Introduction. Milton first published Of Education in 1644 as a rather informal looking, eight-page pamphlet without a title page, date, or publisher's name. The tract was reprinted in 1673 as part of the second edition of Milton's collected early poems in a volume called Poems, etc. upon several occasions. . . With a small tractate of Education — to Mr. Hartlib (see the title page in a new window).

Of Education is Milton's contribution to contemporary debate about methods of education, which in turn was part of a larger discussion about how the Church should be organized and how the State should be governed. In the Yale edition of 1928, editor Oliver Ainsworth wrote

In substance, Milton's tractate generally agrees with the humanistic theory of education that grew up in Western Europe during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, under the impulse of the Revival of Learning. This theory is marked by two or three outstanding characteristics, all of which are prominent in Milton's treatise. One of these is a clearer consciousness, among teachers and students, of education as a discipline for active life. A second is an insistence upon the more extensive reading of ancient writers, both classical and Christian, as the principal means of securing this discipline. A third characteristic is an attitude of severe and often hostile criticism toward medieval education and culture. (Ainsworth 8)

The theories of the Moravian divine and now renowned educator, John Amos Comenius (1592-1670), focused debate on educational reform, especially concerning the teaching of Latin. Comenius championed the idea of a "natural method" (Riggs 448). Gauri Viswanathan writes, "Comenius's empiricist bias had a predominantly theological interest that appealed to Puritan reformers, for he saw in the knowledge of nature, and the ways that nature reveals its secrets, the fundamental source of spiritual meaning and purpose" (Viswanathan 3). His ideas attracted the attention of Samuel Hartlib, a Prussian emigrant and merchant who gained prominence as a Puritan educator. Hartlib assembled a circle of trusted advisors dedicated to reforming the process of education along lines suggested by Comenius's theories. In her article "Milton and the Hartlib Circle: Educational Projects and Epic Paideia," Barbara Lewalski describes their "disgust" for Aristotelian scholasticism - "the logic chopping, metaphysical subtleties, and rhetorical emphases of the trivium" (Lewalski 204) - that was associated with the Catholic Church. Milton was not a member of this assembly, but he did communicate with them and he shared a keen interest in their ideas. Concerning his relationship to the group, Lewalski writes: "Milton conceived of education and learning in his own terms, which are in dialogue with, but not ... in close agreement with, the projects of the Hartlib Circle" (Lewalski 202).

Many of the ideas articulated in Of Education were inspired by Comenius. For example, Milton believed that education should move from experiences of the senses to the corresponding abstract concepts, that the educational process should be rigorous but also delightful, and that young students (always assumed to be exclusively boys) should study a wide variety of languages, ancient and modern, and read a wide variety of texts. He also agreed with the Moravian scholar that the current methods of learning Latin and Greek were a waste of time (Lewalski 209). However, while the Hartlib Circle endorsed the university system and sought to reform it, Milton "scornfully repudiated university education for arts students and ministers ... He denounced the Aristotelian scholastic university curriculum as a "'Lernian bog' of fallacies" (208). Milton also disagreed with the Circle on the final goal of education. While Comenius "proposed a pleasurable method of education applicable to and intended for all — boys and girls, the able and the dull, all social ranks," Milton expressed historical and literary study as "steadfast pillars of the State" and believed that "the object of education was to make good citizens of the state" (Viswanathan 3). For Milton, the education of women was not a relevant issue, since they could not be "brave men and worthy patriots."

Such disagreements with his contemporaries suggest that Milton drew heavily on his own educational experiences in forming his opinions. During the three years just prior to his acceptance at Cambridge, Milton studied at St. Paul's School, a small boys' school founded by John Colet and influenced by both Erasmus and Thomas More (Ackroyd 130) that was dedicated to a humanist (and largely anti-scholastic) approach to learning. His practical suggestions in Of Education were based on his good experience at St. Paul's and on his bad experiences under his first tutor at Cambridge, William Chapell (Flannagan 978). He also drew on "his experience (from 1640-46) in running a school in his home for his nephews and other boys, [and on] the highly disciplined five-year reading program he undertook after university at his father's charge" (Lewalski 208). From the testimony of one of his nephews and pupils, Edward Phillips, it appears that Milton was able to put many of his ideas into practice. Among other things, his school enacted the reversal of the normal educational order that he so strongly despised, and consequently facilitated the learning of Latin and Greek in a very short period of time (Flannagan 978).

