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Fall 2016 Newsletter



The Leslie Center for the Humanities
Dartmouth College
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Encuentro Filipino

Ilocos Norte
Photo credit: Ilocos Norte - view of Paoay Church, Photograph Regalado Trota Jose

"Rediscovering a Hispanic Nation: The Fine and Performing Arts in the Philippine Islands Before The Invasion of 1898"

A Three-Day, International, Interdisciplinary Symposium - Wed, April 30, 2008 - May 2, 2008

The purpose of this symposium is to bring forward to the academic community within the United States the work of Filipino scholars exploring new fields of cultural arts research within the Philippines. These individuals are at the forefront of a recent, post-neo-nationalist movement seeking to recover and re-illumine the deep cultural heritage of this archipelagic nation, especially that period prior to the U. S. invasion in 1898 and subsequent occupation from 1899-1941. This current research seeks to reunite contemporary Philippine culture with its long and accomplished Hispanic past. The symposium will also serve to reintroduce the Philippines to the U. S. scholarly community as a unique member of the worldwide body of Hispanic nations. The proceedings will be published in the electronic journal DIAGONAL.

This symposium brings together internationally recognized scholars in the visual and performing arts, individuals who seek to recover the rich cultural heritage of the Philippines. Their work covers urban and rural practices, indigenous and Hispanified expressions in the arts, as well as the important role played in Filipino culture by the Catholic Church, women religious, parish musicians and music publishers.

Sponsored by: The Department of Music
Cooperating departments and programs: History Department (Douglas Haynes), The Dickey Center for International Understanding, The Leslie Center for the Humanities The Provost of Dartmouth College, Barry Scherr, The Handel Society of Dartmouth College, Dr. Robert Duff Director.


All events are free and open to the public

Tuesday, 29 April 2008

8:00 - 10:00 pm Short Film Series: "Spain in the Philippines"
Faulkner Recital Hall, Hopkins Center for the Arts

Wednesday, 30 April 2008

Conference Session 1
12:30 pm Opening event: Concert of Filipino Romantic Piano Music: Sally Pinkas
Vaughan Recital Series
Faulkner Recital Hall, Hopkins Center for the Arts
1:30 pm
  • Haldeman Conference Center, Kreindler Auditorium, Room 041

  • Greeting and Welcome - Barry Scherr, The Provost of Dartmouth College
  • Introduction to the Symposium - William Summers, Music Department
1:45 - 3:30 pm Chair: Douglas Haynes, History Department
  • Rev. Milan Ted Torralba, "Cultural Heritage Recovery: The Historic and Contemporary Struggle to Maintain 350 Years Of A Legacy"
  • Elena Rivera Mirano, "Reconstructing the Music of Marcelo Adonay: A Case Study"
3:30pm Coffee Break
3:45 - 6:00 pm Chair: Walter Clark, U. C. Riverside
  • Ma. Alexandra IÒigo Chua, "The Monasterio De Santa Clara Music Books: Women and Music at the Heart of 19th Century Manila"
  • Ma. Patricia Silvestre Brilliantes, "Reliving the Music in the Journeys of Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje"
  • Reglado Trota JosÈ, "Imaging Our Lady In 16th-Century Manila: Nuestra SeÒora del Rosario de la Naval"

Thursday, 1 May 2008
Conference Session 2 - Haldeman Conference Center, Kreindler Auditorium, Room 041

1:00 - 3:15 pm Welcome, Kenneth Yalowitz, Director John Sloane Dickey Center
Chair: Professor Reiko Ohnuma, Chair, Asian Studies Program
  • Ma. Patricia Silvestre Brilliantes, "Music in the Heart of Manila: Quiapo From the Colonial Period to Contemporary Times - Tradition, Change and Continuity"
  • Reglado Trota JosÈ, "In Search of Bell-Casters and Foundries in Spanish Colonial Philippines"
  • Rev. Milan Ted Torralba, "Making Cultural Heritage Alive In Contemporary Philippine Culture"
3:15 pm Coffee Break
3:30 - 5:15 pm Chair: Dr. Bernardita Churchill, President, Philippine National Historical Society
  • Ma. Alexandra Iñigo Chua, "Reading Choirbooks and Translating Musical Traditions: Explorations on the Musical Montage of 19th Century Bohol, Philippines"
  • Elena Rivera Mirano, "Subli: On the use of Multidisciplinary methods in Musicology"
5:15 - 5:30 pm Questions/Discussion; Adjournment

Friday, 2 May 2008

8:00 pm Closing Event of Encuentro Filipino
The Loboc Children's Choir in a Concert of Filipino Choral Music
Rollins Chapel

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Encuentro Filipino: Speakers

Photo: Ma. Patricia Brillantes-SilvestreMa. Patricia Brillantes-Silvestre graduated in 1988 with a Bachelor of Music degree in Musicology, cum laude, and joined the faculty of the Musicology Department at the University of the Philippines College of Music a year later. She obtained a Master of Arts in Spanish, specializing in Translation, in 1998 from the UP College of Arts and Letters. She teaches Philippine music history courses (from the Precolonial period to the American and Contemporary period) as well as Western music history courses (from Classical Greece to 20th-C. Music).

