'The Shaping Hand Was at All Points the Same':
Charles Alonzo Rich Builds the New Dartmouth
SCOTT B. MEACHAM
The number of architects who have shaped the way Dartmouth looks is surprisingly small. The prolific Jens Fredrick Larson comes immediately to mind, but he was not Dartmouth's first campus architect. The designer who deserves the most credit in creating the campus we know today is Larson's precursor, Charles Alonzo Rich (1854-1943). Rich began working for the College when he was commissioned to create a new master plan in 1893, and he designed every major building through Robinson Hall, which was finished in 1914. Working under President William Jewett Tucker and his successor Ernest Fox Nichols, Charles Rich was able to triple the number of buildings at Dartmouth. And he had a special relation to the campus he was creating, as a member of the Class of 1875 and the first notable architect to come out of the College.
Though Charles Rich first came to the College as a student from West Lebanon, New Hampshire, he had grown up in Massachusetts. He was born on 22 October 1854 in Beverly, the son of a prominent pastor. It was in 1871 when Alonzo B. Rich, D.D. was appointed to the West Congregational Church in West Lebanon that the family moved to New Hampshire. Charles Rich entered Dartmouth's Chandler Scientific Department that year with the thirteen other members of his class.
Rich was not enrolled in Dartmouth's traditional Academic Department. The Chandler Scientific Department was the product of Abiel Chandler's 1851 will, which instructed that a school be founded for instruction 'in the practical and useful arts of life.' Similar schools had been springing up elsewhere, most notably the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale and the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard, both begun in 1846. At Dartmouth the Scientific Department eventually merged with the College when it offered its first B.S. degree in 1893. In Rich's time a separate Chandler building stood north of where Parkhurst now stands, and the Department maintained its own board of visitors; it shared a president and many faculty with the other branch of the College. Chandler students also had their own sports teams, fraternities, and commencement ceremonies.
For most of his time in Hanover, Rich boarded with other Chandler students at the Wainrights' on Main Street, below today's Post Office. Rich was the class historian and joined the Chess Club his first year. He was also a member of the Vitruvian Society, a Chandler fraternity that would later become Dartmouth's chapter of Beta Theta Pi. Each Chandler student chose between the civil engineering and literary tracks in his senior year, and naturally Rich chose engineering. But his greatest prominence came as a baseball player. At various times he was a member of his class team, the captain of the Scientific Nine, and the first baseman on the University Nine, which drew from both branches of the College as well as the state Agricultural School then in Hanover. Rich's reputation as one of the College's best baseball players would survive for some time; an article on his design for the Spaulding Pool made note of it many years later.
After his graduation Rich went to Boston and found work in the office of William Ralph Emerson (1833-1917). Emerson was among the architects inventing what would later come to be called the Shingle Style, and critics would call him one of its 'finest designers.' Rich spent four years in the office, and how large a role he played in the elder architect's work is not clear. His Boston experience is probably summed up in an article he later wrote for The Dartmouth about how to become an architect: 'You trudge from office to office till you find one into which you may slide as a sort of superior office boy or draughtsman.' But Rich was able to hone his drawing skills under Emerson, and he saw his first published design appear in The American Architect and Building News in 1878. It was a drawing of a cottage he proposed for Charles Drake, a pharmacist and selectman in West Lebanon.
The other source of training that Rich found beyond Dartmouth was the experience of travel abroad. The country's first architectural school was at this time little more than a decade old, and the monuments of the Old World were seen as a standard source of training for a would-be architect. In 1879, after Rich left Emerson's office, the White River Junction Observer wrote that he 'proposes to travel on foot after he reaches the other side of the water, and will probably be absent many months.' This was only the first of several extensive explorations Rich would make in which he would indulge his interest in foreign architecture. He visited Egyptian temples and French castles, and he even reported having a commission in Czarist Russia, though nothing likely came of it. Of meeting a Spaniard in Valencia, he wrote:
Across his shoulder was thrown a manta, and a wide brimmed hat adorned his head. He doffed the latter and with a smile said in passable English, 'You are an Englishman?' 'No, Señor' I replied, 'farther away, an American.' 'Ah, so far!' 
