Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1987
M.A., Johns Hopkins, 1979
M.S.W., University of Maryland School of Social Work, 1977
B.A. in History and Economics, Brooklyn College, 1974
- National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia, andUkraine (Cambridge University Press, 1998).
- Polish Foreign Policy Reconsidered: Challenges of Independence, co-editor and contributor (St. Martin's Press, 1995).
- Post-Communist Eastern Europe: Crisis and Readjustment, co-editor and contributor (St.Martin's Press, 1992).
- Latin America Through Soviet Eyes: The Evolution of Soviet Perceptions of Latin America During the Brezhnev Era (Cambridge University Press, 1990).