Her interests lie in the domain of Historical Musicology involving Philippine music in the Spanish Colonial Period and urban heritage studies. She has done research and fieldwork on the music of Quiapo, a district of Manila, and Intramuros, Manila's walled city; Philippine liturgical music; Philippine popular music and composers; translations and criticism of writings on music by early historians and scholars such as P. Pedro Murillo-Velarde, SJ, Manuel Walls y Merino and Pedro Paterno; and various folk music forms in the Spanish colonial period for the Philippine Program at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC.

She has written for the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) Encyclopedia of Culture and the Arts (Music volume). Her essay Chronicles of Music in the Heart of Manila was published in the anthology Quiapo: Heart Of Manila, a multi-disciplinary volume on Quiapo (2006) and another essay Music and History in the Manila of Marcelo Adonay on the musical life of Manila in the milieu of the esteemed Filipino maestro de capilla of San Agustin Church in Intramuros (1848-1928) is currently in the press. She also has a number of research papers delivered in various symposia. She was formerly with the University of the Philippines Madrigal Singers, with which she has gone on a number of local and international concert tours; with AUIT, a vocal ensemble specializing in 20th-c Asian choral music and was formerly active as keyboardist and musical arranger for concerts as diverse as Philippine gong music fusion to musical theater. She is currently Board Member of the Philippine Musicological Society.

Photo: Ma. Alexandra IñIgo ChuaMa. Alexandra IñIgo Chua has a Bachelor of Music in Piano, magna cum laude, from the University of Santo Tomas Conservatory of Music (1991) and a Master in Music major in Musicology from the University of the Philippines College of Music (2000). She is currently a faculty member of the UST Conservatory of Music teaching History of Music, Forms and Analysis, Philippine Music, Asian Music and Piano Performance. She served as Chair of the Music Literature Department from 2002-2007 of the said institution.

Professor Chua has done research on various aspects of music of the colonial Philippines, in particular the Hispanic music of the province of Bohol, 19th century sacred music of Manila and music during the Japanese occupation period. She is a recipient of research grants given by the Sumitomo Foundation, the Toward a Common Future: A Program for Cultural Cooperation between the Ministry of Education and Culture of Spain and Philippine Universities, University of the Philippines Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Research and Development and the University of Santo Tomas Center for Intercultural Studies. She has presented papers in international conferences such as the European Philippine Studies Conference at Álcala de Henares, Spain (September 2001), the International Musicological Society of Japan Conference in Shizuoka, Japan, the Asian Studies Conference Japan in Tokyo, and the First Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology in Graz, Austria. She is also an Executive Council member of the Committee on Music of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, a government agency tasked to promote Filipino music culture nationally and internationally. She played a key role in organizing the Musicological Society of the Philippines which was established in 2002.

Photo: Elena Rivera MiranoElena Rivera Mirano is a Professor of Art Studies at the College of Arts and Letters at the University of the Philippines in Diliman. She has an A.B. in English, cum laude, an M.A. in Comparative Literature and a Ph.D. in Philippine Studies from the same university, as well as a Master of Arts in Humanities from Stanford University. As a researcher in the traditional culture of the Southern Tagalog region, She has authored Subli: One Dance in Four Voices/Subli: Isang Sayaw sa Apat na Tinig (National Book Award, Art Book Category, 1989) and Ang Mga Tradisyonal na Musikang Pantinig sa Lumang Bauan, Batangas (Gawad Chancellor, University of the Philippines, Diliman, "Best Book," Humanities Category, 1998). She served as research director for the Philippine Program at the 1998 Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C. She served as Project Director and Editor-in-Chief of The Life and Works of Marcelo Adonay, a research project jointly sponsored by the National Council for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and the U.P. Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Research and Development (UP-OVCRD). Volume I is to be launched by the U.P. Press in 2008.

In the domain of the performing arts, she was the featured performer of the recording album, Kumintang: Awitin ng mga Tagalog na taga Batangas, which she produced for the Diamond Jubilee of the University of the Philippines. A one woman show developed for the launch of this album was subsequently toured by the Cultural Center of the Philippines as part of its Outreach Program (November, 1986). As director of the Cherubim and Seraphim, the official children's choir of the University of the Philippines, she commissioned the theater piece, Awit ni Pulau, with music by Ramon P. Santos and libretto by Edgardo Maranan, serving as its producer. She also conceptualizes and directs the group's annual summer program of workshops and concert tours.

