words of Christ. See Matthew 5: 32.

saith Christ. For the prohibition of work on the Sabbath (Exodus 20: 10), Milton quotes from the Book of Common Prayer's Catechism. Jesus's teaching about works of charity on the Sabbath is from Mark 2: 27.

more for God alone. According to Genesis, God rested from all his work of creation on the seventh day, thus anticipating the institution of the Sabbath as a day of rest; Genesis 2: 2.

more made for Man. See Genesis 2: 18-22 for what Milton takes to be he institution of marraige by God and the creation of woman (one and the same act). See also Milton's characterization of man's originary loneliness as his "single imperfection," a major distinction between man and God who is eternally single, singular and never alone, Paradise Lost 8. 415 and following.

pall nor mitre. A pall is a liturgical vestment worn by bishops and archbishops; a mitre is episcopal headgear. Milton claims he needs no such signs of authority, including ordination and "the keyes" of St Peter, to interpret scripture and thereby pronounce true Christian doctrine.

nor. Though the Rauner Library copy of 1644 used as copy-text here has "or", the errata list at the bottom of page 82, says, "p. 32l.6. for or, read nor." All items listed in the errata will henceforward be silently corrected.

a perfect mean. See also Tetrachordon.

in one place. Matthew 5: 28.

another time. See John 8: 3-11.

naturall straitnesse. See Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics 1109b. See also Colasterion.

one jot or tittle. See Matthew 5: 17-20.

same caveat. See Luke 16: 17-18.

Deut. 24.1. Deuteronomy 24: 1.

convinc't. Convicted.

by death. See Leviticus 20: 10 and Deuteronomy 22: 22.

reprehension. The original (1644) Rauner Library copy has "teprehension."

usually explain'd. Both Paraeus (In S. Matthaei Evangelium Commentarius in Operum Theologicorum [Frankfurt 1628] 1.644) and William Perkins (Works 1609-13, 3.68, search Dartmouth Library Catalogue.) express this view that God allowed Moses to permit divorce because of the Jews' "hardness of heart" and "stubborness." This was part of a very commonplace anti-Jewish attitude among Christians, both Protestant and Catholic.

School-master. Paul refers to the Law as a schoolmaster in Galatians 3: 24.

religion. Misprinted as "reliegion" in the Rauner copy (1644).

evill. Misprinted as "fou lvill" in the Rauner copy (1644).

Psal. 94.20. Psalm 94: 20.

Isaiah. Isaiah 10: 1.

Iesuits or Arminians. See the articles on Jesuits and Arminianism in the Catholic Encyclopedia.

BUT. At this point in the 1644 edition, the compositor fails to use an intitial drop capital. The same occurs at the beginning of chapter 4. The inital drop capital reappears with chapter 5.

Rom. 5. 20. Romans 5: 20.

terrifying. That is, making sin appear terrible.

recreant. Traitorous.

saith S. Paul. Romans 3: 20.

1 Tim. 1.5. 1 Timothy 1: 5.

Rom. 13. Romans 13.

Philo Judæus. The allusion is to Philo's Moses 1.39. (Search Dartmouth Library Catalogue.)

Deut. 25. Deuteronomy 25: 19; see also Deuteronomy 7: 1-2.

villenage. Serfdom, or slavery.

manumitted. Set free; but see OED2.

diagonial contraries. That is, diametric opposites.

Paræus. Indeed, Paraeus writes in his In Priorem ad Corinthios Epistolam S. Pauli Commentarius, tr. from Operum Theologicorum (Frankfurt 1628) 2.448: "For the remedy of divorce did not so much help the hardheartedness of men as the msiery of wives: indeed the hardheartedness of the men was not diminished but rather increased" (From the Yale Complete Prose notes, 2.289).

set upon usury. It was a commonplace anti-Jewish sentiment among Christians to believe that Jews were hard-hearted and therefore naturally usurious and bad husbands. It is probably fair to say that most of this attitude was a matter of projection.

endammaging only of their estates. Milton refers to Deuteronomy 23: 19-20.

to offer in high places. The practice of making offerings to God in the "highplaces" devoted to idols is forbidden in Deuteronomy 12: 2; Milton points out that Solomon, when king, performed such forbidden offerings; see 1 Kings 3: 2-4.