Though only a small measure of Rich's taste for the exotic would find its way into his buildings, his journeys would reach an interested audience through the articles he wrote for the architectural press. More than two dozen articles appeared in print, sometimes in the form of a running series. Each was illustrated with his photographs or sketches and included a running travelogue of border troubles and sanitary arrangements. Rich would continue to travel widely until late in life, occasionally buying furniture for his clients, and he would exhibit the watercolors from his trips at the Century Club in New York City.Redstone, Short Hills, New Jersey, from American Architect and Building News 12, no. 349 (2 September 1882).
After returning from his first trip to Europe, Rich moved to New York City and established the firm of Lamb & Rich in 1881. Rich was by all accounts the designing partner, while the Scotsman Hugh Lamb (1849-1903) handled the business side of the firm. Rich began to make his own way in the idiom that he had learned from his mentor Emerson. And the firm was a prolific one, with more than three dozen designs published by the turn of the century, most of them suburban or country houses.
The firm's houses were often rambling, extravagant, porch-laden displays in which wealthy patrons could announce their success. Vincent Scully wrote in his seminal book on the Shingle Style that '[i]f Lamb and Rich were often blatant they were always free, and the wildest energies of their time were expressed in their work.' The house known as 'Redstone' in Short Hills, New Jersey, is a good example. Lamb & Rich built several buildings in Short Hills, including a cottage for Rich's father, but their best-known work was on Long Island. Rich's own summer house in Bellport was one of fourteen Long Island country houses they designed. Another was Sagamore Hill, the 1885 home of Theodore Roosevelt in Oyster Bay, which the then-legislator helped design and then stocked with trophy heads. Though South Bend, Indiana marks the western limit of the firm's reach in the 1896 house for the plow mogul J. D. Oliver, most of their work falls in and around New York. Banks, offices, churches, schools, and apartment houses fall in their city repertoire alone.
We can connect many of Lamb & Rich's buildings to a small number of prominent patrons, people who would continue to hire Rich in his solo practice after Lamb died of typhoid in 1903. The kerosene millionaire and Standard Oil founder Charles Pratt, for example, hired Rich to design the Astral Apartments (1886). This large and rather progressive Brooklyn building was built as housing for his workers, but the chief object of Mr. Pratt's philanthropy was the Pratt Institute (1887). That building helped make Rich's name as a capable architect of rising importance. Rich also designed 'Seamoor,' Pratt's 1890 house at Glen Cove, Long Island; when young Morris Pratt died as a student at Amherst College, Rich would be the one to design the 1911 dormitory named in his memory.
Elizabeth Milbank Anderson became another important patron after she inherited her father's Rich-designed house in Greenwich, Connecticut. When Jeremiah Milbank died before his ca. 1886 mansion was completed, much of the Borden's Condensed Milk fortune he had built during the Civil War went to his daughter. Mrs. Anderson would commission a number of New York City designs from Rich. First was her house on 38th Street (1891); then an 1890s pavilion at Roosevelt Hospital that was never built; and, most impressive, Milbank Hall (1896-1898), the centerpiece of the new Barnard College adjacent to Columbia University. Rich also designed the two buildings that flank Milbank Hall that were funded by others. He would go on to design a master plan for the college, as well as Milbank Quadrangle and its nine-story Brooks Hall (1907), both again funded by Mrs. Anderson. Finally, Rich also designed one of New York's first studio apartment buildings, the Bryant Park Studios (1901). It was designed for Mrs. Anderson's husband, the portraitist Colonel Abraham A. Anderson.
So by the last decade of the century, Lamb & Rich had considerable prominence. Their office was located on Fifth Avenue within blocks of that of McKim, Mead & White, and they were designing row houses on the Upper West Side whole blocks at a time. A contemporary biographical dictionary credited the firm with 'a good reputation among those who stand high in the recent development of American architecture.' It is in this context that Rich was reintroduced to the College, which would become his greatest patron.
