TABLE 25-6. CAUSES OF LYMPHOCYTIC MENINGITIS*

  1. Viral meningitis or encephalitis
  2. Indolent bacterial meningitis (sugar level often low)
    1. Partially treated purulent meningitis
    2. Tuberculous meningitis
    3. Listeria meningitis
    4. Brucella meningitis
    5. Syphilitic meningitis
    6. Lyme meningitis
  3. Fungal meningitis (sugar level often low)
  4. Sarcoidosis (sugar level often low)
  5. Various protozoal or helminthic infections
  6. Some rickettsial infections
  7. Parameningeal infection
    1. Epidural abscess
    2. Subdural abscess
    3. Brain abscess
    4. Venous thrombosis
  8. Noninfectious causes
    1. Chemical meningitis (after pneumoencephalography, myelogram, cisternogram, spinal anesthesia, intrathecal therapy, etc.)
    2. Toxins (lead, arsenic)
    3. Tumors
    4. Demyelinating disease
    5. Vascular diseases
      • Vasculitis
      • Stroke
      • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

*A modest pleocytosis, mostly lymphocytic, with normal or elevated levels of protein and normal or low amounts of sugar

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