Mint and Cummin. See Matthew 23: 23.

to suffer one transgression. See Matthew 27: 11-24.

Sinai with his glory. See Exodus 19: 18 and following.

Belzebub. The prince of devils; see Matthew 12: 24. In Paradise Lost 1.78 and following, Milton places Beelzebub at Satan's right hand in hell.

Scripture saith. See Leviticus 19: 17.

Proverbs teach. See Proverbs 29: 5 and 26: 28.

Eli himself. The high priest in 1 Samuel 2: 22-24.

Hophni and Phineas. Eli's sons; see 1 Samuel 3: 14.

Apostle himselfe saith. Romans 7: 7

he that is filthy let him be filthy still. Revelation 22: 11.

11. Psalm. Psalm 11.

Apostle saith. Romans 13: 4.

Rom.3. Romans 3: 8.

matter. Reason.

passage in Hosea. Hosea 1: 2-3. The Geneva annotations also refer to this as a parable or a vision, not a real event commanded by God.

a mixt action. See Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics 1110a and the accompanying note.

conniving. The original (1644) Rauner Library copy has "contriving" here. The "tr" has been lined through and a caret beneath indicates insertion of a superscribed rule over the "n" as if to indicate "coñiving".

like a surname. Manasseh, King of Judah; see 2 Kings 21: 11.

contrary. Misprinted as "cantrary" in the Rauner copy (1644).

devouring fire. See Exodus 24: 17.

connivent. Dozing, dormant.

oscitant. Gaping from drowsiness, yawning; hence, drowsy, dull, indolent, negligent. Supine means lying on one's back.

hallowed fire. See Leviticus 6: 13.

a solution of Rivetus. Milton refers to Andreas Rivetus's (Andre Rivet) attempt to explain why polygamy (and concubinage) was apparently permitted to the ancient Hebrews and not to Christians. William Perkins, in his A Golden Chaine (1608), says that the patriarch's polygamy "cannot be defended, yet it nay be excused: either because it served to the enlarging of the number of mankind, when there were but fewe, or at the least, to the propagation of the Church of God" (Works [1631] 1.59). Perkins consider the matter in even more detail in his Commentarie on Galatians where he argues that Abraham and other patriarchs gradually fell into the sinful custom followed by those around them of polygamy and over time forgot that it was sinful, so they never repented (Works [1631] 2. 296-297. Search the Dartmouth Library catalogue.

Arminius. Jacobus Arminius, Arminians; see Arminianism

us. "Us" in this context means strict Calvinists, particularly English Calvinists, with whom Milton allied himself in the antiprelatical movement. After the disappointing reception of his divorce pamphlets, Milton distances himself from orthodox Calvinism and Calvinists, becoming somewhat of an Arminian himself.

damnation. The copytext misprints the word as "danmation" here.

Epimetheus. Epimethius, according to the story in Hesiod's Works and Days 83 and following, opened Pandora's famous box and so brought the experience of evil into the world.

insulsity. stupidity, senselessness.

miserable. At this point our copy-text has a comma followed by a colon. I have omitted the colon.

making him more sinnfull. See Cicero's On the Responses of the Haruspices 39.

Others. Once again, our copy-text's compositor forgoes the initial drop capital here.

onely a dispensation. This, apparently, was Calvin's position; see his Mosis Reliqui Libri Quatuor (Genevea 1563): "That which pertains to divorce, although conceded to the Jews by indulgence, Christ nevertheless pronounces not to have been lawful, beacuse directly contrary to the first institution of God, whence a perpetual and inviolable rule is to be sought" (translation from he Yale Complete Prose, 296n).

