Early in the year, Rohde visits Overbeck in Basel.

FN's deterioration continues. Franziska reluctantly discontinues the two daily walks, up to this point an important part of their routine. A stiffness in the back and an aimless rubbing of his side marks the advance of FN's paralysis. Early in the year Franziska renovates her house to accommodate the new methods of care now needed by her patient. He is also given to repeating certain phrases, such as "mehr Licht" [more light] and "summarisch tot" [summarily dead] and will now sometimes ask his mother "Heißt du Franziska vielleicht?" [are you by chance named Franziska?].

In September, Elisabeth returns from South America. Apparently her initial enthusiasm for Köselitz' editorial work has given way to annoyance. Upon her return she asks Köselitz: "Wer hat Sie denn eigentlich zum Herausgeber gemacht?" [So who appointed you editor?] Köselitz later reported in a letter that Elisabeth was disturbed by Köselitz' treatment of the Wagner/Nietzsche relationship in his introduction to Menschliches, as she did not want to further alienate Cosima Wagner [Hoffmann, p. 13]. By October 1893 Köselitz has ceased to work on the Nietzsche editions. He will be invited back in 1899, being one of the only people who can decipher FN's handwriting. His return comes at a price, registering no complaints about Elisabeth's misleading and falsifying editorial practices.

October 23: Köselitz surrenders FN's materials to Elisabeth. November 18: Elisabeth begins the Nietzsche Archive using one of the room in the house in Naumburg.

The Köselitz editions are recalled and new editions are prepared under the direction of Dr. Fritz Kögel. Kögel, born in August 1860, had held a successful position in the German iron industry. Kögel published a volume of poetry in 1898 and a children's book, Noah's Ark, in 1902. He died in 1904 from the consequences of a bicycle accident [Janz III 160].


More about Fritz Koegel

In the periodical "Magazin für Litteratur" Koegel and Elisabeth publish articles, detailing their plans for future Nietzsche editions and Elisabeth's biography. This initiates an exchange of letters between Elisabeth and Overbeck, who is horrified by these articles. He characterizes Koegel's article as "eines der gewissenlosesten und unschicklichsten Attentate, denen Ihr armer Bruder durch die Indiskretion von Litteraten ausgesetzt ist." [one of the most unprincipled and indecent assassinations that your brother has been exposed to through the indiscretions of dilettantish men of letters. Hoffmann, p. 14] Elisabeth seeks to reassure Overbeck by telling him that his name will appear only rarely in her biography (which proved to be the case) and that this was appropriate since, after all, Overbeck was a professor of theology. "Darin," she wrote him, "bin ich besser unterrichtet als Sie selbst." [In this I am better instructed than you yourself.] She also mentioned that she was attempting to use her contacts to get Overbeck a professorship in Germany. Overbeck is of course outraged, and he requests that she cease to meddle in his affairs. Apparently Elisabeth burned Overbeck's reply without reading it (she learned of its contents via her mother). By early 1894, this exchange ends in an alienation between the Nietzsche Archive and the Basel "camp." The foundation for Bernoulli's later legal battles with Elisabeth and the Archive are laid by this exchange [Hoffmann, pp. 14-15].

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