Table 21-5. Causes of Myopathy

  1. Primary myopathies
    1. Dystrophies
      1. Duchenne; Becker; Limb girdle; Facioscapulohumeral; myotonic; oculopharyngeal; distal muscular dystrophy
      2. Myotubular (centronuclear) myopathy; nemaline myopathy; central core disease; myotonia congenita; paramyotonia congenita.
    2. Metabolic/Enzyme deficiency
      1. Phosphorylase deficiency (McArdle); acid maltase deficiency (Pompe); Phosphofructokinase deficiency (Tarui); debrancher enzyme deficiency (Cori or Forbes); mitochondrial myopathy; carnitine deficiency; carnitine palmityl transferase deficiency; hosphoglycerated kinase deficiency; phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency; lactate dehydrogenase deficiency; myoadenylate deaminase deficiency.
    3. Inflammatory
      1. Polymyositis; dermatomyositis; inclusion body myositis.
  2. Secondary myopathies
    1. Infectious
      1. Trichinosis; cysticercosis; toxoplasmosis; Lyme disease; Staph aureus pyomyositis; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); coxsackie A and B viruses; influenza.
    2. Toxic/Metabolic
      1. Alcohol
      2. Several medicines: corticosteroids; AZT; statins; colchicine; amiodarone; cocaine. Endocrine Corticosteroids (Addison or Cushing); thyroid (high or low); hyperparathyroidism.
    3. Inflammatory
      1. Sarcoidosis; connective tissue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus; rheumatoid arthritis; polyarteritis nodosa)
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