Part of this "reversal" was the elevation of the art of poetry to the same level as skills such as rhetoric and logic. Many critics have speculated as to why Milton included Of Education in the 1673 printing of his early poems; perhaps it was a recognition on his part that the tract's attitude towards education in general and poetry in particular was fundamental to an understanding of his juvenalia.

An even more popular area of scholarly speculation is how Of Education can shed light on readings of Paradise Lost. Many critics think that the pamphlet's principles underlie the teaching Adam enjoys from the angels Raphael and Michael, and even in his conversation with the Father (PL 8.316-451). Ann Baynes Coiro sees Michael, in Books 11 and 12, as leading Adam "through an education that exactly parallels, down to the smallest detail, the 'methodical course' that Milton had delineated with such precision in his educational tractate" (Coiro133). In his essay "Divine Instruction: Of Education and the Pedagogy of Raphael, Michael, and the Father," Michael Allen argues that Raphael and Michael serve as foils for the Father, who is "the ideal schoolmaster." He sees the two angels as representative of Milton's "paradoxical teaching method... whereby teachers offer 'lectures and explanations' so as to 'lead and draw' their students 'in willing obedience, inflamed with the study of learning and the admiration of virtue." It is the Father who "combines left and right" as the "embodiment" of Milton's educational principles (Allen 114).

Barbara Lewalski believes that Milton's poetry offers a more effective education than any of the reforms debated in the seventeenth century: "Milton's poems undertake directly what his educational projects and anti-censorship arguments could only propose: that is, to develop the moral and political consciousness of a now self-selected 'fit audience,' through a literary regimen at once intellectually arduous and delightful" (Lewalski 219).

The copytext for this edition of Of Education is a copy of Milton's 1673 Poems, etc. in the Rauner Library at Dartmouth College (Hickmot 173).

Katherine Lynch and Thomas H. Luxon

far country. Samuel Hartlib, though educated at Cambridge and a resident of England, was born in Prussia (Orgel and Goldberg 817).

voluntary. Arising or developing in the mind without external constraint; having a purely spontaneous origin or character. (OED2).

Idea. The italics might suggest that Milton is trying to emphasize the term and connect it to the concept of "forms" discussed so often by Plato (Flannagan 980).

Janua's and Didactics. Milton refers to two works by Comenius — the Janua Linguarum Reserata and the Great Didactic. The Janua is an elementary introduction to Latin and to the study of other languages, which had numerous precursors and imitators calling themselves "Doorways" to language study. The Great Didactic exerted a wide influence through men like Hartlib, who made an abstract of it in his abridgement of Comenius' larger work, Pansophia (Hughes 631).

flowr'd off. Come to flower.

ruines of our first parents. Milton, like Francis Bacon, believed that before the fall Adam possessed "a pure light of natural knowledge" (see Bacon's Of the Interpretation of Nature) and that he forfeited this perfect knowledge when he ate of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.

conning over. Studying or poring over.

vacancies. Holidays or other vacations from school.

preposterous exaction. A premature requirement, reversing the more natural order of things.

copious invention. These are precise terms in classical rhetoric. Invention refers to the knowledge or discovery of everything pertinent to any topic, and copiousness or copia refers to the variety and fullness of their treatment. Erasmus of Rotterdam wrote an entire treatise on rhetorical copia

barbarizing. Unidiomatic Latin phrases or expressions were called barbarisms.

Anglicisms. Latin or Greek words pronounced or spelled like English words (OED2).

judicious conversing. Flannagan explains the connotation of this phrase as: "holding a dialogue or reasonable conversation; learning rather than just reading; digesting as compared with the simple act of eating" (981). This distinction between books to be tasted and books to be "chewed" and "digested" is one made by Bacon in Of Books and Reading (Hughes 631) when he writes, "Some books are to be tasted; others swallowed; and some to be chewed and digested."

praxis. Practice.

Arts. The traditional seven liberal arts were: Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, and Music.

unmatriculated. Those students new to the university, barely oriented to its ways and practices.

Logick. Milton also rails against ignorance and poor teaching in Prolusion 7: "What about logic? That is indeed the queen of the Arts, if taught as it should be, but unfortunately how much foolishness there is in reason! Its teachers are not like men at all, but like finches which live on thorns and thistles."

