Part 8: The head and neck
The cervical vertebrae and the back of the neck have already been described. In this part the skull is examined, followed by the brain, ear, and eye, and ending with the mouth, nose, pharynx, and larynx. Included in the head and neck are a number of important structures, the diseases of which form the subject matter of various specialties: neurology, neurosurgery, and neuroradiology (brain, nerves, and skull), ophthalmology (eye), otology (ear), rhinolaryngology (nose and throat), and dentistry and oral surgery (teeth and jaws).
Acquaintance with the parts of the brain and with the names of the cranial nerves is a necessary preliminary to a study of the head and neck.
The main divisions of the brain (encephalon) are the forebrain (prosencephalon), midbrain (mesencephalon), and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). Important subdivisions are listed in table 43-1 and illustrated in figure 43-1.
Cranial nerves are encountered in each of the chapters that follow. Their names are:
5. Trigeminal: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves
7. Facial (including the nervus intermedius)
8. Vestibulocochlear: vestibular and cochlear parts
11. Accessory: internal branch (cranial part) and external branch (spinal part)
Further details are provided in table 43-2.
Readings: atlases and special texts
Aubaniac, R., and Porot, J., Radio-anatomie generale de la tete, Masson, Paris 1955. Key drawings and radiographs of coronal, sagittal, and horizontal sections through the head made 1 cm apart. Special atlases of the radiological anatomy of the skull are available.
Kampmeier, O. F., Cooper, A. R., and Jones, T. S., A Frontal Section Anatomy of the Head and Neck, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1957. Photographs of coronal sections made about 1 cm apart.
Lang, J., Klinische Anatomie des Kopfes, Springer, Berlin, 1981. A superbly illustrated, detailed account of the neurocranium, orbit, and craniocervical junction for specialists such as neurosurgeons.
Symington, J., An Atlas Illustrating the Topographical Anatomy of the Head, Neck and Trunk, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, reprinted in 1956. Drawings of horizontal sections, including a dozen pertaining to the head and neck.
Truex, R. C., and Kellner, C. E., Detailed Atlas of the Head and Neck, Oxford University Press, New York, 1948. Colored regional drawings of dissections and coronal and horizontal sections