In 2001, she was designated laureate of the prestigious Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development in recognition of her achievements. In 2007, an Achievement Award in Humanities was conferred on her by the National Research Council of the Philippines.


Photo: Regalado Trota JoseRegalado Trota Jose: Over the past thirty years, Regalado Trota Jose has advocated for the study and protection of the cultural heritage of the Catholic Church in the Philippines. His studies at the University of the Philippines (A.B. Anthropology, 1978; M.A. Philippine Studies, 1991) were augmented by extensive travels around the country and the world (both through research grants and as a member of the Universit of the Philippines Madrigal Singers).

He has worked extensively - through research projects, curator-ship of exhibits, convening of conferences, conducting of classes, and lecture presentations - with the Ayala Museum, the University of the Philippines, the University of Santo Tomas, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, the Philippine National Historical Society, the Manila Archdiocesan Commission for the the Cultural Heritage of the Church, and the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines Permanent Committee for the Cultural Heritage of the Church.

Jose's major published works include Simbahan: Church Art in Colonial Philippines 1565-1898 (1991; National Book Award, Art Category, 1992); two books on Philippine ivory images Images of Faith (1990) and Power + Faith + Image (2004, with Ramon N. Villegas); Impreso: Philippine Imprints 1593-1811 (1993); San Agustin: Art and History (2000, with Fr. Pedro Galende); and Visita Iglesia Bohol (2001). Jose embarked on two research trips to Spain to look for Philippine artifacts in the museums of that country. In 1999, Professor Jose received the Cultural Center of the Philippines Centennial Award for the Arts for work in art history, as one of "100 outstanding Filipinos who have helped build the Filipino nation through art and culture during the last 100 years."

Photo: Rev. Fr. Milan Ted D. TorralbaRev. Fr. Milan Ted D. Torralba is a Roman Catholic priest of the Diocese of Tagbilaran, Bohol, The Philippines, and serves it in various capacities. He is presently Assistant Secretary in the Apostolic Nunciature (Embassy of the Holy See), in Manila, and Executive Secretary of the Permanent Committee for the Cultural Heritage of the Church, of the Catholic Conference of the Philippines (CBCP), Manila. He is also a canon lawyer.

Fr. Torralba is very much involved in heritage administration, management, advocacy, having been chair of the Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church of the Diocese of Tagbilaran (1996-2005), and of the Bohol Arts and Cultural Heritage Council (2002-2005), Provincial Government of Bohol, and sat in the the National Committee on Monuments & Sites, of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (1997-2004), Manila. He was responsible for a number of cultural heritage recovery projects in the Diocese of Tagbilaran as well as in the Province of Bohol which included organizing conferences, seminar-workshops and other such gatherings in the area of cultural heritage. He has presented results of his work in lectures both in the Philippines and abroad, and served as Philippine Government delegate to the ASEAN Ministers (ASEM) Meeting on Cultural Heritage held in Hanoi, Vietnam in February 1999, and to the Asia Pacific Hispanic Conference held in Madrid, Spain, in November 1999.

Fr. Torralba visited the Secretariat of State of the Holy See (Vatican City-State) in June 2002 to initiate the bilateral accord between the Holy See and the Republic of the Philippines on the care of the cultural heritage of the Catholic Church in the Philippines. The Agreement was signed in April 2007.

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Encuentro Filipino: Abstracts

Subli: On the use of Multi-disciplinary methods in Musicology

Dr. Elena Rivera Mirano
Chair, Department of Art Studies
University of the Philippines

In the Philippines, the subli is part of a repertoire of simple folk dances that has been taught in elementary and high schools since the 1930's, as part of the physical education curriculum. Working in Bauan, a town in the province of Batangas in the Southern Tagalog region of Luzon, this researcher discovered that subli, situated in its proper context, was much more - a long and complex sequence of devotions to the Mahal na Poong Santa Krus (Precious Lord Holy Cross), patron of the town, in ritual, dance, song, poetry and prayer. Consisting of dense, archaic texts, referring to the finding of the icon in the early years of Christian colonization, the devotions are set to music consisting of instrumental drones and ostinatos above which vocal punto (skeletal melodies) suddenly flower and just as suddenly vanish. The research, as well as an annual subli festival organized by the City of Batangas in the 1980's brought this form to local and national attention and led to its revival. This living, vital form is seen today as a metaphor of the resilience and tenacity of Batangueño faith and culture.

