Faculty and their graduate students work with the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning (DCAL) to develop inquiry-based science 'modules' related to their research. Ideally, these modules are 1-2 hours in length and incorporate hands-on activities. Training through DCAL is available on the development of effective inquiry-based modules. Once a module is developed it is published on the Dartmouth Outreach website and Sara Riordan, Science Outreach Coordinator, will connect researchers with K-12 teachers in the area who might be interested in adopting the module or having a graduate student or faculty member visit their classroom to present the module.
Supporting Materials: IRGA Welcome presentation for teachers; IRGA Instructional Video1; IRGA Instructional Video2, IRGA Instructional Video3
Overview: This lesson introduces how an instructor may use an Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) to teach students about photosynthesis and cellular respiration by measuring carbon dioxide uptake and release in plants. From CO2 levels, the IRGA calculates the photosynthesis and respiration rates of plants, which allows students to see how these rates change in response to various environmental conditions. For example, students can observe a plant switching from photosynthesis to respiration when sunlight is removed, or can see changes in photosynthetic rate in response to watering with cold versus warm water. This lesson serves well to connect cellular respiration and photosynthesis once the students have understood the concepts of each, and fits well with Science Standards for grades 7 & 8, although the IRGA could easily be used by more advanced students for a research project/science fair project. For instance, I used it for my PhD.
Supporting Materials: Module Introduction Presentation; Climate Data; Using Real Data Module Worksheet; Using Real Data Module Worksheet Answers; Using Excel for Teachers
Overview: This module provides data about a number of different climate measurements from around the globe. Students will develop hypotheses about the data that they will test by graphing different variables (or combinations of variables for more advanced students/classes) in Microsoft Excel.
Supporting Materials: Sound Worksheet; Sound Worksheet Key
Overview: This module is meant to introduce students to the basic properties of sound (wavelength, frequency, and amplitude). Additionally, it introduces students to local (to VT/NH) frog species and sets the stage for students to monitor frog calls.
Supporting Materials: Rock Cycle Presentation
Overview: The rock cycle is responsible for the continuous recycling of rocks and sediments on our planet. This lab uses crayons as substitutes for rock so that students can gain first hand experience with the rock cycle completing something that usually takes millions of years in 50 minutes.
Overview: McNuggets are a chicken-related food sold by McDonalds. In the final decade of the last century, McNuggets could be purchased in boxes of 6, 9, and 20. As a customer, what possible amounts of McNuggets are you able to order from McDonalds? For example, it is possible to order 15 McNuggets because it can be obtained from a box of 6 and a box of 9. On the other hand, it is impossible to order 16 McNuggets. A McNugget number is an integer that can be obtained by adding together a combination of McNuggets coming from boxes of 6, 9, and 20 McNuggets. Conversely, a non-McNugget number is an integer which cannot be obtained from any combination of 6, 9, or 20 McNuggets. In the mathematical community, this sort of problem is generally called the Frobenius problem (see the Mathworld article or Wikipedia entry for more information), and it can be phrased in terms of postage stamp values, coins, points-values in a game of football, etc. There are many interesting unsolved problems connected to the Frobenius problem.
Supporting Materials: Solar Observing Guide Appendix; Solar Observation Worksheet; Solar Observation Worksheet Teacher's Copy; Sunspot Image Day 1; Sunspot Image Day 2
Overview: The Sun, the source of all life on Earth, is a dynamic, changing star. With the naked eye, we can tell very little about it. However, with some simple tools, we can start to learn much about its physical properties through the observation of sunspots. In this lesson students will observe the Sun in three different ways, and will determine how fast it rotates.If time or interest permits, students can also graph the Sun's sunspot history to see solar activity over the centuries.
Supporting Material:Video Games, Psychology, and the Brain Presentation
Overview: This module is meant to introduce students to the concept of dual-process theories of the mind and the nature of decision-making in the brain, through the psychological investigation of the Stroop Effect. This module will also serve as an exercise in data collection, interpretation, and presentation.
Overview: In this activity students will gain firsthand experience in the scientific process of discovering a new planet.