Metapysicks. Metaphysics is that branch of speculative inquiry which treats of the first principles of things, including such concepts as being, substance, essence, time, space, cause, identity, etc.; theoretical philosophy as the ultimate science of Being and Knowing (OED2).

controversie. School exercises often took the form of debates or controversies.

Babblements. Incoherent, imperfect, or idle talk; thoughtless or unseasonable chatter, babble (OED2). Milton invented this word, derived from the biblical tale of the Tower of Babel (Flannagan 981).

Divinity. Career as a minister. In the 1640s, an English minister was been called a "divine."

litigious terms. Seasons when law courts were in session with a full docket of cases and suits.

shifts. Fraudulent or evasive devices or stratagems; subterfuges (OED2).

tyrannous Aphorisms. Maxims justifying absolute authority for kings or divine-right monarchy, but also implying that aphorisms tend to tyrannize over thought and reflection.

delicious. Highly pleasing or enjoyable to the bodily senses, especially to the taste or smell; affording exquisite sensuous or bodily pleasure (OED2).

airie. Unsubstantial, vain, empty; unreal, imaginary. Also "superficial" (OED2).

Orpheus. Legendary poet and singer said to have the power to civilize even beasts with his songs. For other important references made by Milton to Orpheus, see L'Allegro 144 and Il Penseroso 104 and Paradise Lost 7.34-39.

stocks and stubbs. This phrase refers back to the "dullest and laziest youth," and is synonymous with "blockhead" (Orgel and Goldberg 818).

hale. An obsolete spelling of "hail," meaning "to call out in order to attract attention" (OED2).

sowthistles. See also The Reason of Church Government 2 , in which Milton attacks the "thorny lectures of monkish and miserable sophistry."

War. Hughes indicates that Milton's definition of the civic objectives of education recalls Plato's Laws 643b.

peculiar. Distinguished in nature, character, or attributes from others; particular, special (OED2).

Physick. Medicine.

Lilly. This refers to William Lily (1468?-1522) whose Beginning Book in Latin "was the standard Latin grammar in all English schools after it was authorized by Henry VIII" (Flannagan 982). It continued to be used, in revised editions, for more than two centuries (Hughes 633).

absolute. Of numbers, parts: complete. (OED2).

Civility. The status of a citizen; citizenship (OED2).

convenience of. "Number appropriate for" (Orgel and Goldberg 818).

foot Company. Infantry company.

Italian. "Unlike most Englishmen, Milton believed that Italian should be a guide to the pronounciation of Latin" (Hughes 633). In a letter to his Italian friend, Benedetto Buonmattei, Milton urged him to supplement his Italian grammar with a section on pronounciation: "To Benedetto Buommattei, of Florence... I am wont so earnestly to request of you - to wit, that to your work already begun, and in greater part finished, you would, to te utmost extent that the case will permit, add yet, in behalf of us foreigner, some little appendix concerning the right pronounciation of the language" (Ainsworth 143).

smatter. To dirty, smirch, pollute, defile (OED2).

Law-French. The language in which legal reports were written. French was the official language of the English court well into Chaucer's time and a version of middle French persisted in law courts in Milton's day.

Cebes. Cebes was thought to be a pupil of Socrates. Milton recommends his The Table, "which describes the ascent of children up to a garden inhabited by wise men." During Milton's time, it was printed with the original Greek and a Latin translation in facing columns - a popular device for classical education (Flannagan 982).

Socratic discourses. "Many of Plutarch's essays in the Moralia - especially 'On the Education of Children' and 'On the Daemon of Socrates' - were among the Socratic discourses often used as elementary texts, either in the original Greek or in parallel Latin" (Hughes 633).

Quintilian. This first-century author wrote the most famous and widely used manual of oratory in England at the time, the Instutio Oratoria. This work also contained a course of education for children, beginning at birth (Flannagan 982). Quintialian's influence on Of Education is evident in the tract's emphasis on the Renaissance conviction that all study, especially that of mathematics, should be made to seem like play" (Hughes 633).

temper. To regulate suitably to need or requirement; to fit, adapt, conform, accommodate, make suitable (OED2).

study. desire, inclination; pleasure or interest felt in something (OED2).

liberall. Those arts "becoming a gentleman" (OED2).