Reconstructing the Music of Marcelo Adonay: A Case Study

Dr. Elena Rivera Mirano

Marcelo Adonay, the 19th century maestro de capilla of the San Agustin Church in Intramuros, Manila, is considered the prince of Philippine church musicians. Unfortunately, except for a single work, the Pequeña Misa Solemne sobre Motivos de la Missa Regia del Canto Gregoriano his music has not been heard since the 1950's. In 2000, a research team consisting of musicologists from the University of the Philippines, led by this researcher, embarked on a project involving the search, retrieval and reconstruction of music by this 19th century master. Thus far, the research has resulted in a manuscript for a first volume of essays and 11 reconstructed scores of sacred music, now in the final stages of publication by the University of the Philippines Press. A second volume consisting of band music and works for violin and piano is now being prepared. The paper describes the processes involved in the search, retrieval and reconstruction. Heretofore unknown works will be discussed and presented as brief musical examples.

Reading Choir Books and Translating Musical Traditions: Explorations on the Musical Montage of 19th Century Bohol, Philippines

Maria Alexandra Iñigo-Chua, Assistant Professor
University of Santo Tomas Conservatory of Music and the Centre for Intercultural Studies

The annexation and incorporation of the Philippine Islands into the Spanish Empire, lasting for more than three hundred years (1565-1898), brought about the subsequent reshaping of Philippine society into the western social and cultural ideals. More than the conquistadores, it was the missionaries that were commissioned to accomplish the difficult task of converting the natives to Christianity and bringing them as well under the control of the Spanish crown. Missionaries' success led not only to the widespread propagation of the Catholic faith but also the eventual transplantation of European culture bringing into this part of the globe the Renaissance and Baroque tradition of the dominant Western World. This was, subsequently, to take root in most part of the archipelago and eventually took on a new form in the various areas of the occupied region. Music was the missionaries' most successful tool in this process of evangelization. Hence, music provides a fissure where such process as cultural appropriation and acculturation can be categorically explored.

The rich Hispanic musical heritage of the province of Bohol, a small turtle-shaped island in the central part of this archipelagic region, provides a good venue for such a musicological discussion. In Bohol, with its long history of conversion and hispanization, survives a wealth of artistic musical vestiges that links and connects us to this international web of Hispanic music culture. Numerous pipe organs found in decrepit choir lofts of baroque inspired churches, large-format parchment choirbooks preserved in various ecclesiastical repositories, a profusion of music sheets (handwritten and printed) dating back to the early part of the 1800's, are clear manifestations of the flowering of a dynamic and vibrant Hispanic music culture.

The two major towns of Bohol, i.e. Baclayon and Loboc, provided ideal sites to locate such musical exploration. The research study on the Baclayon cantorales offered a glimpse of the musico-cultural milieu of the island during this period of Spanish conquest. Furthermore, the examination and analysis of its repertory proved to be a most worthwhile undertaking that directed the way to the reconstruction of this long forgotten tradition of sacred music. Loboc, on the other hand, presents a stunning testament to the dynamism and richness of this cultural reality. At present, the numerous religious rituals and celebratory fiestas are still tied with the singing of Latin masses, gozos, Salve reginas, villancicos and motetes. Cantoras, cantores and tiples continue to participate in musically rich traditions such as the suroy, altares, flores de mayo and the bolibongkingking. Such traditions, although deeply laden with Spanish artistic influence have evolved into distinct Lobocanon cultural practices.

The paper, therefore, explores the unique musical heritage/traditions of the province of Bohol, in particular, the musically affluent towns of Baclayon and Loboc as representative cultures in this fascinating aspect in Philippine music history.

The Monasterio De Santa Clara Music Books: Women and Music at the Heart of 19th Century Manila

Ma. Alexandra Iñigo-Chua

The massive destruction brought about by the liberation of Manila in 1945 left the heart of the Philippine archipelago practically nothing of its rich artistic and cultural legacy. It is this reason that the archival rediscovery of the five-volume Manual Cantoral para el uso de las religiosas de Santa Clara de la Ciudad de Manila, from various repositories in the country has hitherto been the most important development in Philippine music scholarship. This huge anthology of religious music, printed in Manila by the Litografia de Oppel from the year 1871 to 1874, presents an extensive collection of 19th century sacred works, preserving the exquisite melodies and harmonies of the old city's venerable religious traditions. This five-volume set contains a wide array of compositions covering a variety of musical genres such as masses, gozos, villancicos, motets, Salve Reginas, Misereres, et. al. The collection was published for the utilization of the Clarisas or Poor Clares, the first religious women congregation to establish a mission in the Philippines (circa 1621).

The paper focuses on the importance of this body of music into the retrieval of Manila's Hispanic musical legacy. It seeks to explore, as well, perspective of female spirituality and representations of women in music posting interrogations as to the role and contribution of the voiceless women in the highly patriarchal 19th century society in Manila, Philippines.

