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Home > Training > Educational Objectives

Educational Objectives

These standards are adapted from the National Association for Search and Rescue's publication, NASAR Standards for SAR Technician II and III. The NASAR publication attempts to put forth a set of educational objectives to standardize SAR training across the nation. UVWRT expects its members to work, study, and train to meet and/or exceed these objectives during the course of their membership - both through UVWRT training sessions as well as individual study. However, it should be recognized that the listed objectives are NOT requirements for membership.

Click here for a pdf copy of the Educational Objectives.

PURPOSE

  1. The SAR Technician III standards are designed to define the minimum knowledge skills and performance skills needed by an individual to perform as a member of a SAR CREW or SAR PATROL during land search operations. They can also be used as a guide for any member of a SAR group or team. They may be considered as a guide for other emergency services personnel who are used during SAR operations.
  2. These standards recognize the need for further training to acquire the knowledge skills, performance skills, and experience to become a fully competent member of a SAR crew during land search operations.

QUALIFICATIONS

  1. Physically and mentally capable of performing the functions of the certification functions.

CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES

UVWRT Certification levels and certification procedures are currently under development. Listed below are the criteria for certification as described by NASAR. It is possible to challenge the NASAR SAR Technician exam to receive NASAR certification.

  1. The following criteria must be met in order to qualify for certification as a SAR TECHNICIAN TYPE III:
  1. Obtain training and/or experience that includes the necessary knowledge and performance skills. Such training and experience must be documented. Any individual meeting these requirements may be permitted to challenge the written and practical exams.
  2. Pass a written test within the limits defined for each knowledge and performance skill, with a score of at least 70%.
  1. Certification
  1. Upon successful completion of requirements a certificate will be issued to the person by NASAR. The program or practice the knowledge and performance skills that have been evaluated. The certification does signify that the person holding the certificate has met the requirements of an established standard o knowledge and/or performance skill on the date indicated on the certificate.
  2. Type III SAR Technician certification indicates that at the time of certification the individual possess the required basic understanding of personal survival and basic SAR skills. It does not indicate that the individual has demonstrated any of these skills in a field situation.

TEST METHODS

  1. Written Methods
  1. The test shall consist of at least 75 multiple choice questions based on the Type III SAR Technician knowledge and performance objectives. Passing score is 70%.
  2. Practical Test - none
  1. Retesting
  1. Applicants who fail the written test are eligible for retesting.
  2. Each applicant is responsible for making arrangements for retesting with test director.
  3. If an applicant fails the retest, appropriate course will be recommended and possibly required by the test director before allowing the student to retest again.

KNOWLEDGE AND PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

These objectives are from the NASAR publication NASAR Standards for SAR Technician II and III. SAR Technician III is the most basic of the SAR Technician levels. UVWRT has listed the SAR Tech III Objectives below, as they appear in the NASAR publication, but has added a few additional objectives [which appear in italics] . The additional objectives have been either taken from NASAR SAR Technician II standards, or have been created by UVWRT officers.

  1. INTRODUCTION TO SEARCH AND RESCUE
  1. The student will be able to define the following:
    1. Search
    2. Rescue
    3. (LAST) Locate, Access, Stabilize, Transport
  2. The student will be able to define the following components of SAR operations:
    1. Preplanning
    2. Notification
    3. Planning/Strategy
    4. Tactics/Operations
    5. Suspension
    6. Critique
  3. The student will be able to list the major responsibilities of search and rescue for the following:
    1. US Air Force
    2. US Coast Guard
    3. Federal Aviation Administration.
    4. Civil Air Patrol
    5. State SAR authorities
      1. New Hampshire
      2. Vermont
    6. Local SAR Authorities
  4. The student will be able to list the six expected qualities of a SAR responder.
  5. The student will be able to describe the four parts of physical conditioning for the SAR responder.
  6. The student will be able to describe his or her personal limitations as a member of a search crew.

