After arising from the popliteal artery, the posterior tibial artery travels in the medial part of the posterior compartment of the leg in the fascial plane between the superficial and deep muscle groups.
At its proximal end, the posterior tibial artery gives off the fibular artery, which travels in the lateral part of the posterior compartment of the leg. The fibular artery has perforating branches that pierce the intermuscular septum to enter the lateral compartment of the leg.
Posterior tibial artery provides blood to the muscles of the posterior and lateral compartments of the leg and the sole of the foot. It also contributes to the collateral circulation of the ankle joint.
The posterior tibial artery is found posterior to the medial malleolus at the ankle in association with the same named veins and tibial nerve ("Tom, Dick and very nervous Harry"). The posterior tibial pulse can be palpated in this location.
Posterior tibial artery terminates when it bifurcates into the medial and lateral plantar arteries.