Reliving the Music in the Journeys of Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje

Ma. Patricia Brillantes-Silvestre
Dept. of Musicology, College of Music
University of the Philippines, Diliman, QC

Our Lady of Antipolo, one of the most popular images of the Blessed Virgin in the Philippines arrived from Mexico in 1626 aboard the galleon El Almirante in the hands of Gov.-Gen. Don Juan Niño de Tabora. She was first installed in Intramuros under the Jesuit order amid the ringing of church bells and the firing of cannons. The town of Antipolo in Rizal province eventually became her home shrine when the Jesuits took charge of the mission there. After several miraculous incidents, the image was enthroned on the naos de Manila, the galleons plying the long and perilous Manila-Acapulco route. For a little over a hundred years (1641-1748), she kept danger at bay, thus being bestowed the title Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje. After the galleon trips of 1651 and 1746, the image was escorted in a grand fluvial parade on the Pasig River and land trails back to her hilltop shrine. Music, dance, ritual and spectacle unfolded along these journeys, culminating in a colorful program in the churchyard in Antipolo.

Through a re-translation into English of these 2 journeys contained in the chronicles of Fr. Pedro Murillo-Velarde, SJ (Historia de la Provincia de Philipinas, 1749), the extravagant musical and devotional life of 18th-century Manila and its environs are recreated and interpreted through a musicological vantage point. Further archival research would allow us to follow the continuous unfolding of the drama and music of Our Lady’s journeys in the 20th-century: in 1904, her next Manila visit, for the 50th jubilee of the Immaculate Conception; in 1926 for her canonical coronation; in 1945 for her return to Antipolo from Manila at war’s end after seeking refuge from Japanese forces in Antipolo; and in 1954 for the Marian Congress in Manila

This paper seeks to recreate the concomitant musical life in the journeys and visits of Our Lady, evaluate their place in the richly varied musical fabric of Manila, while explaining these in the context of Filipino celebratory religious life. It also seeks to underscore the singularly invaluable contribution of early primary sources and archival materials in Spanish in the writing of Philippine music history, in the process addressing the need for knowledge of the Spanish language in dealing with musicological-historical studies in Spanish Philippines.

Music in the Heart of Manila: Quiapo From the Colonial Period to Contemporary Times - Tradition, Change and Continuity

Ma. Patricia Brillantes-Silvestre

The Quiapo music scene, as chronicled from the earliest available materials to present-day sources, is a prime example of a cultural heritage that has metamorphosed in diverse ways. The district grew to be a major merger zone of culture in Manila, an urban melting pot with its distinct identity yet embracing all identities. Today's Quiapo, lost in twenty first-century cacophony, may seem but a worn-out, decrepit shadow of the grand old days of genteel music-making among the ilustrado (educated, elite) families emergent in the area around the 1850s. But lest we forget: here sprouted many of Manila's earliest theaters: European opera and the Tagalog zarzuela flourished here; Quiapo's sacred music was at par with the splendid repertoires of the great Intramuros cathedral and churches; vocal and instrumental groups performed all over town. Indeed, Quiapo was home to a vast and dynamic network of composers, singers, band and orchestra players, organists, pianists, music teachers, conductors, impresarios, instrument makers and repairers, music merchants, music publishers, music associations, even opera costume designers and opera make-up artists----all these as magnificent background to the raucously global musical eclecticism of today's Quiapo.

This paper surveys music in Quiapo through the following segments: Early References to Quiapo Music, The Theaters, A Musical Beehive, Music Making in the Private Home and Music in the Places of Worship. The last section examines the changes and continuities in the musical landscape of the district and recommends future relevant areas of musicological explorations, studies that may address the current lack of appreciation or regard for urban heritage studies in the Philippines.

Imaging Our Lady In 16th Century Manila: Nuestra Señora del Rosario de la Naval

Regalado Trota JosÈ
Assistant Professor, Graduate School
Department of Cultural Heritage Studies
University of Santo Tomas

The image of Our Lady of the Rosary 'de la Naval' is considered the oldest dated ivory carved in the Philippines. It was commissioned in the 1590s by the Governor General of the Philippines, and was carved by a pagan Chinese in Manila under the direction of a Spanish official. The image is thus listed as a benchmark in Philippine art history. However, the 'La Naval', as she is popularly known, suffered some damage during the 1762 pillage of Manila by British troops. In 1907, she was canonically crowned by the Papal Nuncio, the first Marian image in the country to be so honored. She narrowly missed destruction during the bombing of Manila in 1942, and had to be evacuated to a safer locale. In 1954, she was finally brought to her present home in the Dominican church in Quezon City. Some scholars have wondered how authentic to the 1593 original is the present statue. To be sure, other images of Our Lady of the Rosary were commissioned for the same Dominican convent in Manila from the early 17th century to the present day. In order to approach this art historical problem, a number of investigations have been carried out. This paper will report on the following.

