xerxes' act.

Susa. "The biblical Shushan, winter capital of the Persian kings, founded by Tithonus, the mythical lover of Aurora, by whom he had a son Memnon" (Hughes).

Hellespont. The narrow strait running between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea, and the dividing line between Europe and Asia.

Pontifical. Bridge-building, but also intending a pun on the papal adjective, thus associating the Pope with Sin, Death, and Hell and their invasion of the world.

the outside bare. Echoes the description in 3.418-26 of Satan's first landing on the newly-created world.

Adamant. Mythical substance of impenetrable hardness. Milton conjures a network of images of durable fixedness: Delos on the ocean floor, Satan with "Adamantine chains" to Hell (1.48), and now this world to Sin, Death, and Hell.

on the left hand Hell. Traditionally, the left hand (in Latin, sinister) side of anything was thought to betoken evil: Sin sprung from Satan's left side (2.755), Eve was created from a rib taken from Adam's left side (8.465), and on judgement day, the condemned goats will be assigned to the left side of the Son in judgment (Matthew 25: 33).

three sev'ral wayes. The three seperate and different ways are: from earth to Heaven marked by Jacob's ladder (3.510-15); from the outer edge of the universe to earth marked by Mount Sion (3.528-37); and now from earth to Hell marked by this bridge.

Centaure and the Scorpian. Constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio. Fowler notes: "The real reason for steering between the constellations of Sagittarius and Scorpio is . . . that the only constellation noticeably spread over these two signs is Angius, the serpent held by Ophiucus. . . . Angius has its head in Libra, and extends through Scorpio into Sagittarius. Accordingly, Satan enters the world in Libra . . . but leaves it between Scorpio and Sagittarius."

unweeting. Unaware.

list'ning where. For Satan as scopophile and eavesdropper, see Regina Schwartz, Remembering and Repeating 54-59.

faire / Inchanting Daughter. Sin is modeled on other enchantresses from Renaissance epics: Spenser's Acrasia in The Faerie Queene 2.12 for one.

Author and prime Architect. A parody of God's creation.

secret harmonie. See above, line 246. Another reference to the telepathic connection between Satan, Sin, and Death.

connexion sweet. Sin, of course, is Satan's daughter, born from his head at the moment of Satan's transgression, and also his lover and the mother of his only son, Death (2.746-790).

must after. Supply "follow" between these words.

consequence. "Such a fated relationship between cause and effect" (OED2).

portentous. The bridge is an ill omen because it signifies the ills that those who cross it will bring upon man.

vertue. Strength, particularly manly strength. See OED2.

Quadrature. Heaven here conceived as a square and the created universe as orbs within orbs (orbicular); see Revelation 21: 16. In his 1754 edition of PL, Thomas Newton noted: "This world is orbicular or round; the empyreal Heaven is a quadrature or square" (311n).

Antagonist. A literal translation of the name Satan.

Infernal Empire. The word choice evokes colonialism, and Satan's return to Hell is very much like the imagined return of a victorious colonizer.

Plenipotent. Deputies with full authority, parallel to Christ as God's agent on earth.

goe and be strong. Ironically, Satan is quoting scripture here. See Deuteronomy 31: 7, 8.

planet-strook. Suffering from unfavorable planetary influence. A baffling conundrum, Milton seems to be suggesting that the malign effects of planets and constellations originate with Sin and Death (set at liberty by Adam's disobedience), so that here planets and stars are the first to be "planet-strook." Belief in astrology was by no means universal in Milton's or even Shakespeare's day; see Edmund's mocking speech in King Lear 1.2.129-45.

Causey. Causeway.

Appointed to sit there. Sin had been appointed to guard the Gate (2.774-777).

Pandæmonium. Satan's capital; see 1.756.

by allusion calld. Lucifer is the name of Satan before his fall from Heaven, but is not used to refer to him after.

paragond. Compared.

Grand. Some fallen angels, in their pride, see themselves as "grand."

observ'd. Obeyed. Note that the angels who fell because of disobedience to God are obedient to a lesser figure, Satan.

Astracan. Tartar city on the Volga, near the Caspian Sea.

Bactian Sophi. The Persian Shah.

Aladule. Armenia.

Tauris or Casbeen. Tabriz or Kazvin, both in northern Iran.