President Tucker was just beginning to invent the place that students and alumni would come to call 'The New Dartmouth' in 1893. As other expanding schools had begun to do, Dartmouth was starting to recruit a national constituency, establish specialized departments, and create elective courses for the first time. Dartmouth would add the nation's first graduate school of business as well, the Tuck School, in 1900. And along with this broadening, the College grew phenomenally in size. The 1902 enrollment of 791 students was greatly increased over that of ten years before. In 1906 alone, Dartmouth's enrollment leapt 14% to stand at 1065 students, which was the most rapid gain in New England that year and 'almost wholly due to the enthusiasm of its alumni and the power of its big president,' as the Boston Evening Transcript put it. Though President Tucker preferred to classify Dartmouth as a novel type of institution that he termed the 'large college,' the school was in many ways a wholehearted participant in the university movement.
This new founding needed an identity almost as much as it needed space, and Rich was involved from the very beginning. He had a master plan ready within two months of Tucker's election on 24 February 1893, even before the new Committee on Buildings and Improvements had been ratified. The Trustees accepted Rich's plan that spring. Though a copy of it does not seem to survive, descriptions of the modern campus it depicted speak of efficiency, beauty and an almost hygienic separation of uses into distinct buildings. One senses that these were all characteristics that the eleven buildings of the old 'haphazard' Dartmouth did not possess. Not only was the campus to be enlarged, then, but the new additions would be orderly, parallel and straightforward. The vistas created along Elm Street to Wilder Hall, or between Crosby and Richardson Halls, come from this plan and its descendants.
At their meeting of 8 June 1894 the Trustees approved the construction of Rich's first two projects. One was an addition to the rear of the old Sanborn House that would turn it into a dormitory for fifty students; it was soon overshadowed by the other project. The Trustees approved a plan to expand the College north of the Green in the form of a cour d'honneur, a formal quadrangle lined with buildings on three sides. This was to be Dartmouth's own part in the City Beautiful movement. On the advice of Charles Eliot, son of the Harvard president and a rising landscape architect in the Olmsted Brothers' firm, the College began buying up houses to make way for the grand project, and Rich was in charge of creating it .
Rich laid out an ambitious program in his design for the new quadrangle, and it was published in August of 1895. The plan called for an Alumni Memorial Hall to stand at the corner of College and Wentworth Streets as a counterpart to the eighteenth-century College Church. A museum would stand at the rear of the quadrangle, framed by a pair of recitation halls. But this version of the scheme did not last very long, and the recitation halls were soon abandoned. When the memorial hall was finally begun in 1901, it had been recast, sans dome, as Webster Hall, an auditorium.
But the Butterfield Museum (1895-1896) was built essentially as Rich had planned it, north of the Green. It was his first major building at the College, and as a natural history museum it provided a home for the College's dinosaur skeleton and other prizes in its grand hall. One wonders how much influence the buff Roman bricks of the new Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hospital (1893) exerted on the architect, for Rich used the same material here in a Renaissance idiom. This would be the first and only time Rich would design a yellow masonry building, however. When the architectural critic Montgomery Schuyler wrote on Dartmouth in 1910, he reserved his harshest criticism for the museum, noting it appeared to have been designed without any later buildings in mind. The early demise of the museum was surely hastened by its anomalous appearance, and Rich could not even recall its name when he later compiled a list of his Dartmouth projects for Assistant Librarian Harold Rugg. It had already been five years since the building was demolished to make way for Baker Library when he wrote in 1933.
The new Dartmouth Hall (1904-1906) was another key building in Rich's project, and was not entirely unanticipated. Despite the well-publicized mourning that followed the burning of the original Dartmouth Hall, administrators might have been secretly relieved to be rid of the unsafe and inefficient old building. The College had been thinking of moving the hall or demolishing it altogether in favor of a brick facsimile, and Rich's 1893 master plan proposed just such radical moves. The fire of 18 February 1904 not only destroyed the building, but also gave the College the opportunity to replace it without incurring the ire of those who had turned the hall into an object of worship. Using the unusual method of working from an enlarged photograph of the old building, Rich created a fully modern replacement in the image of the old. Now fundraisers could capitalize on the nostalgia to which the new hall appealed so strongly, and at the same time the antiquated mixing of classrooms with other uses could be abandoned. Webster Hall and Richardson Hall (1897-1898) were assigned to take over the functions of assembly room and dormitory that were banished from Dartmouth Hall.