Mark. 10.5. Mark 10: 5. The crucial word appears as "precept" in the KJV and as "commandment" in the RSV. The Greek word is entolhn.

him who cannot contain. See 1 Corinthians 7: 9; see also Calvin's treatment of Marriage in his Institutes of the Christian Religion 2.8.41-44.

Ro.7.10. Romans 7: 10.

and. Misprinted as "anc" in the Rauner copy (1644).

Rivetus. Andre Rivet, a Dutch(?) Calvinist commentator on the Bible.

secret past finding out. See Raphael's warnings about the limits mortals should put to their search of God's ways: Paradise Lost 7.119-130 and 8.167-176.

Abraham. Genesis 18: 23-35.

Psal. 119. Psalm 119: 138, 140.

saith S. Paul. 2 Timothy 2: 13.

perfect. Matthew 5: 48.

old Saturn. For a classical description of the golden age of Saturn, see Ovid's Metamorphoses 1. 89-112.

covert. Justification, pretext.

Eleusinian mysteries. Milton refers sarcastically to the secret rites performed in honor of Demeter and Persephone and associated with Eleusis in Attica. See the description of the London E 140 vase which contains a depictio of the rites.

justifying works. A basic principle of Lutheran and Calvinist soteriology is that there are no works mortals can perform worthy to merit justification. See Galatians 2: 16.

Numb. 9. Numbers 9.

that in Leviticus. Ever since Henry VIII interpreted conflicting scriptures in support of his desire to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, these scriptures and their arguments had been familiar hermeneutic cruxes: Leviticus 18: 16 and Deuteronomy 25: 5. Milton finds Deuteronomy 25:5 to be a charitable exception to the rule laid down in Leviticus.

unlawfull. See Matthew 12: 2-3, Mark 2: 25-26, and Luke 6: 3-4.

such. Misprinted as "sueh" in the Rauner copy (1644).

Verdune, Adrian and the Council of Trent. Milton's source for this particular debate from the Council of Trent (1545-1563) is Paolo Sarpi's Historia del Concilio Tridentino (1619) (from the Yale Complete Prose, 2.300). See the doctrines promulgated at the 24th session of the Council of Trent on the 11 November 1563.

James I. James 1: 17.

Scorpion like gift. See Luke 11: 12.

Quails and Kings. See Numbers 11: 31-33 and 1 Samuel 8: 1-9.

shop of Antichrist. In Milton's Puritan opinion, the Roman Catholic Church in general and the Council of Trent (1545-1563) in particular.

in the Psalmes and Proverbs. See Psalms 19: 7 and Proverbs 22: 20-21.

onely sentence. From Matthew 19: 6.

Clandestine mariages. Secret marriages, though often condemned, were usually upheld by the Catholic church as well as the Protestant Church of England. See Lawrence Stone's The Familiy, Sex, and Marriage in England, 1500-1800 (1977) 30-37. (Search Dartmouth Library Catalogue.)

Rom, 2. 25. See Galatians 5: 3 and Romans 2: 25.

saying, gift, yokes. Milton quotes in rapid succession from Matthew 19: 11, 1 Corinthians 7: 7, and Acts 15: 10.

I. Aye.

concupiscence. See Colossians 3: 5.

Apostle argue wrong. See Romans 11: 6.

WHAT. Once again, our copy-text's compositor forgoes the initial drop capital here.

Deut. 24.1. Deuteronomy 24: 1.

21,23. The copy-text (1644) has "21.23". See Proverbs 30: 21,23. The same Hebrew word that the KJV translates here as "odious" the KJV renders as "hated in Genesis 29: 31 and Deuteronomy 21: 15.

fifth of Matth. Matthew 5: 31.

falsly. Misprinted as "fasly" in the Rauner copy (1644).

Chap. 19. and Mark.10. Matthew 19: 8 and Mark 10: 5.

impression. Emphasis, as if, specifically "to you who ask such a question."

