TABLE 21-3. - Symptoms of nerve root damage (? indicates "possible").

ROOT LEVEL SENSORY LOSS
AUTONOMOUS ZONE
MOTOR WEAKNESS REFLEX LOSS COMMON CAUSE
C5 Lateral arm? Abduction & external rotation of shoulder None C4-5 disc/foraminal encroachment
C6 Lateral forearm; near thumb Elbow flexion; wrist extension? Biceps reflex C5-6 disc/foraminal encroachment
C7 Middle digit Elbow extension; finger extenison Triceps reflex C6-7 disc/foraminal encroachment
C8 Ulnar digit (hand) Finger ad- & abduction None (? finger flexion reflex) C8-T1 disc/foraminal encroachment
L4 Below medial knee toward ankle Knee extension Patellar L3-4 disc herniation
L5 Dorsal foot toward great toe Foot and great toe dorsiflexion; ankle inversion/eversion None L4-5 disc herniation
S1 Lateral heel toward small toe Foot and great toe plantar flexion Ankle jerk L5-S1 disc herniation
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