The buildings that transformed the west side of the Green give another view of Rich's work. Essentially large mansions built to house newly-specialized social and administrative functions, their identity as a unified row belies their long genesis. In fact it took over two decades for the row to coalesce through a number of steps. First Rich grafted dormitories onto the old houses the College had bought, as at Sanborn (1894), Crosby (1896) or Hubbard (1906). These were early nineteenth-century homes, and students seemed to like the instant history that their new dormitories brought. But the houses were only a transitional stage. When the College could move such a house back to Sanborn Lane or to the street that would become Massachusetts Row, it did. The Hubbard addition was moved just four years after it was built; only Crosby House was spared, and it remains on Main Street as the Blunt Alumni Center, though its rear addition has been replaced. In the wake of these houses and their demolished neighbors, Charles Rich designed imposing brick halls such as College (1901), Tuck (1902-1904, now McNutt), Parkhurst (1910-1911), and Robinson (1913-1914). The old houses that survived in the background were not spared the march of red-brick progress a second time, as they fell to the three Massachusetts dormitories (1907 and 1912) and the later buildings that aligned with them.
Rich's most common building type at Dartmouth was the dormitory. These buildings were more than mere housing; they were a crucial element in the campaign to preserve a traditional sense of collegiality or 'Dartmouth Democracy,' as Tucker's administration saw it. Developing the same anti-exclusion principles that motivated the construction of College and Robinson Halls, each new dormitory floor plan made the simple gesture of juxtaposing rooms of different sizes. Steady growth threatened to breed social cliques, and the College saw a variety of rents as a way to ensure that the men who mingled would be varied as well. Dorm lounges were also instituted and individual alcove rooms done away with for the same reason.
Often the sole justification for building a new dormitory was tied to the preservation of democracy. When an incoming class outnumbered the available beds, the Trustees feared having to become 'essentially undemocratic through some kind of artificial restriction.' Thus as the popularity of the College soared, it was forced to build more dormitories, often calibrating their capacities to just-announced enrollment projections. Most of these buildings followed a generalized 'colonial' style and appeared on all parts of the campus. Along with Massachusetts Row and Richardson already mentioned, the dormitories that went up during this time were Fayerweather (1899-1900); Wheeler (1904-1905); North and South Fayerweather (1906-1907); New Hampshire (1907-1908); and Hitchcock (1912-1913).
Nor were the faculty free of housing problems, since the College was rapidly outpacing the capacity of the village to house everyone associated with it. In 1913 the College finished its first frame apartment building, called Parkside, which Rich designed for its site on East Wheelock Street. But this was not its first effort at rental housing. On Occom Ridge at the end of Webster Avenue, the College had built an 1899 rental duplex by Rich; it was called the Ridge House and is now a sorority. President Tucker would later hire Rich to design his own house across the street upon his retirement in 1909. And Webster Avenue itself was a housing venture, spurred by the necessity to house those displaced by the Quadrangle. The College opened the north side of the avenue in 1896 and sold most of the lots to professors, while the south side remained part of the Hitchcock estate and would not come to the College until 1912.
Many of Rich's designs are today unknown, or virtually so; they are renovations to earlier buildings, non-College buildings of which little was recorded, or designs that were simply never carried out. An example of the first is Wentworth, where the numerals '1912' on the gable commemorate Rich's extensive work on the building in that year. This renovation also explains Wentworth's hallways and why they run perpendicular to those of its twin, Thornton Hall. Rich gave Wentworth an entirely new interior organized about a central stair, removing the end doors in favor of a single one in the south side. The 1889 Hanover Inn had undergone a similar if less radical alteration in 1902; Rich colonialized it by removing its porches, lowering its tower, and adding appropriate interiors.
