TABLE 11-2. CAUSES OF RAISED CSF PRESSURE *

  1. Intracranial masses (neoplasms, hemorrhages, abscess, or brain edema)
  2. Obstruction to the flow of CSF
  3. Elevated intracranial nervous pressure
    1. Secondary to high systemic venous pressure (congestive heart failure, Valsalva)
    2. Obstruction of venous flow
      • Poor relaxation (high intra-abdominal pressure transmitted to venous plexuses around the cord)
      • Obesity (as above; also compression of jugulars by obese neck)
      • After radical neck surgery (where the major jugular vein, usually the right, has been sacrificed)
      • Thrombosis of a major venous sinus

*Pressure >180-200mm of water

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