Authors of Agriculture. Each of the Roman authors listed produced a treatise on agriculture. Cato (234-149 BCE) wrote De Agricultura, Varro (116-27 BCE) wrote De Re Rustica and Columella (1st century CE) also wrote a De re rustica.

Hercules. Orgel and Goldberg indicate that "the cleansing of the Augean stables was read, after Pliny (Natural History 17.50), as an allegory of the beginning of the manuring of Italian soil" (819).

natural Philosophy. The study of the natural world. A standard text in this field was Aristotle's Natural History of Animals.

Historical Physiology of Aristotle. This refers to Aristotle's zoological works, such as the Historia Animalium and De Generatione Animalium.

Theophrastus. Theophrastus was a pupil of Aristotle and his successor at the Peripatetic school in Athens.

Vitruvius. Marco Vitruvius Pollo, the first-century Roman author of De Architectura, a treatise highly valued by architects throughout western Europe in the Renaissance.

Senecas naturall questions. Lucius Amaeus Seneca (4 BCE-65 CE) authored the Natural Questions.

Mela. Pomponius Mela (first-century CE) was the author of the geographical descriptions of the known continents in De Situ Orbis (Latin).

Celsus. Aulus Cornelius Celsus (first century CE) wrote the famous medical treatise De Medicina, a standard text for Renaissance physicians.

Pliny. Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE) wrote the Historiae Naturalis which Flannagan calls "a hodgepodge of fascinating natural observations on social and geographical issues" (982-3).

Solinus. Gaius Julius Solinus (third-century CE) compiled geographic descriptions of the known world, and especially of the British Isles.

compact. A combination, composition (OED2).

Enginry. Military engineering.

Institution of Physick. The teaching of medicine.

The tempers, the humours, the seasons. The "humours theory" of the body was developed by Hippocrates in ancient Greece, and was later revised by Aristotle and Galen. A person's character depended on how the four humours were mixed and tempered in his or her body. Orgel and Goldberg elaborate on these ideas: "The physics of the four elements (fire, air, earth, water) included four corresponding temperaments (choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic) in turn correspnding to four bodily humours (yellow bile, blood, phlegm, black bile); medicine involved a knowledge of these and their seasonal correspondences as well" (819).

crudity. "The state of being imperfectly digested, or the quality of being indigestible; indigestion; also, in old physiology, imperfect 'concoction' of the Humours; undigested (or indigestible) matter in the stomach " (OED2).

Seminary. The word here implies its literal sense as a "seed-bed for ideas" along with its more conventional sense of a school.

Orpheus. Like many in his day, Milton probably regarded the legendary poet of Greek mythology as the author of an extant work, the Lithica, a poem about the properties of precious and other stones.

Hesiod. This philosopher of the 8th century BCE wrote The Works and Days, an epic poem about the beginnings of everything.

Theocritus. This Greek poet (300 - 260 BCE ) was regarded as the first pastoral poet. His poems were termed "eidyllia" ("idylls"), a diminutive of eidos, which may mean "little poems." See a selection of his idylls in translation.

Aratus. A Greek poet of Soli in Cilicia (flourished from about 315-245 BCE, best remembered for his poem Phaenomena, a didactic poem in hexameter on constellations and weather signs.

Nicander. A Greek poet and physician of the second century BCE, Nicander wrote the Therica (on venomous animals) and the Alexipharaca (on poisons and their antidotes).

Oppian. Oppian's Halieutica is a poem on fish and angling from the second century BCE.

Dionysius. The Periegesis of Dionysius, (fourth century BCE) written in hexameter verse, surveys the geography of the ancient world.

Lucretius. Milton greatly admired the De rerum natura of Lucretius, a Latin poet and philosopher in the first century BCE.

Manilius. The last of the didactic poets, Manilius (1st century CE) was the author of The Astronomica, an unfinished poem on astronomy and astrology.

rural part of Virgil. This refers to Virgil's Eclogues and Georgics.

time. The students in the academy Milton envisions would be at the end of their third or fourth year of a curriculum which they would have begun at age twelve and which they would end at age twenty (Hughes 635).

Proairesis. Artistotle's term for the intellectual process of distinguishing good from evil. This idea is expounded on in the Nicomachean Ethics.

morall works of Plato, Xenophon. Milton paired the works of Plato and Xenophon as "the divine volumes of Plato, and his equal Xenophon" in An Apology. Both wrote dialogues on the topic of love entitled Symposium. See Plato's Symposium and Xenophon's Symposium.