Sources: The earliest published account is that by Diego Aduarte, Dominican historian, whose work first appeared in 1640. This work is supported by microfilm copies of archival documents kept at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila (the originals were brought to Avila, Spain sometime in the 1970s.) Chief among these documents is the first Libro de Cabildos (Book of Meetings) of the Confraternity of Our Lady of the Rosary, whose first entry dates from 1592. Other Dominican accounts will be looked into, including a number prepared for the 1907 coronation. A special source is the image of the La Naval itself, which this writer was privileged to briefly examine in 2006.

Lines of investigation: Types of clothes the La Naval would have worn in the 1590s; Types of Marian images, especially those of Our Lady of the Rosary, popular in the 16th century, that could have provided inspiration for the La Naval; The state of carving Christian images, especially of ivory, in 16th century Philippines; The character of those involved in the commissioning of the La Naval: the Governor General (Luis PÈrez Dasmariñas), the Spanish official (Hernando de los RÌos Coronel), and the anonymous Chinese artist; The appearance of other early images of Our Lady of the Rosary in the Philippines, such as those in Manaoag, Orani, Binondo, and Piat.

In Search Of Bell-Casters And Foundries in Spanish Colonial Philippines

Regalado Trota JosÈ

The settlement of Spaniards in the Philippines since 1565 saw the start of an active evangelization campaign among the Filipinos. Churches were built and outfitted, books printed, statues carved, singers trained, and other similar activities carried out. The dominant missionary plan was to gather the Filipinos bajo las campanas, within hearing of the church bells. Although contemporary studies have tackled church architecture and imagery, there is still much to be done, given the wealth, variety, and spread of colonial churches all over the islands. One aspect that merits investigation is the introduction, use and manufacture of church bells.

The present paper seeks to 'weld' together loose references to church bells in order to construct a concise history of these artifacts in the Spanish colonial Philippines, with particular reference to identification of bell-casters or their foundries. Published and archival material on the topic is abundant. In addition, this writer will cull from extensive field data collected from bells extant in the Batanes Islands in the far north to Zamboanga in the south of the country. In the course of the writer's 30-year documentation of church art, a methodology in recording inscriptions and religious symbols was developed. Bringing the subject of bells, their production, use and history directly into the larger discussion of church architecture and the way of life of the historic Christian communities in the Philippines will provide a unique vantage point to expand our understanding of our rich cultural heritage.

Christian Theology and Cultural Heritage: Preserving the Past to Liberate the Future

Fr. Mil·n Ted D. TORRALBA
Office of the Papal Nuncio to the Philippines, Manila

Cultural heritage awareness emerged in the Philippines only in the past two decades or so. Scholarly individuals can take credit for fomenting, although rather slowly due to a number of factors, a grain of sensitivity to what constitutes the Filipino Nation's collective cultural patrimony. These individuals - anthropologists, archaeologists, media practitioners, museum curators, architects, and a host of others working in their respective academic fields - encouraged the setting up of institutions that became the primary dynamo for the preservation, promotion, and perpetuation of the Nation's cultural heritage.

At the National Government level in the Philippine bureaucracy, then President Corazon C. Aguino initiated the movement towards cultural heritage recovery by creating the Presidential Commission for Culture and the Arts (PCCA) in 1987, to oversee the pioneering efforts of artists and culture and heritage workers, and convoke their individual efforts into a common retrieval of the Nation's cultural patrimony. This body later on became the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) when the Philippine Congress enacted in 1992 a law establishing it, subjecting the same under the Office of the President, to serve as the catalyst and superintendent of the Nation's heritage. During the presidency of Joseph Ejercito Estrada, the National Government cultural agencies, such as the National Historical Institute, National Museum, Cultural Center of the Philippines, National Library, Commission on the Filipino Language, and the National Archives, were placed under the administrative supervision of the NCCA by virtue of Executive Order 80.

Not to be remiss in its obligation, at the institutional level of the local Church in the Philippines, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) created the Permanent Committee for the Cultural Heritage of the Church its midyear Plenary Assembly 8 July 1996 to serve the Conference and the individual bishops as a consultative and monitoring arm of the Church in the area of cultural heritage conservation and research. To undertake a scientific approach to the conservation of the different typology of cultural heritage, the University of Santo Tomas, in Manila, for its part, instituted a graduate programme on cultural heritage studies in 2000 leading to a master's degree, to cater to individuals who have interests or are working, or planning to work, in this promising field of scientific endeavor.

