Using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence
The FTND is a widely used scale to measure smoking dependence. Originally developed by Karl Fagerstrom, it was revised in 1991. The article describing the revision can be found here
I receive many requests to use the scale. You should feel free to use the scale for research purposes. For all commercial purposes, permission to use the scale must be obtained by K.O. Fagerstrom.
Last revised 11/13/2013