Rich's letter to Rugg hints at the buildings most difficult to attribute to him, a pair of unnamed fraternities. Of the houses built during this time, three are not generally connected to an architect. Of those, the most likely targets for speculation are the Phi Delta Theta House (1900) and the Beta Theta Pi House (1904), now Fairbanks South. The latter organization counted Rich as a well-known alumnus; he was also known to the building committee of the former organization since several of its members were on the College's own building committee.
A number of structures that Rich planned for the College simply went unbuilt. The College intended a chemistry building designed in 1893 to be the first building of the new master plan. This did not come about, though the idea of it was still alive in 1897 when it was intended to occupy the site where New Hampshire is now. It was never built. Another unbuilt design was a dormitory to rise behind Richardson Hall. It was to be similar to New Hampshire in plan but 'entirely different' in character. The building committee abandoned it in favor of North and South Massachusetts, however, and Rich was paid for the plans not used.
Rich's design for a long-needed library would have been the crowning glory of his work at Dartmouth, but it had to be left to a later generation. In April of 1912 Rich was paid $100 for tentative library plans he had been asked to work up, but a lack of funding seems to have stopped the project there. What was interesting about this library was the site it was to occupy, for Rich knew it would ultimately require the demolition of his own Butterfield Museum. The site he intended was indeed the site that Jens Larson's Baker Library would finally take fifteen years later. Thus the Butterfield Museum was an impediment from an early date, and it would come to be cited as a textbook example of poor planning (the first book written about campus design placed it only at 'a well-known college'). But the Museum might not have been as short-sighted as it seems. The idea of placing the central library on this site probably did not take on urgency until the possibility of Tuck Mall had appeared to the west; the College did not inherit that land until 1912.
All of these buildings show the College operating under an overall scheme while attempting few grand compositions. Piecemeal expediency was the rule, and speedy work probably characterized many periods of Rich's employment. The College could lay the Hitchcock Hall foundation in the fall, for example, without knowing whether Rich would have to design its upper stories in the spring or if enrollment would allow the work to lie fallow for a year. College Hall appeared on a site that the building committee had only recently snapped up after a fire; the new hall managed to incorporate its predecessor's granite front steps into its own portico. When the College could begin two dormitories less than a month after having voted for a single building elsewhere, as in North and South Massachusetts, it did so. Richardson Hall and the Wilder Laboratory (1897-1898) were designed without any boilers, so sure was the College that it would commit to building a heating plant, which it soon did in 1898. The College even threw up the wooden New Hubbard Hall in a total of two months when it was found that enrollments would be too great for the new dormitories already under construction.Map of the College, from William Jewett Tucker, My Generation (1919).
Indeed this sense of somewhat haphazard development is at odds with the way Rich's work was sometimes characterized. According to President Tucker, Rich was hired to ensure the 'unity of design in construction, and that the controlling type should be that of the colonial college'; in fact no one meant to hypothesize what the founder Wheelock might have built. The robust arches of the Heating Plant distinctly profess their distance from the white-trimmed buildings associated with colonial America, for example. Naturally the Romanesque was correct for a background industrial building, but what about the Roman temple guise of Webster Hall, or the Dutch gables at the rear of Alumni Gym? Crosby received columns and yellow paint so it would look more colonial, but Wilder Hall might have been termed 'Jacobean,' as the critic Schuyler called Barnard College, its larger cousin. The lamps on Parkhurst Hall are copied from the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence, which Rich had visited, and Robinson's prominent arched cornice also speaks of the Italian Renaissance. But Commons in College Hall next door has an intentionally medieval English appearance. Some even said that the College was more English Georgian than American colonial, which they believed to be appropriate since the College had English roots. If the result seems eclectic today, Dartmouth's buildings in the classical style do harmonize well; we can allow that 'the shaping hand was at all points the same,' as Tucker put it.