Laertius. Diogenes Laertius (second or third-century BCE) wrote Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, a popular text in early modern Italy. For an example of his work, see book 10, which is devoted to Epicurus.

Locrian remnants. This refers to On the Soul of the World and Nature, supposedly written by Timaeus of Locri (Flannagan 983).

reduc't. Led back, recalled (Orgel and Goldberg 820) and see OED2.

Economics. Household management (OED2).

Trachiniae. This domestic play was written by Sophocles about Dejanira, the widow of Hercules.

Alcestis. Euripides' household drama, Alcestis presents the story of the wife of Admetus, who according to Greek mythology sacrificed her own life in order to bring him back from the dead. She also appears in Milton's sonnet 23, "Methought I saw My Late Espoused Saint."

Moses. The preface of The Reason of Church-Government is an example of the great respect that Milton had for Moses, supposed author of the Torah or Pentateuch.

Licurgus. Lycurgus. Milton most likely refers here to the legendary principal architect of the constitution of Sparta. Some editors have also suggested the 4th century BCE Athenian statesman and orator. Only one of his speeches survives today, Against Leocrates, in which Lycurgus indicts Leocrates for cowardice at the Battle of Chaeronea. Plutarch wrote a life of Lycurgus, in a collection of Lives of the Ten Orators.

Solon. A Greek legislator who framed the constitution of Athens. He appears in Plutarch's Lives.

Zaleucus. The author, in the 7th century BCE, of a constitution for the Greek colony of Locri Epizephyrii, located in what is now southern Italy.

Charondas. The organizer of a legal system in Catana (present-day Sicily), around 500 BCE.

Justinian. Emperor of the Eastern Empire, Justinian I (527-65 CE) was a force behind the codification of Roman civil law.

Chaldey. The Chaldean dialect was spoken in the area known to the ancient Hebrews as Chaldea.

Syrian. Also known as "Christian Aramaic," this is the language of the oldest manuscript of the synoptic gospels -- Matthew, Mark, and Luke.

Attic tragedies. Of or pertaining to Attica, or to its capital Athens (OED2). See also Il Penseroso 97.

Demosthenes. A 4th century BCE Athenian statesman, Demosthenes' oratory is reputed to have aroused Athens to repel Phillip of Macedon and his conquering so, Alexander. See Plutarch's biography in Lives of the Ten Orators. See also Sonnet 10, line 8.

Cicero. Probably most famous in the Renaissance for his orations on friendship, De Amicitia, and old age, De senectute, Marcus Tullius Cicero lived from 106 - 43 BCE.

Euripides. A Greek dramatist of 5th century BCE Athens, Euripides was most famous in Milton's time for his great tragedies, nineteen of which are extant in some form. These include Alcestis, The Trojan Women, The Bacchae, Iphegenia at Aulis, Medea, Electra, and Orestes.

Sophocles. Most famous for his tragic cycle Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone, Sophocles (496-406 BCE) was perhaps the favorite Greek tragedian among Renaissance humanists. In his Colasterion, Milton likens his own relationship to the Presbyterian party in Parliament to that of Sophocles' Ajax to the Greek army at Troy.

organic arts. Orgel and Goldberg indicate that this refers to logic, rhetoric, and poetry as an unified set of arts (820).

fitted. Appropriate, decorous, fit or fitting (see OED2).

well coucht Heads. Appropriately and strategically arranged topics and points in an oration.

Topics. A kind or class of considerations suitable to the purpose of a rhetorician or disputant: passing into the sense "consideration", "argument" (OED2).

open her contracted palm. The movement from logic to rhetoric was proverbially compared to moving from the closed fist to the open palm (Flannagan 984).

Plato. This probably refers to Plato's Gorgias and Phaedrus.

Aristotle. Milton probably refers to Aristotle's Rhetoric.

Phalereus. Some editors believe this may refer to Demetrius Phalereus (350-283 BCE), defender of the principle of liberty for the citizens of Athens. However, the context indicates Milton may rather refer here to a later Greek treatise, On Style, written by another Demetrius (first-century CE), which emphasizes a forcible rhetorical style (Ainsworth 2:403n).