Timothy. 1 Timothy 1: 5-8.

the same Chap. Matthew 19: 16-22.

the opinionative Pharises. It was not unusual for Christian (Catholic and reformed) commentators to take the Pharisees as typical of all Jews; this is standard Christian anti-Jewish bias; Milton appears to separate the Pharisees from the rest of the Jews as peculiarly arrogant and hard-hearted, and he makes them emblematic of Roman Catholic Papists more than of Jews.

command in Eden. See Genesis 2: 24.

flesh and bones. See Milton's addition in Paradise Lost 8.499 of "one Heart, one Soule."

fourth book of his Lawes. Plato's Laws 719d.

cleave to his wife. Matthew 19: 4-5.

he that is able to receive it. Matthew 19: 11-12.

least in the kingdom of heav'n. See Matthew 5: 19.

Mark 10.5. Mark 10: 5. Calvin was among those who believed Deuteronomy 24: 1-3 served as the premise to Deuteronomy 24:4, which was "another Law" (Yale Complete Prose 313n).

Malach. 2.16. Malachi 2: 16.

Deut. 24.4. Deuteronomy 24: 4.

Medea. See Euripdes' Medea 1078-1080.

Protagoras. Plato, Protagoras 355-58; also Meno 77a-78d and Timaeus 86.

Peripateticks. See Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1113b and following, 1145a and following, 1151a and following.

Pompey. See Plutarch's Lives: Pompey 67 (search Dartmouth Library Catalogue.) where we learn how Caesar was convinced to do battle against his own judgment, Brutus 8-10 where we learn how Brutus was persuaded to become Caeser's enemy.

Themistocles. See Plutarch's account of the defeat of the Persian fleet at Salamis (480 BCE): Themistocles 11-15.

Fabius Maximus. See the story of Fabius's patience in Plutarch's Fabius Maximus 5-13 (search Dartmouth Library Catalogue.).

old reverend Eli. See 1 Samuel 3: 12-13.

Pilat. See Matthew 27: 22-26.

that of the Sabbath. See Genesis 2: 2-3 and Exodus 20: 8-11.

16. of Luke. Luke 16: 17-18.

31. vers of Mat. the 5. Matthew 5: 31.

hands and seales. See the Mishnah Gittin text and comments upon it by Professor Judith Hauptman.

Perkins in a Treatise of Conscience. The Whole Treatise of the Cases of Conscience (1631) in The Works of that Famous and Worthy Minister of Christ in the University of Cambridge, M. William Perkins (London: John Legatt, 1631) Volume 2, 251. Available in Rauner Special Collections in several 17th-C editions: search Dartmouth Library Catalogue.

Court-leet. A district court of minor jurisdiction; Milton's tone is sarcastic.

the sword that guards it. See Genesis 3: 24 and Paradise Lost 12.641-644.

Perkins upon this chap. of Matth. Presumably Matthew 5. The Yale Prose quotes from A Godly and Learned Exposition (Works [1609-13] 3.69): "Here Christ answereth not to Moses law, but to the corrupt interpretation of the Scribes and the Pharisies, whereby they depraved that law." It is important to note that although Milton cites Perkins for support of this point about the tone and context of Jesus's words, Perkins believed that only those divorcing for reasons of adultery could legitimately remarry (Works [1631] 1.678).

allow usury. Contrary to what many think, English law permitted moneylenders to charge 10% on money loans, and most English moneylenders were not Jews but Puritans. Perkins teaches that, under certain conditions, taking interest is lawful; the conditions are that the interest taken may not exceed or even equal what the borrower had made on the money lent, nor may the lender exact all the principal if the borrower has lost it and would be broken ("brought behind") in repayment, and the interest taken must be no more than one could legally earn using the money lent (A Golden Chaine in Works [1631] 2.63).

circumcis'd adulteries. The Yale Prose glosses this as "Circumscribed, limited," but I believe Milton refers sarcastically to the notion of circumcised Jews permitting themselves the sin of adultery; see his mention of circumcision above.

YET. Once again, our copy-text's compositor forgoes the initial drop capital here.