Plutonian. Of the underworld; from Pluto, the classical god of the underworld. Satan enters Pandemonium disguised as a lowly footsoldier, only to make a surprising grand appearance once inside.

state. A Canopy of state.

fulgent. Radiant.

permissive glory. That is, whatever glory God has permitted him to possess or display. See also 3.685.

Stygian. Of the River Styx, according to Greek and Roman fables, the river of the underworld.

Bent thir aspect. That is, "turned their faces towards."

divan. Persian councils of state were often conducted on richly-cushioned steps called divans (see OED2).

uncouth passage. Uncharted, unknown way.

unoriginal. Orgel and Goldberg (910n) gloss this word as "Eternal, without any origin" following the OED2. Flannagan detects quite an opposite sense: "Night is 'unoriginal' because it did not exist before God created it: thus Satan is unconsciously admitting God's creation" (638 n.178). The question is whether, in Milton's cosmology, darkness and/or Night antedates creation. Certainly Genesis 1.2 (Geneva) suggests that the "darkness" on the "face of the deep" antedates God's creative activity, and Milton refers to Chaos as "The womb of nature" and "perhaps" full of the "dark materials" out of which God might "create more worlds" if he so chooses (2.911-916; see Calvin's Commentary ["bohu"]). "Darkness profound/ Cover'd th'Abyss" we are told in book 7 as the Son rides in "Paternal Glorie" into Chaos to begin creation (7.233-34). On his trip across Chaos, Satan meets "Sable-vested Night, eldest of things" and Chaos's consort (2.962). Since book 7 speaks of God as having created light (7.243) and then divided it from "darkness" (7.250-51), perhaps this suggests that darkness is "unoriginal" in Orgel and Goldberg's sense of not created. And perhaps when God calls the darkness "Night" (7. 251-52; Genesis 1: 5), Night came into being, but darkness existed already.

fiercely opposed. In fact, Night offered no opposition, and Chaos offered Satan what direction he could: see book2.999-1009. But perhaps there is a distinction to be made between the place, Chaos, a place very difficult for Satan to negotiate, and the personification, "Chaos," who offers to help Satan. See Schwartz, Remembering on the matter of an ambivalent Chaos.

an Apple. Of course Genesis never specifies what sort of fruit grew on the Tree of Knowledge, but Satan reduces it to a common apple both here and in 9.585. The narrator in Paradise Regain'd 2.349 also calls the fruit an apple and Milton refers to it as an apple in Areopagitica.

with a bruise. Satan imagines his doom as a mere bruise, not comprehending, or not wishing to accept, his mortal fate.

supplanted. Overthrown; tripped up.

monstrous Serpent. See Ovid's Metamorphoses 4. 575-89 for the story of Cadmus turning into a serpent.

complicated. Intertwined.

Amphisbaena. A fabulous serpent with a head at either end, described in Lucan's Pharsalia 9.798-99 (Amphisbaena). The same text identifies Medusa as the source of all serpents.

Cerastes. Four-horned serpent. DuBartas' Divine Weeks and Works offers a catalogue of snakes and serpents from pythons to dragons and mentions these odd names.

Hydrus and Ellops. Water snake and swordfish.

Dipsas. Mythical snake whose bite caused violent thirst.

soil. After Perseus slew Medusa, serpents sprang from the blood that dropped from her severed head.

Ophiusa. Snake-filled, an ancient name given to Rhodes and several other Greek islands.

Python. Snakes once were thought spontaneously to generate from an interaction of sun on the mud flats. See Ovid's Metamorphoses 1. 421-40 for the story of the origins of snakes, Python, and the Pythian games.

Sublime. Raised up. See OED2.

now changing. Supply "into."

exploding. See "explode," meaning to drive from the stage with a disapproved hiss, in OED2.

bait of Eve. The narrator's use of the word "bait" is troubling, since it implies entrapment. Are we to regard Eve as entrapped and deceived, but Adam as undeceived and so more precisely transgressive? See 9.997-999.

they. 1674 misprints "thy" for "they"; see 1667 (9.558).

