ChemLab: Techniques



Flasks, Beakers, & Graduated Cylinders



Volumetric Flasks


Analytical Balance

pH Meter: Analog

pH Meter: Digital

Spectrometer: Analog

Spectrometer: Digital

Spectrometer: Scanning

Top-loading Balance




Quantitative Transfer


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Volumetric Flask
Image 1
A volumetric flask is used to make up a solution of fixed volume very accurately. This volumetric flask measures 500 mL ± 0.2 mL. This is a relative uncertainty of 4 x 10-4 or 400 parts per million.

To make up a solution, first dissolve the solid material completely, in less water than required to fill the flask to the mark.

Image 2
After the solid is completely dissolved, very carefully fill the flask to the 500 mL mark. Move your eye to the level of the mark on the neck of the flask and line it up so that the circle around the neck looks like a line, not an ellipse. Then add distilled water a drop at a time until the bottom of the meniscus lines up exactly with the mark on the neck of the flask. Take care that no drops of liquid are in the neck of the flask above the mark.
Image 3
After the final dilution, remember to mix your solution thoroughly, by inverting the flask and shaking.
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