Beza's opinion. Theodore Beza's comment on Matthew 19: 8 stipulates that while the moral law prohibits sin without qualification, and civil laws should not command anything forbidden by God, civil laws may be forced to allow and regulate "many things that they cannot abolish" for politic considerations, like usury (see Annotationes Majores in Novum Testamentum [Londini 1594]; Milton may also be referring simply to the Geneva annotation in this case.

Matchiavel's. Niccolo Machiavelli, often a popular byword for manipulative, deceitful, and cynical political practices; see The Prince.

Rom. 13. Romans 13: 1.

Papal stews. Reformers frequently alleged that the Holy See permitted and profited from brothels in Rome.

untrusty steward. See Luke 16: 1-8. Milton was intensely interested in the notion of an unworthy servant, see Sonnet 19.

Popilius. See Polybius Histories 29.27. Search the Dartmouth Library catalogue..

uxorious! Milton puns on the Latin root, uxor, meaning "spouse, wife, consort;" see Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary.

I suffer not. See 1 Timothy 2: 12.

continual. The Rauner 1644 misprints this as "contiuual". For the sources of Milton's misogynist remarks here see Proverbs 12: 4, 19: 13, 21: 9, 21: 19, 27: 16, and 30: 21-23.

Vashti. See Esther 1: 10-22.

those words. That is, presumably, Jesus's words in Matthew 5: 31-32.

elementally understood. Though reformed theologians differed on many details of eucharistic theology, all agreed that the words of institution (Matthew 26: 26, Mark 14: 22, 1 Corinthians 11: 24) should not be understood literally. See the Thirty Nine Articles of the Westminster Assembly, article 18.

Mezentius. See Virgil's Aeneid 8.480-88.

For this cause. Genesis 2: 24; Matthew 19: 5. Josephus. See Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews 15.7.

Olympiodorus. See Photius's Histories of Olympiodorus where he tells the story of a magician that so offended Placidia that she threatened to divorce Constantius if he were not removed; Constantius had the magician executed (see J.H. Freese, tr. The Library (5 volumes, London, 1920) 1. 145; search the Dartmouth Library catalogue.

palisadoes. A defensive fence of stakes or pales upon which enemy calvalry would be impaled.

1 Cor. 7.15. 1 Corinthians 7: 15.

the common Expositers? By the "common expositors," Milton probably means those he has most cited: Paraeus, Beza, Perkins, and Calvin; but he would probably include as common expositor worth consulting Luther and the Geneva annotations.

committeth adultery. Matthew 19: 9.

comma. Misprinted as a period in the Rauner copy (1644).

Grotius. For a summary of Hugo Grotius's commentaries on this passage, see The Yale Complete Prose Works 2. 329.

Exod. 21.18, 19, 20. Exodus 21: 18-26.

Deut. 19. 5. Deuteronomy 19: 5.

this precept of Christ. That is, that the law is summed up in the command to love, or in Milton's terms here, to be charitable to others; see Mark 12: 30-31, Luke 6: 27-38.

Deut. 24.1. Deuteronomy 24: 1.

new commandement. John 13: 34.

the bond of perfection. Quoted from Colossians 3: 14.

Hebrew words. Words translated in the KJV as "uncleanness"; See the Geneva notes on Deuteronomy 24; Compare Wesley's and Matthew Henry's notes.

incidental. The Rauner 1644 misprints this as "indicental". A correction has been made in the margin in ink.

1 Cor. 7.10, 11. 1 Corinthians 7: 10-11.

sanguifie. To generate blood; the liver, it was thought, generated blood, and the spleen drew off impurities in the blood. If the spleen works hard to purify when teher is no blood present, it is purifying to no purpose.

converses most in heav'n. Milton alludes to Paul's phrase in Philippians 3: 20.

humorous. That is, proceeding from the influence of bodily humours rather than from rational consideration.

like a divine touch. Milton alludes to instances of Jesus's healing (Matthew 8: 3, 15), implying that divorce is like the healing touch of Christ.

comma. Misprinted as a period in the Rauner copy (1644).

hushes outrageous tempests. Milton refers to Jesus's miraculous calming of the storm at sea: Matthew 8: 26, Mark 4: 39, Luke 8: 24.

hard rains. That is, hard reins, the image being that of lawgivers as riders "that sit us" as if we were horses.

know lust by the law. Romans 7: 7.

themselves. Misprinted as "them elves" in the Rauner copy (1644).