Other bodies, agencies, and organizations were also founded in different localities in response to felt needs and in answer to encouragement to make palpable the recovery of the cultural patrimony of the Filipino Nation. Prominent among the handful of organizations is the non-stock, non-profit Heritage Conservation Society founded to advocate the preservation of the Philippine built heritage. Among the diocesan commissions for church heritage that have made significant stride as to be considered trailblazing in this emergent pastoral ministry is that of the Diocese of Tagbilaran, Bohol, whose Diocesan Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church was canonically established by His Excellency, Most Rev. Leopoldo S. Tumulak, then Bishop of Tagbilaran, in July 1995.

The philosophy behind the general movement towards heritage management is the proactive retention of the identified core value or inherent significance of the object or ensemble. This is the fundamental reason for the scientific conservation of the cultural heritage manifestation. As regards the cultural heritage of the Church, the basic purpose for heritage awareness and conservation is the finality for which these ensemble are destined, viz., as privileged means of the renewed evangelization, and as legitimate expressions of the Community's shared faith-experience. One can certainly speak of the theology of cultural heritage through which all enterprises intended for and in behalf of the ecclesiastical cultural goods are rededicated and find their proper locus.

Where all these to be properly understood by the Church Authorities as well as by the Lay Faithful, the steady destruction, unsympathetic remodeling, and the gradual loss of the cultural heritage of the Church would have been retarded and immobilized. Heritage will then be seen for what it is: a necessary reflecting extension of the Community that created it, owns it, and makes full use of it. Heritage becomes us.

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Encuentro Filipino: Concerts

Inaugural Concert: A Recital of Filipino Romantic Piano Music

Dr. Sally Pinkas, Professor of Music, Dartmouth College
Wednesday, 29 April 2008
12:30pm, Faulkner Recital Hall

Photo: Sally Pinkas

Since her London debut, pianist Sally Pinkas has concertized widely in the USA, Europe, Russia, China, Africa and her native Israel, both as soloist and as half of the Hirsch-Pinkas Piano Duo (with her husband, Evan Hirsch). Pianist-in-residence of the Hopkins Center at Dartmouth College, Pinkas is Professor of Music at the College's Music Department, and a faculty member at the Longy School of Music in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pinkas has participated in the Marlboro, Tanglewood and Aspen Music Festivals, and appears regularly in summer festivals in the USA, Italy and France. Her solo discography includes works by Debussy, Fauré, George Rochberg and Christian Wolff on the Centaur, Musica Omnia, Gasparo and Mode labels. A 3-CD recording of Gaubert's Complete Chamber Works for Flute and Piano(with Fenwick Smith) was recently released on Naxos. Upcoming releases include the Fauré Piano Quartets (with the Adaskin Trio) and solo works by Schumann.

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  • La Julita - Pequeña Walz Lento: Marcelo Adonay (1848-1928)
  • La Marieta - Allegro (Tempo di mazurka): Marcelo Adonay
  • Kayumangui - Sa Kadalagahan Na Akino, Andantino (Tempo di valse): Francisco Buencamino, Sr. (1883-1952)
  • In The Orient (Valsette): Dr. Francisco Santiago (1889-1947)
  • Nocturne in E-flat Minor (Moderato cantabile): Dr. Francisco Santiago
  • First Nocturne (Moderato cantabile): Prof. Nicanor Abelardo (1893-1934)
  • "Camia", based on Tinguian and Tagalog Songs, Poem by Francicso Icasiano (Andante contemplativo): Antonio J. Molina (1894-1980)
  • Romance in B-flat Major (Moderato): Lucino T. Sacramento (1908-1984)
  • Kapis Souvenirs, Characteristic Dance (Introduction- Habanera): Julio Nakpil (1867 - 1960)
  • Harana - Serenade (Moderato, quasi lento): Francisco Buencamino, Sr.
  • "Malikmata" (Transfiguration), Poem by R. Zulueta da Costa (Andante misterioso): Antonio J. Molina
  • La Bella Filipina (Daciso), Trans. F. Buencamino, Sr.: Ignacio Massaguer (fl. 1860-1890)



Poem "To a Camia" by Francisco B. Icasiano (1938), Music by Antonio J. Molina (1942)

In a moment of waywardness, the soft scent of a lone camia flower in a neighbor's garden so filled me with an inordinate desire to pluck and possess what was not mine own. Desisting I poured out all my weakness in these lines as a measure of self-inflicted penance:

To a Camia
I should not hold your whiteness in my hands:
Frail are your petals and they might yield
To my unthinking touch.

I should not even see the loveliness of you:
A curse resides in glances wild, they say,
Or looking long might tempt me overmuch.

I must not press your softness and your charm
Against my tainted lips- they're warm, --
You might then wilt and die; and such
An end is undeserved.