Cicero. Cicero's chief treatise on rhetoric and style would proably be De Inventione.

Hermogenes. Hermogenes of Tarsus (late 2nd century CE) was a Greek grammarian and the author of treatises on writing style.

Longinus. Dionysus Longinus was an Atheian philosopher and critic of the first century CE. The treatise On the Sublime was attributed to him.

Aristotles Poetics. See Aristotle's Poetics.

less suttle. Milton believes poetry to be less subtle and fine than oratory.

Horace. Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (65 - 8 BCE) was a famed Latin lyric poet and satirist under the emperor Augustus. The reference is to his Ars Poetica.

Castelvetro. Ludovico Castelvetro (1505-71) translated Aristotle's Poetics into Italian.

Mazzoni. Jacopo Mazzoni (1548-98) wrote two defenses of Dante's poetic style in The Divine Comedy.

Tasso. Torquato Tasso (1544-95) wrote two treatises on epic poetry, both of which are referred to as his Discourses.

Decorum. Hughes indicates that "the principle of decorum or propriety was regarded as a key both to problems of characterization in drama and epic, and to problems of style in work of every kind" (636).

comm. Common.

Play-writers. 1644 has "Play-writes" which is surely correct. Milton speaks disparagingly of contemporary drama in the preface to Samson Agonistes, "Of that sort of Dramatic Poem which is call'd Tragedy." In earlier poems, however he appeared to celebrate "sweetest" Shakespeare and the "learned" Jonson: L'Allegro 131-33." Milton's father wrote a celebratory sonnet, "To the memorie of M. W. Shake-speare", (lines 289-98) for Shakespeare's first folio in 1623, and the poet himself wrote one, "On Shakespeare," for the second folio in 1632.

fraught. Stored, supplied, furnished, filled, equipped with (OED2).

middle ward. The middle line of a military formation.

perfeted. Completed.

Schools of Pythagoras, Plato, Isocrates, Aristotle. In the 6th century BCE the philospher and teacher Pythagoras (580 - 500 BCE) founded a school called the Brotherhood. Plato's School was known as the Academy; Isocrates (436 - 338 BCE) assembled a school of one hundred eminent followers from all over the Greek world; Aristotle's school was known as the Lyceum (founded 335 BCE) and numbered Alexander of Macedon among its matriculants.

embattelling. Preparation for battle.

Studies of Cyrene and Alexandria. Milton refers to the medical school in Cyrene, and to the great center of literary and scientific activity in Alexandria, both of which flourished in the late third century BCE.

Plato noted in the Common-wealth of Sparta. Plato disapproved of the Spartans' strong emphasis on military training in their educational system (Laws I 633c, 636), although he did have great faith in athletic discipline as an important part of moral training.

Weapon. The rapier, or personal sword. Gentlemen wore them for self-defense.

prove and heat. Test and exercise.

out. Astray from what is right or correct; in the wrong, in error, mistaken (OED2).

passions. Milton shared the Renaissance faith in Plato's doctrine, set forth in his Republic 410a, that the correct kind of musical education would train the just man to sobriety and a mastery of the passions. In Paradise Lost 12.88-90, the archangel Micahel identifies "upstart passions" triumphing over reason as the root of all servitude.

concoction. Digestion (of food) (OED2).

skie or covert. Either indoors, covert, or outdoors, "under sky."

daily muster. Daily assembly for military training.

sick feathers. The feathers that fall out when a bird molts.

unrecruitible. Hughes writes about the seventeenth century English war machine: "in armies where colonels often recruited their own regiments it was not unusual for dishonest officers to keep their numbers low in order to embezzle as much of the soldiers' pay as possible" (638).

delusive. Having the attribute of deluding, characterized by delusion, tending to delude, deceptive (OED2).

commodities. Conveniences, advantages, benefits, interests (OED2).

Monsieurs of Paris. In 1667, Milton wrote a letter to his friend Richard Jones, praising him for "despising the luxuries of Paris" (Hughes 638).

Kicshoes. "Kickshaw" was a slang term for "useless trifle." It was derived from the French "quelque chose." The Oxford English Dictionary records Milton's use of the word as the first with the meaning of "a fantastical, frivolous person" (OED2).

Ulysses. This alludes to Homer's epic poem, (The Odyssey 21) in which Ulysses bends the bow that Penelope's suitors could not bend, and then kills them all with it.