Origens knife. According to Eusebius, in Ecclesiastical History 6.8, Origen interpreted Matthew 19: 12 so literally that he felt obliged to castrate himself. Milton's tone here reminds one of Paul's in Galatians 5: 10-12.

fornication. For a good sample of all the occurances of the word fornication in scripture, please use The Bible Gateway Search.

men of high wisdom. See Britannica entries on Hugo Grotius, Theodosius II, and Justinian.

divorsive fornication. The Yale Complete Prose (2.335) quotes extensively in its notes from Grotius's Annotationes in Libros Evangeliorum.

Judges 19.2. Judges 19: 2.

Iosephus. See Josephus's interpretation of the Judges 19 episode in Antiquities of the Jews 5.2.8. See also Britannica entry on the Septuagint. The "Chaldaean paraphrase" refers to Aramaic versions of biblical literature. Milton, we know, read both Hebrew and Aramaic.

other Rabbies. Harris Fletcher (Milton's Semitic Studies and Milton's Rabbinical Readings) has argued carefully that Milton derived his knowledge of rabbinic commentaries on scripture from consulting a particular edition of the Hebrew scriptures known as the Bomberg edition. These Bibles, printed in Basle from 1517 and in Venice from 1525, served as the core for European humanist knowledge of rabbinic commentary. A sixth edition of the Bomberg Bible was printed in Basle by Johann Buxtorf in 1618-19 and became very accessible throughout Europe (Fletcher, Semitic Studies 74-75). For Fletcher's analysis of this particular passage from Judges, and how it might reflect interestingly on Milton's own marriage situation at the time, see Fletcher, Rabbinic Readings 35-42.
The Bomberg edition includes commentaries by Rashi, Kimchi, and Gersom on this particular passage from Judges.

period. Misprinted as a comma in the Rauner copy (1644).

our Saviour's language. Matthew 5: 28.

Numb. 5. Numbers 5: 11-31.

Ordalium. That is, trial by ordeal "such as the plunging of the hand in boiling water, the carrying of hot iron, walking barefoot and blindfold between red-hot ploughshares, etc., the result being regarded as the immediate judgement of the Deity;" see OED2.

nicknam'd. The most common English nickname for a husband of a wayward woman was cuckold; see OED2.

comma. Misprinted as a period in the Rauner copy (1644).

Pro. 30.19. Proverbs 30: 19.

unmanly indignities. I cannot help remarking that Milton never mentions the inhuman indignities women were put to in such cases.

the woman tak'n in adultery. See John 8: 3-11.

they. That is, those who interpret Jesus apparent injunction against divorce literally.

εν   τοις   τοιουτοι&sigmaf The Greek phrase is from 1 Corinthians 7: 15.

Demetrius. A legendary figure, Demetrius was thought to have authored On Style, a treatise translated by W. Rhys Roberts and included with Aristotle's Poetics and Longinus's On the Sublime in a Loeb Classical Library edition of 1932; see page 132; search the Dartmouth Library catalogue.

brother and sister. See 1 Corinthians 7: 15.

bruit. Brute, or brutish; carnal.

one lost sheep. Matthew 18: 12-13, Luke 15: 4-6.

obduring. Becoming or remaining obdurate.

1 Cor. 13. 1 Corinthinas 13.

Ephes. 4.14. Ephesians 4: 14.

comma. Misprinted as a period in the Rauner copy (1644).

illuminating Spirit. See Milton's later invocations to the Holy Spirit in Paradise Lost 1. 6-26, 3. 51-55, 7. 1-20.

Gordian. The Gordian knot and Alexander's solution is a proverbial allusion; see the Britannica entry for Gordian knot.

as Perkins well notes. See Cases of Conscience in Works (1631) 2. 100; search the Dartmouth Library catalogue.