Megaera. One of the three Furies or goddesses who avenge crime; like Medusa, they had snaky locks.

that bituminous Lake. The Dead Sea; Sodom, the notorious city of vicious pleasures, was on the Dead Sea before it was destroyed by God; see Genesis 13-19; see also Deuteronomy 32: 32.

drugd. Nauseated.

Ophion with Eurynome. The first king and queen of Olympus; Ophion means "serpent," Eurynome means "wide-ruling." For the Ophion and Eurynome story, see Appolonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 1.503.

Encroaching Eve perhaps. Flannagan believes that Milton adduces the pagan fable of Eurynome as a "shadowy type" of Eve's actions here. This would be, to Milton's way of thinking, anachronistic.

Ops. Rhea, Saturn's wife.

now in body. The distinction between being there in "actual" power and "in body" may owe something to Paul's phrase "body of sin" in Romans 6: 6. Perhaps the passage also suggests that Adam's transgression has now given a body to what was once a personified abstract power; he has embodied Sin. This certainly sorts well with the notion, expressed in 9.999 and 11.634 that Adam's sin involves "effeminate slackness."

pale Horse. See Revelation 6: 8.

ravin. Prey, or ravenous hunger. See OED2.

I in Man residing. That is, Sin living in human beings and so congenitally infecting them. The image certainly encourages the idea that what is sinful in Man is feminine as Sin is feminine (daughter of Satan). Death is portrayed here as a carrion eater who shall devour man after Sin prepares him. See also James 1:15.

havoc. Combined with "Dogs of Hell" (616), this echoes Antony's famous cry in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar 3.1.273.

Folly to mee. God sees that Sin and Death, and the fallen angels, mock him with their trespass into his pristine creation.

conniving. Winking, shutting the eyes.

draff. Dregs, offal, dreck.

Heav'n and Earth renew'd. Encompasses the whole universe. See Milton's Christian Doctrine 1.33.

multitude. See Revelation 19: 6.

Just are thy ways. The heavenly choir here appears to sing a coda, as it were, to the entire poem's purpose as specified in 1.27.

extenuate thee. Decrease your due honor.

from Heav'n descend. See Revelation 21: 10, where Jerusalem, the holy city, descends from the Heavens.

precept. Command.

blanc. White.

th'other five. That is, the planets.

Sextile, Square, and Trine, and Opposite. Sextile: 60 degrees, square (quartile): 90, trine 120, opposite 180.

noxious efficacie. Malign influence.

Synod. Conjunction. Would ordinarily be benign, composed of church leaders.

Thir corners. The winds were usually represented as originating in the four corners of the world.

Som say. Here and in the lines that follow we hear some ambiguity concerning geocentric and heliocentric models of creation. The first assumes a solar system; the second a geosystem.

Reines. The reigns of the sun god Apollo's chariot.

Taurus. Milton describes seasonal constellation variation. Taurus is the bull, the "Atlantick Sisters" are the Pleiades, the "Spartan" Twins are Gemini. Combined with the Crab of Cancer, Leo, Virgo, and Libra, these are all the known constellations above the Tropic of Capricorn.

vernant. "Flourishing or growing in spring" (See OED2, citing this instance).

Equal in Days and Nights. "To account for the prelapsarian 'eternal spring', Milton assumes that before the fall the sun's course coincided with the celestial equator. Alternative explanations are given for its present course, moving between the tropics of Cancer in the spring and Capricorn in the autumn, and the consequent change of the seasons: if the universe is heliocentric, the earth was tilted on its axis; if geocentric, the sun changed its route" (Orgel & Goldberg 912).

Estotiland. A land imagined to be in northern Labrador.

Magellan. The Magellan Strait is the near southernmost tip of South America.

Thyestean Banquet. From the myth of Thyestes and Atreus, in which Thyestes seduced Atreus' wife and Atreus in revenge killed Thyestes' sons and served their flesh to him unsuspecting. The sun, it was said, turned away from such a horror just as it turns here from the world.

sideral blast. Evil influence from the stars.

Norumbega. Roughly what is now northern New England and south eastern Canada.

Samoed shoar. Northeastern Siberia.

Dungeon. According to Virgil's Aeneid 1. 56-123, Aeolus kept the winds in a cave covered with mountains until he needed them.

flaw. A sudden burst or squall; see OED2.