And by most accounts Rich's work was a success. Students dedicated the 1903 Aegis to the architect, 'Son of Dartmouth, and seeker for her prosperity.' Along with triumphant reports of Dartmouth's progress, even its 'renaissance,' commentators marveled at how drastically the campus had changed. By 1914 alumni could recognize only the covered Ledyard Bridge, the 1870 Culver chemistry building and the 1885 Wilson Hall library. Those were the only anomalous survivals from the Old Dartmouth, while everything else was a sharp contrast in its attractiveness and modernity. The campaign was a success.Dedication page of the Aegis (1903).
During his two decades of work at Dartmouth, Rich was by no means tied exclusively to the College. Other than the New York buildings already mentioned, a general expansion of his practice into New England accompanied his work in Hanover. In one case he came to the rescue of a failed selection process in Claremont, New Hampshire, to design its City Hall/Opera House (1895-1897). He also designed two buildings at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut, including the 1904 Scott Memorial Hall. That building would seem large but not entirely out of character among the buildings on the west side of Dartmouth's Green. And John M. Greene Hall (1909-1910) at Smith College is an inflated version of Webster Hall that seats 2500; it is one of five buildings Rich designed there between 1908 and 1913.
How did Charles Rich end his tenure at Dartmouth? He seems to have faded out gradually. Rich's office always remained in New York rather than Hanover, and this surely aided the process. Rich visited the College only when it was necessary, such as when the building committee needed him to present a plan or tour potential building sites. His design for Robinson Hall was already published by December of 1912, and this is the last we hear of him before the First World War. That winter, it was not Rich but Lockwood, Greene and Company that the building committee consulted in the design of the Storehouse on Crosby Street. The building went up in 1916, and perhaps its utilitarian nature precluded using Rich's services; the company's manager was also a Thayer graduate. When the College decided to select an architect in 1919 to handle the postwar enrollment boom full-time, they chose Jens Fredrick Larson.
Rich did manage to see one last building built after the war, however. It was an addition to his Alumni Gymnasium of 1909-1911. The earliest plans of the gymnasium had anticipated a pool addition at the rear, and it seemed a possibility when former New Hampshire governor Rolland H. Spaulding proposed to fund such a building in 1916. But the First World War delayed the project. When Spaulding Pool (1919-1920) was finally built, it marked the transition to the new campus architect; the construction supervisor Harry Wells was not only the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds but a partner in the new firm of Larson & Wells.
Rich was 66 years old at the time the pool was finished. He would continue in practice for another decade at least. His firm had grown to become Rich, Mathesius and Koyl, and when Rich retired in 1932, the firm broke up. Frederick Mathesius continued to practice, notably in the firm that won the 1939 competition for the Post Office in Montpelier, Vermont; George Koyl became the dean of the School of Fine Arts at the University of Pennsylvania. Rich decided to retire near one of his three daughters, in Charlottesville, Virginia. He and his wife, Harriet Bradbury Rich, built a house in a new suburb, and they lived there until Rich died on 3 December 1943. A photograph of Rich at a gathering of the Dartmouth Club of Virginia survives in the College Archives. It depicts him standing next to President Hopkins under dignified white hair and a suit from an earlier era. He is, as his partner Mathesius would write in a memorial, 'a gentleman of the old school.'
 Gravestone of Charles Alonzo Rich at Christ Church, Glendower, Virginia.
 Charles A. Downs, History of Lebanon, N.H., 1761-1887 (Concord: Rumford Printing Co., 1908), 418.
 The Dartmouth Bi-Monthly 2, no. 2 (December 1906): 48.
 Russell Henry Chittenden, History of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, 1846-1922, 2 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928), 1:37-38.
 See volumes of the Aegis from 1871 through 1875.
 Leon V. Solon, 'The Spalding Swimming Pool at Dartmouth College: Rich & Mathesius, Architects,' Architectural Record 50 (September 1921): 184.
 Cynthia Zaitevsky, 'Emerson, William Ralph,' Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects, Adolf K. Placzek, ed., 4 vols. (New York: Free Press, a division of Macmillan, 1982), 2: 24.
 Charles Rich, 'The Architect,' The Dartmouth (14 June 1895): 319.