Supporting Materials: Power Set Outline for Teachers; Light Switches Activity Sheet-Day 1; StarsCandyBars Activity Sheet-Day 1; Boxes Activity Sheet-Day 1; Stars Activity Sheet-Day 1; Lesson Plan Day 2; Worksheet Day 2; Homework Day 2; Homework Answers Day 2; Group Assessment-Bonus Day; Boxes Handout-Bonus Day; Stars Handout-Bonus Day; Group Assessment Answers
Overview: In this two (or three) day set of lessons, students will explore the concept of a power set of a set X, which is the set of all subsets of the set X. For example, say that X is a set of paint colors: red, green, and blue. Given X, how many color combinations are there? Students will first participate in a hands-on discovery activity on Day One. Then on Day Two, students will formalize their findings from the activity on Day One, through a question and answer lecture session. There is a bonus session where students can use the skills and notation from the previous two days into exploring an extension of the power set.
Overview: This module introduces students to the chemical and physical changes that occur when a chemical reaction has taken place. Students will observe several reactions before being asked to determine which of two experiments leads to a chemical reaction.
Overview: This lesson is an exploration into the mathematical world of tiling. It is an incredible fact that the number of domino tilings of a 2 x n rectangle is precisely the Fibonacci numbers. Students will work in groups to construct the tilings of 2 x n rectangles with dominoes. They will then conjecture how many tilings there are of an arbitrary 2 x n rectangle and work to explain why their conjecture is true.
Overview: The focus of this activity is to understand the different aspects of glacier flow and the material parameters that affect flow velocity. This module is appropriate for students studying calculus.
Overview: Bacteria and other microorganisms are everywhere around us, and the discovery of the importance of hygiene and hand-washing was a key advancement in public health in the 19th and early 20th century. With this experiment students will learn to visualize microorganisms on growth plates, and learn about the importance and efficacy of various hand washing techniques.
Overview: This activity focuses on how we distinguish things that are living from those that are not living. Students are encouraged to imagine a new species and to use the six characteristics of life to justify that the organism that they imagine is alive.
Overview: This lesson is an exploration into the mathematical world of music. Students will learn about the relationship between pitch, frequency, and period. Students will then apply their knowledge by constructing their own set of pan pipes.
Overview: This lesson focuses on incorporating reading, writing, critical thinking, and independence into the math classroom. Students will work in groups to read an assigned chapter from the mathematical fiction book, The Number Devil, by Hans Magnus Enzenberger. Students will then be responsible for the math concepts covered in their assigned chapters, will compose a writing piece detailing the math, and create a technology presentation to share this information with the other students.
Overview: This module explores the concepts of freezing point depression, heat transfer, hydrogen bonding, and material science while asking the question, "why does ice cream have a smooth, soft consistency, while frozen water or milk is hard?"
Overview: During an earthquake, buildings move – or oscillate. If the frequency of this oscillation is close to the natural frequency of the building, resonance may cause severe damage. This lesson encourages students to observe how the mass, stiffness, and height of buildings affect their motion and how buildings respond to resonant motions.
Overview: About 90% of flowering plants rely on bees and other animals for reproduction through pollination. Pollinators, in turn, benefit from plants by receiving food in the form of nectar and pollen. This "win-win" relationship between plants and pollinators is called a mutualism. This lesson encourages students to understand mutualisms from the POV of both plants and pollinators, and gain an intuition for the effects that human disturbance can have on plant- pollinator interactions.
Overview: Mental operations can come into conflict with each other. For example, it is exceedingly difficult to both remember a list of 15 words and count backwards from 500 in multiples of 7. This is because distinct mental processes (remembering, computing a number) can share mental resources. This lesson explores a similar kind of mental conflict directly, by replicating a famous psychological effect discovered by John Ridley Stroop.
Supporting materials: Worksheet for From DNA to Protein
Overview: In this lesson students will become more familiar with the processes of transcription and translation by performing these tasks with puzzle-like pieces that represent DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino acid molecules.
Supporting materials: Pasta-Bone Model Worksheet
Overview: This lesson includes a hands-‐on exploration of the structure and function of bone.
Overview: Students will use a slinky and a microwave to explore the properties of waves (frequency and wavelength) and have a general understanding of electromagnetic radiation.
Overview: Our brains are essential for everything that we do, from seeing, to moving, to thinking. This exercise was developed to help students differentiate between the main regions of the brain, and use group- collaboration and critical thinking to discover what kinds of functions these regions are responsible for.
Overview: Astronomers can't go out and do experiments on the stars; the only tool we have to learn about the universe is light. Through this activity, students will discover how astronomers use light to determine what astronomical objects are made of.
Last Updated: 7/22/14