Boreas and Caecias and Argestes. Various winds. Milton produces quite a display of wind arcana here, telling of the eternal battle of the winds. For details see Gordon Campbell, "Milton's Catalogue of the Winds."

Serraliona. Sierra Leone on the west African coast.

Levant and Potent. East and west.

Sirocco, and Libecchio. Italian names for south-east and south-west winds.

Discord. In Greek mythology, Eris or Discordia. Legend says she tossed an apple addressed "To the Fairest" amongst the goddesses and so prompted the contest in which Paris judged Aphrodite the fairest. His reward was Helen, already the wife of Menelaus. Hence the Trojan War.

to graze the Herb. That is, vegetarianism giving way to meat-eating.

troubl'd Sea. See Isaiah 57: 20.

sad complaint. Adam's soliloqy follows in which he mimics Hamlet's famous speech, 3.1.58 contemplating whether living is worth the trouble. His analysis of his situation under original sin is very accurate.

propagated curse. The notion that sin propagates itself especially in the activities of eating, drinking, and sex derives from Aristotle's sense of "sophrosyne" in the Nicomachean Ethics 1147b, and Thomas Aquinas' Christian redactions of Aristotle. See also Michel Foucault's The Use of Pleasure.

Encrease and multiply. See Genesis 1: 28.

Ill fare our Ancestor impure. Adam imagines his posterity speaking of him some ages hence. Eerily, it is as if Adam both addresses and ventriloquizes the reader here.

Mine own. That is, curses.

Maker. See Isaiah 45: 9. Adam's sense of injustice mixes uneasily with his expressions of ingratitude.

And equal. The punishment should fit the crime, and because Adam's crime is that his will and being are separated, his body should be destroyed.

beget. See Isaiah 45: 10. 1674 has no end-of-line punctuation; 1667 has a colon.

election. Choice.

Fixd on this day. See Genesis 3: 3 for God's injunction.

Mothers lap. Adam wishes for his substance to become earth once again; as a return to Mother Earth.

Thou didst accept them. Again Adam addresses himself in the second person.

All of me then shall die. Adam reasons his way to mortalism, the (heretical) doctrine that souls die along with bodies.

Line 801. Although both 1674 and 1667 have a comma after "he", almost all modern editors omit it. Since commas in Paradise Lost indicate speech breaks and breaths, and this seems not an likely place for Adam to breath or pause, I have left the comma.

living Death. An eternal damnation. See Samson Agonistes 100.

Nature's Law. "That general law which is the origin of everything, and under which everything acts" (Christian Doctrine 1. 2).

bereaving sense. Depriving of power of sensation.

incorporate. Unite into one body.

Mind and Will deprav'd. All humanity, according to this doctrine, bears some moral depravity, a legacy of original sin.

Forc't I absolve. Adam feels compelled to admit that God is justified in punishing him. So Adam (as the angels in lines 643-645 above) concludes the theodical argument of the poem. See 1.26.

On mee, mee onely. See 3.236-37, the Son's assumption of responsibility, and Eve's statement of blame below at 935-6.

To Satan only like. But see 3.130-132.

denounc't. Proclaimed or announced.

thou Serpent. "It has been noted as early as the ancient rabbinic commentators that the name Eve is related to old Semitic words, that is, in Phoenician and Aramaic, for 'serpent'" (Orgel & Goldberg 913).

pretended. Literally, stretched out. See OED2.

longing to be seen. This accusation, though unfair in the instance Adam specifies, does however indicate the character of Eve's desire — the desire to be desired; see the "watry image" episode in 4.461-66.

overweening. Arrogant.

but a shew. See Raphael's characterization of Eve's beauty as "shews" rather than "reality" in 8.575.

part sinister. Left, or ominous, side. Adam's antifeminist diatribe has a long tradition in popular literature and invites comparison to the Chorus's lines in Samson Agonistes 1025-60.

supernumerarie. Reference to the traditional belief that Adam was made with an extra, thirteenth, rib for the later creation of Eve. Milton almost certainly did not hold this opinion.

noveltie. Adam points out that Eve was created second and so was "novel" compared to the creation of man. Contemporary writers, both pro- and antifeminist, argued about the significance of firstness and lastness in creation. Humans were created last, some said, to signify their superiority to all else, so also women compared to men. Adam argues that secondariness implies inferiority, even pointless novelty. See Mary Nyquist, "The Genesis of Gendered Subjectivity."

