Books by Douglas A. Irwin



Peddling Protectionism: Smoot-Hawley and the Great Depression

Princeton University Press, 2011



1.  Domestic Politics

2.  Economic Consequences

3.  Foreign Reaction

4.  Aftermath and Legacy

Appendix: The Economists’ Petition against the Smoot-Hawley Tariff






The Genesis of the GATT (co-authored with Petros Mavroidis and Alan Sykes)

Cambridge University Press, 2008.


It can be purchased from; click here for more details.



Chapter 1:  The Creation of the GATT

Chapter 2:  The Negotiation of the GATT

Chapter 3:  The Rationales for the GATT


Documents annex






My book work-in-progress:


The Battle over Protection:  A History of U.S. Trade Policy



1.  The Struggle for Independence, 1763-1789

2.  Trade Policy for New Nation, 1789-1816

3.  Sectional Conflict and Compromise, 1816-1860

4.  Protectionism Entrenched, 1860-1897

5.  The Failure of Tariff Reform, 1897-1921

6.  Fordney-McCumber, Hawley-Smoot, and the Great Depression, 1921-1932

7.  The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Program, 1932-1945

8.  Creating a Multilateral Trading System, 1945-1967

9.  Strategic Retreat: The Backlash against Import Competition, 1967-1992

10.  The New Global Economy, 1992-2009

Conclusion: The End of Trade Policy?


Data Appendix





        This book provides a general overview of trade policy issues.  You can order from by clicking here or check out Princeton's web site on the book.

1        The United States in a New Global Economy?
2        The Case for Free Trade: Old Theories, New Evidence
3        Protectionism: Economic Costs, Political Benefits?
4        Trade, Jobs, and Displaced Workers
5        Relief from Foreign Competition: Antidumping and the Escape Clause
6        Developing Countries and Open Markets
7        The World Trading System: The WTO and New Battlegrounds


        This was published by Princeton University Press in 1996.  Selected as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Books of 1996.  A paperback edition is available from -- click here to check it out.  Paul Krugman reviewed the book for the Journal of Economic Literature -- click here to see his review.  For other reviewer comments, click here

            Published by the AEI Press in 1994.  This volume critically examines U.S. attempts to negotiate minimum import targets with Japan.  I argue that such import targets are anticompetitive and discriminatory and will not advance the cause of open trade.  Import targets are a form of managed trade to be avoided.  Here is a summary of the book.

        A festschrift edited along with Robert Feenstra and Gene Grossman, published by MIT Press in 1996.

        An edited collection of essays by one of the great historians of economic thought, published by Princeton University Press in 1991.  It is now out of print.