II. SAR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

  1. The student will be able to list the seven basic operating requirements of the Incident Command System (ICS).
  2. The student will be able to describe the following components of the ICS:
    1. Common Terminology
    2. Modular Organization
    3. Integrated Communication
    4. Unified Command Structure
    5. Consolidated Action Plans
    6. Management Span of Control
    7. Pre designated Incident Facilities
    8. Comprehensive Resource Management
  3. The student will be able to describe the functions of the five sections of ICS.
  4. The student will be able to list the three status conditions placed on all resources.
  5. The student will be able to describe the roles and characteristics ofthe following positions within the ICS:
    1. Team Commander
    2. Incident Commander
    3. Safety Officer
  6. Under the ICS system, there are 3 types of resources that fall under the comprehensive resource management heading: single resource, task force, and strike team. The student will be able to define the UVWRT minimum composition of a single resource.

III. BASIC SURVIVAL

  1. The student will be able to list and prioritize the necessities of life.
  2. The student will be able to describe the four parts of the initial response to a life threatening situation.
  3. The student will be able to describe a "comfort zone expander" (to increase one's ability to react positively to stress).
  4. The students will be able to list at least 5 ways to control fear.
  5. The student will be able to explain the survival situation plan (STOP) - Stay, Think, Observe, Plan.
  6. The student will be able to define "Positive Mental Attitude".
  7. The student will be able to differentiate between the requirements for short term survival vs. long term survival.
  8. The student will be able to define "Defensive Living" (being prepared for today's emergencies) and describe the need for the public to be aware of the concept.
  9. The student will be able to list 3 situations commonly encountered on SAR missions that may lead to a survival situation.
  10. The student will be able to describe how, in each of the following processes the human body loses heat:
    1. Radiation
    2. Conduction
    3. Convection
    4. Evaporation
    5. Perspiration
  11. The student will be able to describe the heat production and heat loss balance equation of the human body
  12. The student will be able to describe the basic pathophysiology of hypothermia.
  13. The student will be able to describe the basic treatment of hypothermia,including a "hypothermia wrap".
  14. The student will be able to describe the risks and complications of dehydration.
  15. The student will be able to describe the basic water and chemical needs of the human body.
  16. The student will be able to describe the basic safety tenets of winter operations.

IV. SAR CLOTHING

  1. The student will be able to list at least 3 similarities or differences and at least 3 advantages or disadvantages of the different natural and synthetic materials used for SAR clothing.
  2. The student will be able to list at least 3 of the factors concerning heat transfer of clothing due to clothing construction or design.
  3. The student will be able to describe the reasons why cotton is an unacceptable material for clothing used in SAR operations.
  4. The student will be able to describe the function of each of the following layers of clothing:
    1. Underwear layer
    2. Clothing layer
    3. Insulating layer
    4. Shell layer
  5. The student will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the use of vapor barriers.
  6. The student will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the use of constriction in outdoor clothing.
  7. The student will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of outdoor footwear.

V. IMPROVISING

  1. The student will be able to list at least 3 basic considerations for shelters.
  2. The student will be able to list at least 3 basic considerations for fire craft.
  3. The student will be able to list at least 3 basic considerations for signals.
  4. The student will be able to list at least 2 methods for water purification.
  5. The student will be able to describe the criteria used in personal waste disposal.
  6. The student will be able to describe the methods used for personal cleanliness in the outdoors.

VI. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND FIRST

  1. The student will be able to list at least 5 safety rules for lightening protection.
  2. The student will be able to list at least 3 safety procedures used during urban SAR operations.
  3. The student will be able to define, describe the causes, identify at least 3 of the signs and symptoms, describe the basic treatment procedures, and list the preventative measures for the following:
    1. Hypothermia
    2. Frostbite
    3. Trench foot (Immersion Foot)
    4. Heat cramps
    5. Heat exhaustion
    6. Heat stroke
    7. Dehydration
    8. Blisters
    9. Snake bites
    10. Insect bites
    11. Tick bites
    12. Poisonous Plants
    13. Shock
    14. Musculoskeletal injuries
    15. Respiratory distress
    16. Cardiac distress (NASAR, SAR tech II)
  4. The student will be able to describe the basics of airway management.
  5. The student will be able to describe and perform basic CPR.