Lead us not into temptation. One of the petitions of the "Lord's Prayer;" see Matthew 6: 9-13, Luke 11: 2-4, Book of Common Prayer (1559): Morning Prayer.

supportlesse. Insupportable, unberable. See the Roman Catholic teaching on marriage from the 24th session of the Council of Trent on the 11 November 1563.

comma. This comma does not appear in 1644; I have supplied it to help the sense.

selves. Misprinted as "seves" in the Rauner copy (1644) and crossed out and corrected in the margin in 17th-century hand.

panick. That is, panicky; though originally having the sense of coming from Pan, the reputed cause of all "sudden and groundless fear;" see the OED2.

Grotius. Annotationes in Libros Evangeliorum (Amsterdam 1641) 98.

Fagius. For the relevant passage from Fagius's Thargum, see the Yale Complete Prose 2. 344 and 243.

our divines. See Perkins's Oeconomie in Works (1618) 3.690 for the closest thing to a Puritan party line on this matter. Search the Dartmouth Library catalogue. to twist a rope of sand. A proverbial expression for any attempt of something impossible.

Ocnus. See Propertius's Elegies 4.3.21-22.

Plato's Gorgias. See Plato's Gorgias 488b-510e.

l0th of his Ethicks. Nicomachean Ethics 1180b .

Harry the eighth. Henry's fourth marriage, to Anne of Cleves, was annulled by the Convocation of Bishops of the Church of England on 9 July 1540.

his brothers wife. Catherine of Aragon, wife to henry's older brother Arthur, who died as Prince of Wales; Henry's first wife was his brother's widow. Pope Clement VII said he wanted proof that Catherine's marriage to Arthur had never been consummated, but actually he stalled for political reasons. The "two Cardinal Judges" were Thomas Wolsey and Lorenzo Campeggio.

Paulus Emilius. see Plutarch's Aemilius Paulus 5. 1-2. Search the Dartmouth Library catalogue.

Selden, Of the law of nature & of Nations. John Selden's De Jure Naturali et Gentium was first published in 1640. See the for locations and mircofilm numbers. Selden was a member of the Long Parliament and the Westminster Assembly of Divines.

sumles sums. Summae, or complete digests and summations, a favorite of scholastic theology.

Lombard & Gratian. Legend had it that Johannes Gratian and Peter Lombard were brothers, or at least sons of the same mother.

Tubalcain. See Genesis 4: 22.

O English men. The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce is addressed to Parliament.

Paræus on the Corinthians. The Yale Complete Prose (352) offers this translation from Paraeus's Operum Theologicorum: "Those who retain or imitate the hardheartedness of the Jews reveal themselves strangers to the spirit of Christ. . . . The Church is to correct such a one by excluding him from the company of the faithful, the Christian magistrate by subjecting him to imprisonment or fine, in accordance with the precept of the Lord, 'If he neglect to hear the Church, let him be unto thee as an heathen," and of the Apostle [Paul], 'Put away from among yourselves that wicked person.'"

dividing of an inheritance. See Luke 12: 13-14.

refus'd to condemn adultery. See John 8: 3-11.

Jewes as children. See Galatians 3: 24-25.

period. Misprinted as a comma in the Rauner copy (1644).

throw the mountain of Sinai upon him. John Bunyan imaged his fear of the law in much the same way in The Pilgrim's Progress in 1678.

Malachy. Malachi 2: 14-16.

Ecclesiastes. Ecclesiastes 7: 16.

atoms. That is, motes or tiny particles of dust. The Biblical proverbial expression from Matthew 23: 24 is "strain at a gnat."

misattended. Misheard or miscontrued.

whom Satan had bound. See Luke 13: 16.

not sacrifice. See Matthew 19: 3.

all the Law and Prophets depend. See Matthew 22: 40.

under the feet of Charity. See 1 Corinthians 15: 27 and 1 Timothy 1: 5.