But you will wilt tonight, you must -
And vain regret will force me then declare:
You bloomed but once, and I have failed to touch,
To look at, or to kiss what will never, never be

Malikmata (Transfiguration)

Poem by R. Zulueta da Costa, Music by Antonio J. Molina (1939)

Now is the godly hour when loving hands
Distil the earth anew. We shall awake
And tear the sunrise from the womb of dawn,
Until the running of our mystic blood
Becomes one with the running of the tide,
One with the white cathedrals of the sky,
One with the wonder of the bursting seed,
One with the splendor of the rising sap,
One with all glorious flow on glorious earth:
Until the running of our blood becomes
One with the whirlings of forgotten suns,
One with the heavings of forsaken seas,
One music with the all that is dear earth;
Until there is no more for armoured life
But, lovingly, to lay down arms before
The earth imperative, transfigured Earth:
Until we find night-breathing pray'r upon
Our twisted lips:
We are commemoration
Of a dead, but resurrected life.

Note: this is the second part of the poem Eroica included in "like the Molave". It is the literary embodiment of ideas and emotions expressed in the music

(Note: the final program will be selected from the list below.)

Photo: Loboc Children's Choir

Loboc Children's Choir, Mrs. Alma Taldo, Music Director

Works by Marcelo Adonay and other Filipino and European composers
Friday, 2 May 2008
8:00 pm, Rollins Chapel, Dartmouth College

Photo credit: The Loboc Children's Choir, 2008, Photograph by Lutgardo Labad.

Indonesian: SOLERAM
Chinese: MOLIHUA

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Encuentro Filipino: Film

Arkitektura: a video documentary on the Spanish influence on Philippine visual arts. The Script was written by Regalado Trota Jose, direction by Lito Tiongson.

Musika: a documentary on the Spanish influence on Philippine. The music direction is by Lito Tiongson and the script and narration is by Elena Rivera Mirano.

Graphic: Film posters

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Encuentro Filipino: Organizers

Photo: William SummersWilliam John Summers, Ph. D. Dr. William John Summers joined Dartmouth's music department faculty in 1984. He served as department chair from 1984-1987, and has been on a number of important college committees including the Executive Committee of the Faculty. He teaches a broad range of music history courses covering the ninth through the nineteenth centuries. Specialty courses he teaches at Dartmouth are devoted to W. A. Mozart and L. v. Beethoven. Many of his advisees have won prestigious awards and scholarships, and completed graduate study in universities and conservatories in Germany, England and the U. S.

Bill's wide-ranging research specialties involve music in medieval Britain, sacred music in Rome at the end of the sixteenth century, music of the missions of Alta California and music in church and theatre from colonial Manila, 1571-1898. He has authored two books and approximately 70 articles and reviews in fifteen different scholarly journals published in English and Spanish. For the past twelve years Bill has traveled annually to the Philippines to conducted research in the principal archive and repositories of historical materials in Manila on music in Philippine history. Five articles and one music encyclopedia article devoted to the city of Manila, have been published detailing his discoveries and findings. His current work focuses on music in 19th-century Manila, and also upon the role of Spanish sacred music in parochial life on the Island of Bohol in the first half of the 20th century.

For the past fourteen Bill has served as the Coordinator of the International Hispanic Music Study Group, a confederation of approximately 75 scholars working world wide on the diverse musics from the great Luso-Hispanic tradition. He has presented short courses, graduate seminars and delivered research papers on five continents. He presently serves on the governing boards of the Institute for Mexican Music, The Foundation for Iberian Music and the American Radio Choir.

Photo: Walter A. ClarkWalter A. Clark, Ph. D. Walter Aaron Clark is a professor of musicology and the chair of the music department at the University of California, Riverside, where he is the founder/director of the Center for Iberian and Latin American Music. Prof. Clark is the author of several books, including Isaac Albéniz: Portrait of a Romantic (1999) and Enrique Granados: Poet of the Piano (2006), both published by Oxford University Press. The Granados biography won the 2006 Robert M. Stevenson Award. He also edited and contributed to the Routledge volume From Tejano to Tango: Latin American Popular Music (2002). His research has appeared in numerous reference sources, scholarly journals, and edited volumes, on topics as diverse as the lute and vihuela intabulations of Josquin's Mille Regretz, Albéniz's opera Merlin, the Hollywood musicals of Carmen Miranda, the guitar studies of Fernando Sor, and Ralph Vaughan Williams's opera Riders to the Sea. He is the editor of a new series from Oxford entitled Currents in Latin American and Iberian Music. He is also editing and contributing to a textbook on Latin American music, due out from Norton in 2009, and he is co-authoring another Oxford biography, on Federico Moreno Torroba.

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Last Updated: 4/11/14