VII. SAR READY PACK (See Attachment I)

  1. The student will be able to explain the difference between a 24 hour pack and an urban ready pack.
  2. The student will be able to describe the importance of an adequate pack for SAR.
  3. The student will be able to list the general contents of a 24 hour ready pack.

VIII. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT

  1. The student will be able to describe the importance of body protection equipment.
  2. The student will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the following equipment used for SAR:
    1. Ground pads
    2. Sleeping bags
    3. Shelters
    4. Water containers
    5. Boots
    6. Walking/tracking stick
    7. Flashlight/headlight
    8. Knife

IX. TRAVEL SKILLS

  1. The student will be able to describe the components of the general travel skills used for his/her environment.
  2. The student will be able to demonstrate traveling skills used for his/her environment. (NASAR, SAR tech II)

X. LAND NAVIGATION AND ORIENTEERING

  1. The student will be able to list and differentiate between at least 3 types of maps used in SAR.
  2. Given 5 topographical map symbols, the student will be able to identify, define , and state the color of each symbol.
  3. Given 5 types of topographical border information, the student will be able to identify the information and define its use
  4. The student will be able to identify, define, and demonstrate the use of the following terms or concepts:
    1. Contour lines
    2. True North and Magnetic North
    3. Declination
    4. Determining distances
  5. The student will be able to define the following plotting methods or grid systems and demonstrate the ability to use them to determine the coordinates for a given point:
    1. Geographic Coordinate System - Latitude/Longitude
    2. UTMS (Universal Transverse Mercator System)
    3. SDMTRS (San Diego Mountain Rescue Team System)
  6. The student will be able to describe at least 5 parts of a compass and demonstrate the ability to use it to plot a course on a map.
  7. The student will be able to describe the following navigational functions:
    1. Orienting a map and compass to terrain
    2. Obtain and follow a simple compass bearing
    3. Obtain a back azimuth
    4. Measure distance by pacing

XI. SAR RESOURCE

  1. The student will be able to list at least 5 types of operational resources that may be used for SAR.

XII. SEARCH PHILOSOPHY

  1. The student will be able to explain the different motivation factors found in SAR responders.
  2. The student will be able to list 6 crucials for SAR management.
  3. The student will be able to define:
    1. Probability of Area (POA)
    2. Probability of Detection (POD)
    3. POA x POD = POS
    4. Last Known Point (LKP)
    5. Point Last Seen (PLS)
  4. The student will be able to explain the need for practicing POD estimation at the crew level.

XIII. SEARCH TACTICS

  1. The student will be able to differentiate between the two basic categories of search tactics (Passive and Active).
  2. The student will be able to list at least 3 passive search techniques.
  3. The student will be able to list at least 3 active search techniques.
  4. The student will be able to describe the following primary types of active search tactics:
    1. Hasty Search Tactics
    2. Efficient Search Tactics
    3. Thorough Search Tactics
  5. The student will be able to describe the techniques and methods used for the following search tactics:
    1. Attractions
    2. Confinement/Containment
    3. Hasty Search
      1. route
      2. area
    4. Sign Cutting
    5. Open Line or Grid Search (spacing > 100 feet)
    6. Open Line or Grid Search (spacing < 100 feet)
    7. Tracking
  6. The student will be able to list at least 5 of the searching or tactical skills needed by field searchers.
  7. The student will be able to demonstrate the following techniques of searching during daytime and nighttime hours:
    1. Hasty Search
    2. Sign Cutting
    3. Open Line Search (spacing > 100 feet)
    4. Route Search (NASAR, SAR Tech II)
  8. The student will be able to define the following:
    1. Control Line
    2. Guide Line
    3. Guide Right/Left
    4. Guide Person
    5. Trail Tape/Ribbon Guide (NASAR, SAR Tech II)
  9. The student will be able to describe and demonstrate the use of the line search naming systems. (NASAR, SAR Tech II)
  10. The student will be able to describe and demonstrate at least 5 searching and tactical skills used by field searchers. (NASAR, SAR Tech II)