 American Architect and Building News 4, no. 143 (21 September 1878). A brief note appears on page 101; plate is bound in at the end of the volume.
 White River Junction (Vt.) Observer, 23 April 1880, cited in The Dartmouth (7 May 1880): 384.
 Charles Rich, 'Monastic Architecture in Russia,' Architectural Record 9 (July-September 1899): 21.
 'A Run through Spain-XIV,' American Architect and Building News 33, no. 811 (11 July 1891): 25.
 Gavin Townsend, 'Lamb & Rich,' in Long Island Country Houses and Their Architects, 1860-1940, ed. Robert B. Mackay et al . (New York: Society for the Preservation of Long Island Antiquities in association with W.W. Norton & Co., 1997), 455.
 Townsend, 'Lamb & Rich,' 243.
 Vincent J. Scully, Jr., The Shingle Style and the Stick Style: Architectural Theory and Design From Richardson to the Origins of Wright (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 103.
 American Architect and Building News 12, no. 349 (2 September, 1882), plate bound in at end of volume.
 John Briggs, The Face of A Family (Greenwich, Ct.: 1992), 15; Notable American Women, s.v. 'Anderson, Elizabeth Milbank.'
 Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Alma Mater: Design and Experience in the Women's Colleges from their Nineteenth-Century Beginnings to the 1930s (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), 138-139.
 Townsend, 'Lamb & Rich,' 242.
 Appletons' Cyclopaedia of American Biography, ed. James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, 6 vols. (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1894), 5: 237.
 The Dartmouth (21 March 1902): 406-407.
 Frank Basil Tracy, 'How the Colleges Start,' Boston Evening Transcript (20 October 1906), part 3, p. 2.
 'To the Trustees of Dartmouth College,' Hanover, 27 May 1899, printed report in Dartmouth College Trustees, Committee on Buildings and Improvements, Records, Dartmouth College Library, Special Collections, DA 502.
 The Dartmouth (17 February 1899): 328.
 William Jewett Tucker, My Generation: An Autobiographical Interpretation (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919), 309-310; Dartmouth College Trustees' Records, 5:110-114 (Dartmouth College Library, Special Collections, DA-1).
 American Architect and Building News 49, no. 1026 (24 August 1895), bound in at end of issue.
 See infra, 87-96, on the past and future of Webster Hall.
 Montgomery Schuyler, 'The Architecture of American Colleges VI. Dartmouth, Williams, Amherst,' Architectural Record 28 (December 1910): 430.
 Charles Rich to Harold Rugg, 16 February 1933, Dartmouth College Library, Special Collections, Ms. 933166.
 Trustees' Records, 5:58.
 The Dartmouth Bi-Monthly 3:5 (June 1908): 223.
 The Dartmouth (21 April 1893): 208.
 The Dartmouth (29 October 1897): 77.
 The Dartmouth (23 October 1911): 1-2.
 Dartmouth College Trustees, Committee on Business Administration, Records, 1910-1916. Dartmouth College Library, Special Collections, DA-503.
 The Dartmouth (11 January 1912): 1.
 Charles Z. Klauder and Herbert C. Wise, College Architecture in America and Its Part in the Development of the Campus (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929), 25.
 The Dartmouth (16 November 1911): 1.
 The Dartmouth (11 March 1898): 308.
 Dartmouth Bi-Monthly 2 (October 1906): 22.
 Tucker, My Generation, 312.
 Montgomery Schuyler, 'Architecture of American Colleges IV. New York City Colleges,' Architectural Record 27 (June 1910): 450.
 Tucker, My Generation, 312.
 Aegis (1903).
 The Dartmouth (20 June 1914): 2.
 Gerald Gatz, 'The Construction of the Claremont Opera House,' Historical New Hampshire 37 (Spring 1982), 16-20.
 Report on Storehouse, April 1913, in Committee on Business Administration, Records, 1910-1916.
 Frederick Mathesius, article on Rich written for The Century Club, New York City; photocopy in Dartmouth College Library, Special Collections, Charles Rich alumnus file.
DCLB--A98--Meacham 1.3 1