without Feminine. Adam's notion that all angels are "Spirits Masculine" (line 890) appears true to Milton's imagined universe, but not quite in the negative way he intends it here. True we never hear of an angel in Paradise Lost that is referred to as "she" or has a feminine name. It is also true that angels can "either sex assume, or both" whenever they wish (1.424). Still, no angel, fallen or unfallen, appears as a female in this poem or any other of Milton's poems. Raphael speaks very highly and honorably of Eve, never suggesting she is superfluous or serpent-like, or a novelty, though he does say she is clearly inferior to Adam and more given to "shows" than to "realities" (8.570-575). Eve says as much in 4.489-91. Milton embraces much the same misogynistic lore as Adam, but without the bitter sneering attitude. See also Tetrachordon.

strait conjunction. Close connection; "conjunction" was often taken to mean both marriage and sexual intercourse at the time.

fit Mate. A translation of "help meet" from Genesis 2:18. See also Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce 1.2 and 1.3.

tresses all disorderd. Eve seems genuinely repentant, with her gentle words and supplication to Adam. Compare with Adam's unrighteous anger and blame. The mention of hair and feet recalls the image of Mary Magdalene and Jesus in Luke 7:38.

deceav'd. See 1 Timothy 2: 13-14 and book 9.998-999.

Mee mee onely. See 832 for Adam's mirror line, and 3.236-37 for the Son's.

his aide. Eve's submission helps Adam return to himself; it is important not to mistake Eve's submission, which according to Milton is proper to her creation, for the kind of sacrifice the Son offers. Critics who refer to Eve's offer to take the punishment upon herself as Christ-like make what Milton would probably consider a category mistake.

lest part. An unusually clumsy-sounding line: "You are not well able to endure the full wrath of him (God) whose anger you only as yet feel the teeniest part."

on my head. Contrast with 133, where Adam freely laid much of the blame on Eve before God.

deriv'd. Passed down.

Living or dying. These words echo Adam's reasons for partaking of the fruit in 9.954, where he declares he would rather die than lose Eve.

As in our evils. In such an evil situation as ours.

descent. Descendants.

yet unbegot. Eve's words would imply that Adam and Eve have, as yet, conceived no offspring even though they have certainly had conjugal relations (4.741-743). Aside from Milton, most commentators believed that Adam and Eve did not experience coitus until after the fall. Augustine believed that sexual intercourse would have been entirely without lust, and so without shame before the fall, and that it is never free of lust or shame after the fall. See Augustine, City of God 14.21.

So Death. In 1674 and 1667, these words appear here, but almost all editors have moved it back to the end of 989 to regularize the meter. I have preferred to leave it as it is in 1674.

Conversing. Cohabiting.

present object. Eve herself, standing in Adam's presence.

miserie. Misprinted "meserie" in 1674, but "miserie" in 1667 (9.997).

his more attentive minde. See "higher intellectual" in 9.483.

contumacie. Willful disobedience.

Reluctance. Struggling, resistance.

Fruit of thy Womb. The phrase echoes Luke 1: 42.

aslope. Falling aslant, missing the true target. Adam is attempting to make the best of the situation.

this diurnal star. The sun.

with matter sere foment. That is, kindle a fire by directing the sun's beams onto dry kindling ("matter sere").

attrite. Worked by friction. Milton imagines that Adam knows instinctively how to kindle fire, but it is a skill called forth by the necessities of fallenness. Fire was considered unneccesary before; see 5.331-49.

Tine. Kindle.

thwart. Slanting.

supplie the Sun. That is, replace the sun's energy. Before sinning, Adam was "Guiltless of fire" (9.392) because it was unnecessary.

Frequenting. Filling.

Lines 1089-92 and 1101-03. Some readers find the repetition of lines 1086-1092 in lines 1098-1104 jarring; others find it a soothing coda. Given that there are several echoes of the Book of Common Prayer (1559) (search "humbly") in Adam's speech, perhaps the repetition suggests that there is something more of ritual prescription to Adam's interactions with God than there was before the fall. See 4.736-738, for example, where Adam and Eve spontaneously and unritualistically speak an evening prayer.