XIV. HANDLING EVIDENCE

  1. The student will be able to describe the 4 procedures for documenting evidence
  2. The student will be able to describe the considerations for handling evidence associated with the following situations:
    1. Crash Scenes
    2. Dead Bodies
    3. Injuries

XV. CLUE CONSCIOUSNESS

  1. The student will be able to why SAR personnel search for clues not subjects.
  2. The student will be able to describe the elements of clue orientation theory and describe the procedures used upon locating a clue

XVI. SEARCH OPERATIONS

  1. The student will be able to list searcher pre-planning and preparation procedures.
  2. The student will be able to list the information needed by the searcher when alerted.
  3. The student will be able to list the procedures and information needed for:
    1. Responding to the scene
    2. Checking in at the incident
    3. Crew mission briefing
    4. Crew mission debriefing
    5. Departing the incident
  4. The student will be able to define the functions of these search crew positions:
    1. Radio Operator
    2. Navigator
    3. Pacer
    4. Search Crew member
  5. The student will be able to list and demonstrate searcher preplanning and preparation procedures.
  6. The student will be able to list and demonstrate the use of procedures and information needed for:
    1. Responding to the scene
    2. Checking in at the incident
    3. Crew mission briefing
    4. Crew mission debriefing
    5. Departing the incident
  7. The student will be able to define and demonstrate the functions of these search crew positions:
    1. Radio Operator
    2. Navigator
    3. Pacer
    4. Search Crew Member (NASAR, SAR tech II)

XVII. LOST PERSON BEHAVIOR

  1. The student will be able to explain why knowledge of lost person behavior can be an advantage to the searcher.

XVIII. TRACKING

  1. The student will be able to define:
    1. Track or print
    2. Sign
    3. Step by Step Tracking

XIX. ROPES AND RESCUE EQUIPMENT

  1. The student will be able to list at least two materials used in ropes.
  2. The student will be able to list at least two types of design used in ropes.
  3. The student will be able to define the following:
    1. Dynamic rope
    2. Static rope
    3. Fall Factor
    4. Maximum Load
    5. Lifeline
    6. Tubular Webbing
    7. Flat Webbing
  4. The student will be able to list at least five rules of rope etiquette.
  5. The student will be able to list at least two performance standards of a harness.
  6. The student will be able to demonstrate the ability to correctly tie these knots:
    1. Figure 8 loop
    2. Figure 8 bend (follow through)
    3. Water knot (overhand bend)
  7. The student will be able to list the different advantages and disadvantages of materials used in carabiners.
  8. The student will be able to list functions of at least two different types of carabiners.
  9. The student will be able to list the procedures used in caring for carabiners.
  10. The student will be able to demonstrate the tying of an improvisedharness. (NASAR, SAR tech II)
  11. The student will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of at least two types of stretchers or litters.
  12. The student will be able to describe and demonstrate the procedures for the use of a litter:
    1. Patient Loading and Packing
    2. Lifting, Lowering,, and Carrying Techniques
    3. Liter Crew Procedures and Commands (NASAR, SAR tech II)

XX. HELICOPTER OPERATIONS

  1. The student will be able to list at least ten of the safety rules for personnel during helicopter operations.
  2. The student will be able to list at least 5 procedures in establishing a helicopter landing spot. (NASAR, SAR tech II)

XXI. COMMUNICATIONS

  1. The student will be able to list at least five common radio procedures and guidelines.
  2. The student will be able to list at least five portable radio procedures and guidelines.
  3. The student will be able to describe the relation and roles of UVWRT members in regards to contact with the media while in the field.

XXII. LEGAL ASPECTS FOR THE SEARCHER

  1. The student will be able to describe the basic legal philosophy concerning searcher knowledge, training, physical abilities, equipment, discipline, and control.
  2. The student will be able to describe the legal philosophy of searchers entering private property within his or her community.
  3. The student will be able to describe the physical and legal assumptions of risk as a member of UVWRT.